Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7729

Search results for: geotechnical properties

7729 Preliminary Geotechnical Properties of Uncemented Sandstone Kati Formation

Authors: Nursyafiqah Abdul Kahar, Niraku Rosmawati Ahmad, Hisham Mohamad, Siti Nuruljannah Mohd Marzuki

Abstract:

Assessment of geotechnical properties of the subsoil is necessary for generating relevant input for the design and construction of a foundation. It is significant for the future development in the area. The focus of this research is to investigate the preliminary geotechnical properties of the uncemented sandstone from Kati formation at Puncak Iskandar, Seri Iskandar. A series of basic soil tests, oedometer and direct shear box tests were carried out to obtain the soil parameters. The uncemented sandstone of Kati Formation was found to have well-graded and poorly graded sand distribution, depending on the location where the samples were obtained. The sand grains distribution was in a range of 82%-100% while, the specific gravity of the uncemented sandstone is in the range 2.65-2.86. The preconsolidation pressure for USB3 was 990 kPa indicating that the sandstone at USB3 sample had undergone 990 kPa of overburden pressure. The angle of friction for uncemented sandstone was ranging between 23.34°-32.92°.

Keywords: geotechnical properties, Kati formation, uncemented sandstone, oedometer test; shear box test

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
7728 Effect of Nanobentonite Particles on Geotechnical Properties of Kerman Clay

Authors: A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand

Abstract:

Improving the geotechnical properties of soil has always been one of the issues in geotechnical engineering. Traditional materials have been used to improve and stabilize soils to date, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Although the soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime, bitumen, etc. is one of the effective methods to improve the geotechnical properties of soil, but nanoparticles are one of the newest additives which can improve the loose soils. This research is intended to study the effect of adding nanobentonite on soil engineering properties, especially the unconfined compression strength and maximum dry unit weight, using clayey soil with low liquid limit (CL) from Kerman (Iran). Nanobentonite was mixed with soil in three different percentages (i.e. 3, 5, 7% by weight of the parent soil) with different curing time (1, 7 and 28 days). The unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits and plasticity index of treated specimens were measured by unconfined compression and Atterberg limits test. It was found that increase in nanobentonite content resulted in increase in the unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits of the clayey soil and reduce in plasticity index.

Keywords: nanobentonite particles, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress, soil improvement.

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7727 Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chief

Authors: Rabah Younes

Abstract:

The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of high quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotechnical construction, however; poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in other works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity , high plasticity coupled with high instability are frequently encountered hence, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for sometime but mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength.

Keywords: clay, soil stabilization, naturaln pozzolana, atterberg limits, compaction, compressive strength shear strength, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
7726 Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Travertine Lithotypes in Van-Turkey

Authors: Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan

Abstract:

Travertine is generally a weak or medium strong rock, and physical, mechanical and structural properties of travertines are direct impacts on geotechnical studies. New settlement areas were determined on travertine units after two destructive earthquakes which occurred on October 23rd, 2011 (M=7.1) and November 9th, 2011 (M=5.6) in Tabanlı and Edremit districts of Van province in Turkey, respectively. In the study area, the travertines have different lithotype and engineering properties such as strong crystalline crust, medium strong shrub, and weak reed which can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine and each level have different handicaps. Travertine has a higher strength when compared to the soil ground; however, it can have different handicaps such as having poor rock mass, karst caves and weathering alteration. Physico-mechanical properties of travertine in the study area are determined by laboratory tests and field observations. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were detected by indirect methods, and the strength map of different lithotype of Edremit travertine was created in order to define suitable settlement areas. Also, rock mass properties and underground structure were determined by bore holes, field studies, and geophysical method. The reason of this study is to investigate the relationship between lithotype and physicomechanical properties of travertines. According to the results, lithotype has an effect on physical, mechanical and rock mass properties of travertine levels. It is detected by several research methods that various handicaps may occur on such areas when the active tectonic structure of the area is evaluated along with the karstic cavities within the travertine and different lithotype qualities.

Keywords: travertine, lithotype, geotechnical parameters, Van earthquake

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7725 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

Abstract:

Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: bagasse ash, black cotton soil, deficient soil, laterite, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
7724 Geotechnical and Mineralogical Properties of Clay Soils in the Second Organized Industrial Region, Konya, Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Yıldız, Ali Ulvi Uzer, Murat Olgun

Abstract:

In this study, geotechnical and mineralogical properties of gypsum containing clay basis which form the ground of Second Organized Industrial Zone in Konya province have been researched through comprehensive field and laboratory experiments. Although sufficient geotechnical research has not been performed yet, an intensive structuring in the region continues at present. The study area consists of mid-lake sediments formed by gypsum containing soft silt-clay basis which evolves to a large area. To determine the soil profile and geotechnical specifications; 18 drilling holes were opened and disturbed / undisturbed soil samples have been taken through shelby tubes within 1.5m intervals. Tests have been performed on these samples to designate the index and strength properties of soil. Besides, at all drilling holes Standart Penetration Tests have been done within 1.5m intervals. For the purpose of determining the mineralogical characteristics of the soil; all rock and X-RD analysis have been carried out on 6 samples which were taken from various depths through the soil profile. Strength and compressibility characteristics of the soil were defined with correlations using laboratory and field test results. Unconfined compressive strength, undrained cohesion, compression index varies between 16 kN/m2 and 405.4 kN/m2, 6.5 kN/m2 and 72 kN/m2, 0.066 and 0.864, respectively.

Keywords: Konya second organized industrial region, strength, compressibility, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7723 Geotechnical Characteristics of Miocenemarl in the Region of Medea North-South Highway, Algeria

Authors: Y. Yongli, M. H. Aissa

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper aims for a geotechnical analysis based on experimental physical and mechanical characteristics of Miocene marl situated at Medea region in Algeria. More than 150 soil samples were taken in the investigation part of the North-South Highway which extends over than 53 km from Chiffa in the North to Berrouaghia in the South of Algeria. The analysis of data in terms of Atterberg limits, plasticity index, and clay content reflects an acceptable correlation justified by a high coefficient of regression which was compared with the previous works in the region. Finally, approximated equations that serve as a guideline for geotechnical design locally have been suggested.

Keywords: correlation, geotechnical properties, miocene marl, north-south highway

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7722 Reliability-Based Design of an Earth Slope Taking into Account Unsaturated Soil Properties

Authors: A. T. Siacara, A. T. Beck, M. M. Futai

Abstract:

This paper shows how accurately and efficiently reliability analyses of geotechnical installations can be performed by directly coupling geotechnical software with a reliability solver. An earth slope is used as the study object. The limit equilibrium method of Morgenstern-Price is used to calculate factors of safety and find the critical slip surface. The deterministic software package Seep/W and Slope/W is coupled with the StRAnD reliability software. Reliability indexes of critical probabilistic surfaces are evaluated by the first-order reliability methods (FORM). By means of sensitivity analysis, the effective cohesion (c') is found to be the most relevant uncertain geotechnical parameter for slope equilibrium. The slope was tested using different geometries, taking into account unsaturated soil properties. Finally, a critical slip surface, identified in terms of minimum factor of safety, is shown here not to be the critical surface in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: slope, unsaturated, reliability, safety, seepage

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
7721 Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils

Authors: Inci Develioglu, Hasan Firat Pulat

Abstract:

Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.

Keywords: compressibility, consolidation, geotechnical properties, organic matter content, dredged soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
7720 Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of MnNi

Authors: N. Benkhettoua, Y. Barkata

Abstract:

We present first-principles studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of MnNi According to the calculated total energies, by using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin–tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within LDA and the quasi-harmonic Debye model implemented in the Gibbs program is used for the temperature effect on structural and calorific properties.

Keywords: magnetic materials, structural properties, thermodynamic properties, metallurgical and materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
7719 Analysis of Geotechnical Parameters from Geophysical Information

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Akinwumi I. Isaac

Abstract:

In some part of the world where legislations related to site investigations before constructions are not strictly enforced, the expenses and time required for carrying out a comprehensive geotechnical investigation to characterize a site can discourage prospective private residential building developers. Another factor that can discourage a developer is the fact that most of the geotechnical tests procedures utilized during site investigations, to a certain extent, alter the existing environment of the site. This study suggests a quick, non-destructive and non-intrusive method of obtaining key subsoil geotechnical properties necessary for foundation design for proposed engineering facilities. Seismic wave velocities generated from near surface refraction method was used to determine the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity of a competent layer that can bear structural load at the particular study site. Also, regression equations were developed in order to directly obtain the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity from the compressional wave velocities. The results obtained correlated with the results of standard geotechnical investigations carried out.

Keywords: characterize, environment, geophysical, geotechnical, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7718 Reliability of Using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) in Evaluation of Soil Properties

Authors: Hossein Alimohammadi, Mohsen Amirmojahedi, Mehrdad Rowhani

Abstract:

Soil properties are used by geotechnical engineers to evaluate and analyze site conditions for designing purposes. Although basic soil classification tests are easy to perform and provide useful information to determine the properties of soils, it may take time to get the result and add some costs to the projects. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) provides an opportunity to evaluate soil parameters without performing laboratory tests. In addition to its simplicity and cheapness, the results become available immediately. This research provides a guideline on the application of the SPT test method, reliability of adapting the SPT test results in evaluating soil physical and mechanical properties such as Atterberg limits, shear strength, and compressive strength compressibility parameters. A total of 70 boreholes were investigated in this study by taking soil samples between depths of 1.2 to 15.25 meters. The project site was located in Morrow County, Ohio. A regression-based formula was proposed based on Tobit regression with a stepwise variable selection analysis conducted between SPT and other typical soil properties obtained from soil tests. The results of the research illustrated that the shear strength and physical properties of the soil affect the SPT number. The proposed correlation can help engineers to use SPT test results in their design with higher accuracy.

Keywords: standard penetration test, soil properties, soil classification, regression method

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
7717 Subsurface Elastic Properties Determination for Site Characterization Using Seismic Refraction Tomography at the Pwalugu Dam Area

Authors: Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Vincent Adongo

Abstract:

Field measurement of subsurface seismic p-wave velocities was undertaken through seismic refraction tomography. The aim of this work is to obtain a model of the shallow subsurface material elastic properties relevant for geotechnical site characterization. The survey area is at Pwalugu in Northern Ghana, where a multipurpose dam, for electricity generation, irrigation, and potable water delivery, is being planned. A 24-channel seismograph and 24, 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones, deployed 5 m apart constituted the acquisition hardware. Eleven (2-D) seismic refraction profiles, nine of which ran almost perpendicular and two parallel to the White Volta at Pwalugu, were acquired. The refraction tomograms of the thirteen profiles revealed a subsurface model consisting of one minor and one major acoustic impedance boundaries – the top dry/loose sand and the variably weathered sandstone contact, and the overburden-sandstones bedrock contact respectively. The p-wave velocities and by inference, with a priori values of poison ratios, the s-wave velocities, assisted in characterizing the geotechnical conditions of the proposed site and also in evaluating the dynamic properties such as the maximum shear modulus, the bulk modulus, and the Young modulus.

Keywords: tomography, characterization, consolidated, Pwalugu and seismograph

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
7716 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7715 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials

Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo

Abstract:

Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.

Keywords: spent engine oil, lateritic soil, cement kiln dust, stabilization, compaction, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
7714 Variation with Depth of Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical and Physical Properties of Overburden over Gneiss Basement Complex in Minna Metropolis, North Central Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Alhaji, M. Alhassan, A. M. Yahaya

Abstract:

Soil engineers pay very little or no attention to variation in the mineralogical and consequently, the geotechnical properties of overburden with depth on basement complexes, a situation which can lead to sudden failure of civil engineering structures. Soil samples collected at depths ranging from 0.5m to 4.0m at 0.5m intervals, from a trial pit dogged manually to depth of 4.0m on an overburden over gneiss basement complex, was evaluated for physico-chemical, mineralogical and physical properties. This is to determine the variation of these properties with depth within the profile of the strata. Results showed that sodium amphibolite and feldspar, which are both primary minerals dominate the overall profile of the overburden. Carbon which dominates the lower profile of the strata was observed to alter to gregorite at upper section of the profile. Organic matter contents and cation exchange capacity reduces with increase in depth while lost on ignition and pH were relatively constant with depth. The index properties, as well as natural moisture contents, increases from 0.5m to between 1.0m to 1.5m depth after which the values reduced to constant values at 3.0m depth. The grain size analysis shows high composition of sand sized particles with silts of low to non-plasticity. The maximum dry density (MDD) values are generally relatively high and increases from 2.262g/cm³ at 0.5m depth to 2.410g/cm³ at 4.0m depth while the optimum moisture content (OMC) reduced from 9.8% at 0.5m depth to 6.7% at 4.0m depth.

Keywords: Gneiss basement complex, mineralogical properties, North Central Nigeria, physico-chemical properties, physical properties, overburden soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
7713 Analysis of the Engineering Judgement Influence on the Selection of Geotechnical Parameters Characteristic Values

Authors: K. Ivandic, F. Dodigovic, D. Stuhec, S. Strelec

Abstract:

A characteristic value of certain geotechnical parameter results from an engineering assessment. Its selection has to be based on technical principles and standards of engineering practice. It has been shown that the results of engineering assessment of different authors for the same problem and input data are significantly dispersed. A survey was conducted in which participants had to estimate the force that causes a 10 cm displacement at the top of a axially in-situ compressed pile. Fifty experts from all over the world took part in it. The lowest estimated force value was 42% and the highest was 133% of measured force resulting from a mentioned static pile load test. These extreme values result in significantly different technical solutions to the same engineering task. In case of selecting a characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter the importance of the influence of an engineering assessment can be reduced by using statistical methods. An informative annex of Eurocode 1 prescribes the method of selecting the characteristic values of material properties. This is followed by Eurocode 7 with certain specificities linked to selecting characteristic values of geotechnical parameters. The paper shows the procedure of selecting characteristic values of a geotechnical parameter by using a statistical method with different initial conditions. The aim of the paper is to quantify an engineering assessment in the example of determining a characteristic value of a specific geotechnical parameter. It is assumed that this assessment is a random variable and that its statistical features will be determined. For this purpose, a survey research was conducted among relevant experts from the field of geotechnical engineering. Conclusively, the results of the survey and the application of statistical method were compared.

Keywords: characteristic values, engineering judgement, Eurocode 7, statistical methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
7712 Review in Role of Geotextile on Soil Improvement

Authors: Sandra Ghavam Shirazi, Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Mohammadreza Golhashem

Abstract:

Nowadays by development of construction in modern world new techniques are introduced to civil engineering. As for geotechnical problems and demands of soil improvement, engineers are searching for decisive methods to ensure the safety of projects. As a popular material Geotextiles are used in almost every aspect of civil engineering. There is a vast variety of geotextiles and each kind has their own unique characteristics therefor to select the proper geotextile for a specific project their properties must be carefully examined. This review gathers and evaluates different parameters of geotextiles that are used in geotechnical field.

Keywords: geotextile, soft soils, fabric, stabilization, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
7711 Magnetic and Optical Properties of Quaternary GaFeMnN

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, A. Abbad, W.Benstaali

Abstract:

The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: optical properties, DFT, Spintronic, wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
7710 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran

Abstract:

The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: alumina, composite, hot-pressed, graphene, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7709 Evaluation of Eco Cement as a Stabilizer of Clayey Sand

Authors: Jeeja Menon, M. S. Ravikumar

Abstract:

With the advent of green technology and the concept of zero energy buildings, there is an emerging trend in the utilization of indigenous materials like soil as a construction material. However, fine soils like clays and sand have undesirable properties and stabilization of these soils is essential before it is used to develop a building unit. Eco cement or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), a waste byproduct formed during the manufacture of iron has cementitious properties and has the potential of replacing cement which is the most common stabilizer used for improving the geotechnical properties of soil. This paper highlights the salient observations obtained by the investigations into the effect of GGBS as a stabilizer for clayey sand. The index and engineering properties of the soil on the addition of different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 5% & 6% of the dry weight of the soil) of GGBS are tested to arrive at the optimum binder content. The criteria chosen for evaluation are the unconfined compressive strength values of different soil- binder composition. The test results indicate that there are significant strength improvements by the addition of GGBS in the soil, and the optimum GGBS content was determined as 5%. Moreover, utilizing waste binders for developing an ecofriendly, less energy induced building units as well as for stabilizing soil will also contribute to the solid waste management, which is the current environmental crisis of the world.

Keywords: eco cement, GGBS, index properties, stabilization, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
7708 Experimental Determination of Shear Strength Properties of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Using Direct Shear and Triaxial Tests

Authors: Mahsa Shafaei Bajestani, Mahmoud Yazdani, Aliakbar Golshani

Abstract:

Artificial lightweight aggregates have a wide range of applications in industry and engineering. Nowadays, the usage of this material in geotechnical activities, especially as backfill in retaining walls has been growing due to the specific characteristics which make it a competent alternative to the conventional geotechnical materials. In practice, a material with lower weight but higher shear strength parameters would be ideal as backfill behind retaining walls because of the important roles that these parameters play in decreasing the overall active lateral earth pressure. In this study, two types of Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) produced in the Leca factory are investigated. LECA is made in a rotary kiln by heating natural clay at different temperatures up to 1200 °C making quasi-spherical aggregates with different sizes ranged from 0 to 25 mm. The loose bulk density of these aggregates is between 300 and 700 kN/m3. The purpose of this research is to determine the stress-strain behavior, shear strength parameters, and the energy absorption of LECA materials. Direct shear tests were conducted at five normal stresses of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 kPa. In addition, conventional triaxial compression tests were operated at confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa to examine stress-strain behavior. The experimental results show a high internal angle of friction and even a considerable amount of nominal cohesion despite the granular structure of LECA. These desirable properties along with the intrinsic low density of these aggregates make LECA as a very proper material in geotechnical applications. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that lightweight aggregates may have high energy absorption that is excellent alternative material in seismic isolations.

Keywords: expanded clay, direct shear test, triaxial test, shear properties, energy absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
7707 Geotechnical Characterization of Landslide in Dounia Park, Algiers, Algeria

Authors: Mira Filali, Amar Nechnech

Abstract:

Most landslides in Algiers take place in Piacenzian marls of the Sahel (port in Arabic) and cause severe damage to properties and infrastructures. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of experimental as well as theoretical analysis of landslides. In order to understand the process which caused this slope instabilities, the results of geotechnical investigation carried out by the laboratory of construction (LNHC) laboratory in the area of Dounia park were analyzed, including particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, shear strength, odometer and pressuremeter tests. The study shows that the soils exhibited a high capacity to swelling according to index plasticity and clay content. Highs limit liquidity (LL) (53.45%) means that the soils are susceptible to landslides. The stability analysis carried out using finite element method, shows that the slope is stable (Fs > 1) in dry condition and in static state. Despite this results, the stable site could be described as only conditionally stable because slope failure can occur under combined effect of different factors. In fact the safety factor obtained by applying load when the phreatic surface is at ground, less than 1.5.

Keywords: index properties, landslides, safety factor, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
7706 Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Achour, B. Amrani

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.

Keywords: AlBi, FP-LAPW, structural properties, electronic properties

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7705 Long-Term Mechanical and Structural Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

Authors: Lenka Matulova

Abstract:

Geopolymers are alumosilicate materials that have long been studied. Despite this fact, little is known about the long-term stability of geopolymer mechanical and structural properties, so crucial for their successful industrial application. To improve understanding, we investigated the effect of four different types of environments on the mechanical and structural properties of a metakaolin-based geopolymer (MK GP). The MK GP samples were stored in laboratory conditions (control samples), in water at 20 °C, in water at 80 °C, and outside exposed to the weather. Compressive and tensile strengths were measured after 28, 56, 90, and 360 days. In parallel, structural properties were analyzed using XRD, SEM, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Whereas the mechanical properties of the samples in laboratory conditions and in 20 °C water were stable, the mechanical properties of the outdoor samples and the samples 80 °C water decreased noticeably after 360 days. Structural analyses were focused on changes in sample microstructure (developing microcrack network, porosity) and identifying zeolites, the presence of which would indicate detrimental processes in the structure that can change it from amorphous to crystalline. No zeolites were found during the 360-day period in MK GP samples, but the reduction in mechanical properties coincided with a developing network of microcracks and changes in pore size distribution.

Keywords: geopolymer, long-term properties, mechanical properties, metakaolin, structural properties

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7704 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

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7703 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi

Abstract:

In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper, the effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadiene-rubber, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
7702 Investigation into the Possibility of Using Recycled Polyethelene to Replace Natural Rubber in the Production of Different Products

Authors: Otokiti Mojeed Jimoh

Abstract:

This work investigates the possibility of using recycled polyethylene LDPE as a base polymer in production of different products (shoe sole, foot mat, and many more) using carbon black as a filler to improve its mechanical properties, like hardness, tensile stress properties and elongation at break properties, from the result so far gotten there is a possibility that there is an increase in the mechanical properties of the sample compare to natural rubber sample.

Keywords: recycled polyethylene, base polymer, hardness, stress properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
7701 Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil

Authors: Tanios Saliba, Jad Wakim, Elie Awwad

Abstract:

Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.

Keywords: bottom ash, Clayey soil, mechanical properties, tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
7700 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 294