Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 490

Search results for: optimizing

490 Optimizing Design Works in Construction Consultant Company: A Knowledge-Based Application

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

Abstract:

The optimal construction design used during the execution of a construction project is a key factor in determining high productivity and customer satisfaction, however, this management process sometimes is carried out without care and the systematic method that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This study proposes a knowledge management (KM) approach that will enable the intelligent use of experienced and acknowledged engineers to improve the management of construction design works for a project. Then a knowledge-based application to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system for the application, semi-structured interviews were conducted within five construction consulting organizations with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ optimizing process is implemented in practice and the knowledge supported with it. A system of an optimizing construction design works (OCDW) based on knowledge was developed then validated with construction experts. The OCDW was liked as a valuable tool for construction design works’ optimization, by supporting organizations to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The benefits are described as provided by the performance support system, reducing costs and time, improving product design quality, satisfying customer requirements, expanding the brand organization.

Keywords: optimizing construction design work, construction consultant organization, knowledge management, knowledge-based application

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
489 Optimizing Road Transportation Network Considering the Durability Factors

Authors: Yapegue Bayogo, Ahmadou Halassi Dicko, Brahima Songore

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In developing countries, the road transportation system occupies an important place because of its flexibility and the low prices of infrastructure and rolling stock. While road transport is necessary for economic development, the movement of people and their goods, it is urgent to use transportation systems that minimize carbon emissions in order to ensure sustainable development. One of the main objectives of OEDC and the Word Bank is to ensure sustainable economic’ development. This paper aims to develop a road transport network taking into account environmental impacts. The methodology adopted consists of formulating a model optimizing the flow of goods and then collecting information relating to the transport of products. Our model was tested with data on product transport in CMDT areas in the Republic of Mali. The results of our study indicate that emissions from the transport sector can be significantly reduced by minimizing the traffic volume. According to our study, optimizing the transportation network, we benefit from a significant amount of tons of CO₂.

Keywords: road transport, transport sustainability, pollution, flexibility, optimized network

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
488 Optimizing the Nanoliposome of Nisin Produced by Sonication

Authors: Seyed Moslemi S. A. , Hesari J., Valizadeh H., Rezaiee-Mokaram R.

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Nanotechnology and nanoscience and related fields in this area, will impact on daily human life in the not too distant future. The basic materials of liposomes are lipids. Lipids that can be used to build liposomes can be provided from variety of sources. In this research, lecithin and cholesterol were used to prepare liposomes. Probe sonicator was used to minimize the particles of liposome and make nanoliposomes. Encapsulation efficiency were analyzed with pyrogallol red indicator and autoanalizer equipment. The smallest particle size was 220 nanometer( 100 mg lecithin, 50 mg cholestrol, 12 min and amplitude of 90%). The highest encapsulation efficiency was 13.5%( 120 mg lecithin,45 mg cholestrol, 12 min and ampilitude of 92%).

Keywords: optimizing, nanoliposome, nisin, cheese

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
487 A Compressor Map Optimizing Tool for Prediction of Compressor Off-Design Performance

Authors: Zhongzhi Hu, Jie Shen, Jiqiang Wang

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A high precision aeroengine model is needed when developing the engine control system. Compared with other main components, the axial compressor is the most challenging component to simulate. In this paper, a compressor map optimizing tool based on the introduction of a modifiable β function is developed for FWorks (FADEC Works). Three parameters (d density, f fitting coefficient, k₀ slope of the line β=0) are introduced to the β function to make it modifiable. The comparison of the traditional β function and the modifiable β function is carried out for a certain type of compressor. The interpolation errors show that both methods meet the modeling requirements, while the modifiable β function can predict compressor performance more accurately for some areas of the compressor map where the users are interested in.

Keywords: beta function, compressor map, interpolation error, map optimization tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
486 Application of De Novo Programming Approach for Optimizing the Business Process

Authors: Z. Babic, I. Veza, A. Balic, M. Crnjac

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The linear programming model is sometimes difficult to apply in real business situations due to its assumption of proportionality. This paper shows an example of how to use De Novo programming approach instead of linear programming. In the De Novo programming, resources are not fixed like in linear programming but resource quantities depend only on available budget. Budget is a new, important element of the De Novo approach. Two different production situations are presented: increasing costs and quantity discounts of raw materials. The focus of this paper is on advantages of the De Novo approach in the optimization of production plan for production company which produces souvenirs made from famous stone from the island of Brac, one of the greatest islands from Croatia.

Keywords: business process, De Novo programming, optimizing, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
485 Present Status, Driving Forces and Pattern Optimization of Territory in Hubei Province, China

Authors: Tingke Wu, Man Yuan

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“National Territorial Planning (2016-2030)” was issued by the State Council of China in 2017. As an important initiative of putting it into effect, territorial planning at provincial level makes overall arrangement of territorial development, resources and environment protection, comprehensive renovation and security system construction. Hubei province, as the pivot of the “Rise of Central China” national strategy, is now confronted with great opportunities and challenges in territorial development, protection, and renovation. Territorial spatial pattern experiences long time evolution, influenced by multiple internal and external driving forces. It is not clear what are the main causes of its formation and what are effective ways of optimizing it. By analyzing land use data in 2016, this paper reveals present status of territory in Hubei. Combined with economic and social data and construction information, driving forces of territorial spatial pattern are then analyzed. Research demonstrates that the three types of territorial space aggregate distinctively. The four aspects of driving forces include natural background which sets the stage for main functions, population and economic factors which generate agglomeration effect, transportation infrastructure construction which leads to axial expansion and significant provincial strategies which encourage the established path. On this basis, targeted strategies for optimizing territory spatial pattern are then put forward. Hierarchical protection pattern should be established based on development intensity control as respect for nature. By optimizing the layout of population and industry and improving the transportation network, polycentric network-based development pattern could be established. These findings provide basis for Hubei Territorial Planning, and reference for future territorial planning in other provinces.

Keywords: driving forces, Hubei, optimizing strategies, spatial pattern, territory

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
484 Learning Predictive Models for Efficient Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Jeongmin Kim, Eunju Lee, Kwang Ryel Ryu

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This paper addresses the problem of predictive control for energy management of large-scaled exhibition halls, where a lot of energy is consumed to maintain internal atmosphere under certain required conditions. Predictive control achieves better energy efficiency by optimizing the operation of air-conditioning facilities with not only the current but also some future status taken into account. In this paper, we propose to use predictive models learned from past sensor data of hall environment, for use in optimizing the operating plan for the air-conditioning facilities by simulating future environmental change. We have implemented an emulator of an exhibition hall by using EnergyPlus, a widely used building energy emulation tool, to collect data for learning environment-change models. Experimental results show that the learned models predict future change highly accurately on a short-term basis.

Keywords: predictive control, energy management, machine learning, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
483 Studying the Theoretical and Laboratory Design of a Concrete Frame and Optimizing Its Design for Impact and Earthquake Resistance

Authors: Mehrdad Azimzadeh, Seyed Mohammadreza Jabbari, Mohammadreza Hosseinzadeh Alherd

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This paper includes experimental results and analytical studies about increasing resistance of single-span reinforced concreted frames against impact factor and their modeling according to optimization methods and optimizing the behavior of these frames under impact loads. During this study, about 30 designs for different frames were modeled and made using specialized software like ANSYS and Sap and their behavior were examined under variable impacts. Then suitable strategies were offered for frames in terms of concrete mixing in order to optimize frame modeling. To reduce the weight of the frames, we had to use fine-grained stones. After designing about eight types of frames for each type of frames, three samples were designed with the aim of controlling the impact strength parameters, and a good shape of the frame was created for the impact resistance, which was a solid frame with muscular legs, and as a bond away from each other as much as possible with a 3 degree gradient in the upper part of the beam.

Keywords: optimization, reinforced concrete, optimization methods, impact load, earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
482 An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples

Authors: Wullapa Wongsinlatam

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Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm (IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks, four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration. The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best forecasting results compared with the selected samples.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, back propagation algorithm, time series, local minima problem, metaheuristic optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
481 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini

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It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, neural networks, photovoltaic, P&O

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
480 Optimizing Cellulase Production from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Following a Solid State Fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

Authors: Jwan J. Abdullah, Greetham Darren, Gregory A, Tucker, Chenyu Du

Abstract:

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is an alternative to liquid fermentations for the production of commercially important products such as antibiotics, single cell proteins, enzymes, organic acids, or biofuels from lignocellulosic material. This paper describes the optimisation of SSF on municipal solid waste (MSW) for the production of cellulase enzyme. Production of cellulase enzymes was optimised by Trichoderma reesei or Aspergillus niger for temperature, moisture content, inoculation, and period of incubation. Also, presence of minerals, and alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Optimisation revealed that production of cellulolytic enzymes was optimal when using Trichoderma spp at 30°C with an incubation period of 168 hours with a 60% moisture content. Crude enzymes produced from MSW, by Trichoderma were evaluated for the saccharification of MSW and compared with activity of a commercially available enzyme, results demonstrated that MSW can be used as inexpensive lignocellulosic material for the production of cellulase enzymes using Trichoderma reesei.

Keywords: SSF, enzyme hydrolysis, municipal solid waste (MSW), optimizing conditions, enzyme hydrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
479 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

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Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
478 An Integrated Approach for Optimizing Drillable Parameters to Increase Drilling Performance: A Real Field Case Study

Authors: Hamidoddin Yousife

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Drilling optimization requires a prediction of drilling rate of penetration (ROP) since it provides a significant reduction in drilling costs. There are several factors that can have an impact on the ROP, both controllable and uncontrollable. Numerous drilling penetration rate models have been considered based on drilling parameters. This papers considered the effect of proper drilling parameter selection such as bit, Mud Type, applied weight on bit (WOB), Revolution per minutes (RPM), and flow rate on drilling optimization and drilling cost reduction. A predicted analysis is used in real-time drilling performance to determine the optimal drilling operation. As a result of these modeling studies, the real data collected from three directional wells at Azadegan oil fields, Iran, was verified and adjusted to determine the drillability of a specific formation. Simulation results and actual drilling results show significant improvements in inaccuracy. Once simulations had been validated, optimum drilling parameters and equipment specifications were determined by varying weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), hydraulics (hydraulic pressure), and bit specification for each well until the highest drilling rate was achieved. To evaluate the potential operational and economic benefits of optimizing results, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data was performed.

Keywords: drlling, cost, optimization, parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
477 Optimizing the Performance of Thermoelectric for Cooling Computer Chips Using Different Types of Electrical Pulses

Authors: Saleh Alshehri

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Thermoelectric technology is currently being used in many industrial applications for cooling, heating and generating electricity. This research mainly focuses on using thermoelectric to cool down high-speed computer chips at different operating conditions. A previously developed and validated three-dimensional model for optimizing and assessing the performance of cascaded thermoelectric and non-cascaded thermoelectric is used in this study to investigate the possibility of decreasing the hotspot temperature of computer chip. Additionally, a test assembly is built and tested at steady-state and transient conditions. The obtained optimum thermoelectric current at steady-state condition is used to conduct a number of pulsed tests (i.e. transient tests) with different shapes to cool the computer chips hotspots. The results of the steady-state tests showed that at hotspot heat rate of 15.58 W (5.97 W/cm2), using thermoelectric current of 4.5 A has resulted in decreasing the hotspot temperature at open circuit condition (89.3 °C) by 50.1 °C. Maximum and minimum hotspot temperatures have been affected by ON and OFF duration of the electrical current pulse. Maximum hotspot temperature was resulted by longer OFF pulse period. In addition, longer ON pulse period has generated the minimum hotspot temperature.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, TEG, thermoelectric cooler, TEC, chip hotspots, electronic cooling

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476 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima

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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, platinum, rhodium, palladium

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
475 MLProxy: SLA-Aware Reverse Proxy for Machine Learning Inference Serving on Serverless Computing Platforms

Authors: Nima Mahmoudi, Hamzeh Khazaei

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Serving machine learning inference workloads on the cloud is still a challenging task at the production level. The optimal configuration of the inference workload to meet SLA requirements while optimizing the infrastructure costs is highly complicated due to the complex interaction between batch configuration, resource configurations, and variable arrival process. Serverless computing has emerged in recent years to automate most infrastructure management tasks. Workload batching has revealed the potential to improve the response time and cost-effectiveness of machine learning serving workloads. However, it has not yet been supported out of the box by serverless computing platforms. Our experiments have shown that for various machine learning workloads, batching can hugely improve the system’s efficiency by reducing the processing overhead per request. In this work, we present MLProxy, an adaptive reverse proxy to support efficient machine learning serving workloads on serverless computing systems. MLProxy supports adaptive batching to ensure SLA compliance while optimizing serverless costs. We performed rigorous experiments on Knative to demonstrate the effectiveness of MLProxy. We showed that MLProxy could reduce the cost of serverless deployment by up to 92% while reducing SLA violations by up to 99% that can be generalized across state-of-the-art model serving frameworks.

Keywords: serverless computing, machine learning, inference serving, Knative, google cloud run, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
474 Modeling of the Thermal Exchanges of an Intelligent Polymer Film for the Development of New Generations of Greenhouses

Authors: Ziani Zakarya, Mahdad Moustafa Yassine

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Greenhouse farming has greatly contributed to the development of modern agriculture by optimizing crops, especially market gardening, ornamental horticulture, and recently, fruit species ... Greenhouse cultivation has enabled farmers to produce fruits and vegetables out of season while guaranteeing them a good production, and therefore a considerable gain throughout the year. However, this mode of production has shown its limits, especially in extreme conditions, such as the continental steppe climate and the Saharan climate, which are characterized by significant thermal amplitudes and strong winds, making it impossible to use conventional greenhouses for several months, of the year. In Algeria and precisely in the highlands, the use of greenhouses by farmers is very rare or occasional, especially in spring, because the limiting factors mentioned above are frequent there, causing significant damage to the plant product and to the environment. infrastructure. The same observation is observed in the Saharan regions but with less frequencies. Certainly, the use of controlled multi-chapel greenhouses would solve the problem, but at what cost? These hi-tech infrastructures are very expensive to purchase but also to maintain, so few farmers have the financial means to obtain them. In addition, the existence of intelligent and less expensive polymer films, whose properties could control greenhouse production parameters, in particular, the temperature parameter, maybe a judicious solution for the development of new generations of greenhouses that can be used in extreme conditions and normal.

Keywords: greenhouse, polymer film, modern agriculture, optimizing crops

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
473 Prediction of Cutting Tool Life in Drilling of Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite Using a Fuzzy Method

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh

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Machining of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is very significant process and has been a main problem that draws many researchers to investigate the characteristics of MMCs during different machining process. The poor machining properties of hard particles reinforced MMCs make drilling process a rather interesting task. Unlike drilling of conventional materials, many problems can be seriously encountered during drilling of MMCs, such as tool wear and cutting forces. Cutting tool wear is a very significant concern in industries. Cutting tool wear not only influences the quality of the drilled hole, but also affects the cutting tool life. Prediction the cutting tool life during drilling is essential for optimizing the cutting conditions. However, the relationship between tool life and cutting conditions, tool geometrical factors and workpiece material properties has not yet been established by any machining theory. In this research work, fuzzy subtractive clustering system has been used to model the cutting tool life in drilling of Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite to investigate of the effect of cutting conditions on cutting tool life. This investigation can help in controlling and optimizing of cutting conditions when the process parameters are adjusted. The built model for prediction the tool life is identified by using drill diameter, cutting speed, and cutting feed rate as input data. The validity of the model was confirmed by the examinations under various cutting conditions. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the model to predict cutting tool life.

Keywords: composite, fuzzy, tool life, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
472 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo

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The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
471 Modeling and Optimizing of Sinker Electric Discharge Machine Process Parameters on AISI 4140 Alloy Steel by Central Composite Rotatable Design Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, J. Sekhar Babub, Meena Murmu, Govardhan Bhat

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Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an unconventional manufacturing process based on removal of material from a part by means of a series of repeated electrical sparks created by electric pulse generators at short intervals between a electrode tool and the part to be machined emmersed in dielectric fluid. In this paper, a study will be performed on the influence of the factors of peak current, pulse on time, interval time and power supply voltage. The output responses measured were material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness. Finally, the parameters were optimized for maximum MRR with the desired surface roughness. RSM involves establishing mathematical relations between the design variables and the resulting responses and optimizing the process conditions. RSM is not free from problems when it is applied to multi-factor and multi-response situations. Design of experiments (DOE) technique to select the optimum machining conditions for machining AISI 4140 using EDM. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal factors of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process investigate feasibility of design of experiment techniques. The work pieces used were rectangular plates of AISI 4140 grade steel alloy. The study of optimized settings of key machining factors like pulse on time, gap voltage, flushing pressure, input current and duty cycle on the material removal, surface roughness is been carried out using central composite design. The objective is to maximize the Material removal rate (MRR). Central composite design data is used to develop second order polynomial models with interaction terms. The insignificant coefficients’ are eliminated with these models by using student t test and F test for the goodness of fit. CCD is first used to establish the determine the optimal factors of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) for maximizing the MRR. The responses are further treated through a objective function to establish the same set of key machining factors to satisfy the optimization problem of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. The results demonstrate the better performance of CCD data based RSM for optimizing the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process.

Keywords: electric discharge machining (EDM), modeling, optimization, CCRD

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470 Optimizing Nature Protection and Tourism in Urban Parks

Authors: Milena Lakicevic

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The paper deals with the problem of optimizing management options for urban parks within different scenarios of nature protection and tourism importance. The procedure is demonstrated on a case study example of urban parks in Novi Sad (Serbia). Six management strategies for the selected area have been processed by the decision support method PROMETHEE. Two criteria used for the evaluation were nature protection and tourism and each of them has been divided into a set of indicators: for nature protection those were biodiversity and preservation of original landscape, while for tourism those were recreation potential, aesthetic values, accessibility and culture features. It was pre-assumed that each indicator in a set is equally important to a corresponding criterion. This way, the research was focused on a sensitivity analysis of criteria weights. In other words, weights of indicators were fixed and weights of criteria altered along the entire scale (from the value of 0 to the value of 1), and the assessment has been performed in two-dimensional surrounding. As a result, one could conclude which management strategy would be the most appropriate along with changing of criteria importance. The final ranking of management alternatives was followed up by investigating the mean PROMETHEE Φ values for all options considered and when altering the importance of nature protection/tourism. This type of analysis enabled detecting an alternative with a solid performance along the entire scale, i.e., regardlessly of criteria importance. That management strategy can be seen as a compromise solution when the weight of criteria is not defined. As a conclusion, it can be said that, in some cases, instead of having criteria importance fixed it is important to test the outputs depending on the different schemes of criteria weighting. The research demonstrates the state of the final decision when the decision maker can estimate criteria importance, but also in cases when the importance of criteria is not established or known.

Keywords: criteria weights, PROMETHEE, sensitivity analysis, urban parks

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
469 Optimization of Interface Radio of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Network

Authors: O. Mohamed Amine, A. Khireddine

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Telecoms operators are always looking to meet their share of the other customers, they try to gain optimum utilization of the deployed equipment and network optimization has become essential. This project consists of optimizing UMTS network, and the study area is an urban area situated in the center of Algiers. It was initially questions to become familiar with the different communication systems (3G) and the optimization technique, its main components, and its fundamental characteristics radios were introduced.

Keywords: UMTS, UTRAN, WCDMA, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
468 Sustainable Design Features Implementing Public Rental Housing for Remodeling

Authors: So-Young Lee, Myoung-Won Oh, Soon-Cheol Eom, Yeon-Won Suh

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Buildings produce more than one thirds of the total energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. Korean government agency pronounced and initiated Zero Energy Buildings policy for construction as of 2025. The net zero energy design features include passive (daylight, layout, materials, insulation, finishes, etc.) and active (renewable energy sources) elements. The Zero Energy House recently built in Nowon-gu, Korea is provided for 121 households as a public rental housing complex. However most of public rental housing did not include sustainable features which can reduce housing maintaining cost significantly including energy cost. It is necessary to implement net zero design features to the obsolete public rental housing during the remodeling procedure since it can reduce housing cost in long term. The purpose of this study is to investigate sustainable design elements implemented in Net Zero Energy House in Korea and passive and active housing design features in order to apply the sustainable features to the case public rental apartment for remodeling. Housing complex cases in this study are Nowan zero Energy house, Gangnam Bogemjari House, and public rental housings built in more than 20 years in Seoul areas. As results, energy consumption in public rental housing built in 5-years can be improved by exterior surfaces. Energy optimizing in case housing built in more than 20 years can be enhanced by renovated materials, insulation, replacement of windows, exterior finishes, lightings, gardening, water, renewable energy installation, Green IT except for sunlight and layout of buildings. Further life costing analysis is needed for energy optimizing for case housing alternatives.

Keywords: affordable housing, remodeling, sustainable design, zero-energy house

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
467 Optimizing the Window Geometry Using Fractals

Authors: K. Geetha Ramesh, A. Ramachandraiah

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In an internal building space, daylight becomes a powerful source of illumination. The challenge therefore, is to develop means of utilizing both direct and diffuse natural light in buildings while maintaining and improving occupant's visual comfort, particularly at greater distances from the windows throwing daylight. The geometrical features of windows in a building have significant effect in providing daylight. The main goal of this research is to develop an innovative window geometry, which will effectively provide the daylight component adequately together with internal reflected component(IRC) and also the external reflected component(ERC), if any. This involves exploration of a light redirecting system using fractal geometry for windows, in order to penetrate and distribute daylight more uniformly to greater depths, minimizing heat gain and glare, and also to reduce building energy use substantially. Of late the creation of fractal geometrical window and the occurrence of daylight illuminance due to such windows is becoming an interesting study. The amount of daylight can change significantly based on the window geometry and sky conditions. This leads to the (i) exploration of various fractal patterns suitable for window designs, and (ii) quantification of the effect of chosen fractal window based on the relationship between the fractal pattern, size, orientation and glazing properties for optimizing daylighting. There are a lot of natural lighting applications able to predict the behaviour of a light in a room through a traditional opening - a regular window. The conventional prediction methodology involves the evaluation of the daylight factor, the internal reflected component and the external reflected component. Having evaluated the daylight illuminance level for a conventional window, the technical performance of a fractal window for an optimal daylighting is to be studied and compared with that of a regular window. The methodologies involved are highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: daylighting, fractal geometry, fractal window, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
466 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

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465 Famotidine Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for Oral Delivery System

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Novita R. Kusuma, Diky Mudhakir

Abstract:

Famotidine (FMT) is one of used substances in the treatment of hiperacidity and peptic ulcer, administered orally and parenterally via intravenous injection. Oral administration, which is more favorable, has been reported to have many obstacles in the process of the treatment, includes decreasing the bioavailability of FMT. This research was aimed to prepare FMT in form of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with size ranging between 100-200 nm. The research was carried out also by optimizing factors that may affect physical stability of SLN. Formulation of Famotidine SLN was carried out by optimizing factors, such as duration of homogenization and sonication, lipid concentration, stabilizer composition and stabilizer concentration. SLN physical stability was evaluated (particle size distribution) for 42 days in 3 diferent temperatures. Entrapment efficiency and drug loading was determined indirectly and directly. The morphology of SLN was visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro release study of FMT was conducted in 2 mediums, at pH of 1.2 and 7.4. Chemical stability of FMT was determined by quantifying the concentration of FMT within 42 days. Famotidin SLN consisted of GMS as lipid and poloxamer 188, lecithin, and polysorbate 80 as stabilizers. Homogenization and sonication was performed for 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Physyical stability of nanoparticles at 3 different temperatures was no significant difference. The best formula was physically stable until 42 days with mean particle size below 200 nm. Nanoparticles produced was able to entrap FMT until 86.6%. Evaluation by TEM showed that nanoparticles was spherical and solid. In medium pH of 1.2, FMT was released only 30% during 4 hour. On the other hand, within 4 hours SLN could release FMT completely in medium pH of 7.4. The FMT concentration in nanoparticles dispersion was maintained until 95% in 42 days (40oC, RH 75%). Famotidine SLN was able to be produced with mean particle size ranging between 100-200 nm and physically stable for 42 days. SLN could be loaded by 86,6% of FMT. Morphologically, obtained SLN was spheric and solid. During 4 hours in medium pH of 1.2 and 7.4, FMT was released until 30% and 100%, respectively.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), famotidine (FMT), physicochemical properties, release study

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
464 AquaCrop Model Simulation for Water Productivity of Teff (Eragrostic tef): A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Yenesew Mengiste Yihun, Abraham Mehari Haile, Teklu Erkossa, Bart Schultz

Abstract:

Teff (Eragrostic tef) is a staple food in Ethiopia. The local and international demand for the crop is ever increasing pushing the current price five times compared with that in 2006. To meet this escalating demand increasing production including using irrigation is imperative. Optimum application of irrigation water, especially in semi-arid areas is profoundly important. AquaCrop model application in irrigation water scheduling and simulation of water productivity helps both irrigation planners and agricultural water managers. This paper presents simulation and evaluation of AquaCrop model in optimizing the yield and biomass response to variation in timing and rate of irrigation water application. Canopy expansion, canopy senescence and harvest index are the key physiological processes sensitive to water stress. For full irrigation water application treatment there was a strong relationship between the measured and simulated canopy and biomass with r2 and d values of 0.87 and 0.96 for canopy and 0.97 and 0.74 for biomass, respectively. However, the model under estimated the simulated yield and biomass for higher water stress level. For treatment receiving full irrigation the harvest index value obtained were 29%. The harvest index value shows generally a decreasing trend under water stress condition. AquaCrop model calibration and validation using the dry season field experiments of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 shows that AquaCrop adequately simulated the yield response to different irrigation water scenarios. We conclude that the AquaCrop model can be used in irrigation water scheduling and optimizing water productivity of Teff grown under water scarce semi-arid conditions.

Keywords: AquaCrop, climate smart agriculture, simulation, teff, water security, water stress regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
463 Mathematical Model and Algorithm for the Berth and Yard Resource Allocation at Seaports

Authors: Ming Liu, Zhihui Sun, Xiaoning Zhang

Abstract:

This paper studies a deterministic container transportation problem, jointly optimizing the berth allocation, quay crane assignment and yard storage allocation at container ports. The problem is formulated as an integer program to coordinate the decisions. Because of the large scale, it is then transformed into a set partitioning formulation, and a framework of branchand- price algorithm is provided to solve it.

Keywords: branch-and-price, container terminal, joint scheduling, maritime logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
462 Dimensional-Controlled Functional Gold Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Kok Hong Tan, Hing Wah Lee, Jhih-Wei Chen, Chang Fu Dee, Chung-Lin Wu, Siang-Piao Chai, Wei Sea Chang

Abstract:

Semiconductor photocatalyst is known as one of the key roles in developing clean and sustainable energy. However, most of the semiconductor only possesses photoactivity within the UV light region, and hence, decreases the overall photocatalyst efficiency. Generally, the overall effectiveness of the photocatalyst activity is determined by three critical steps: (i) light absorption efficiency and photoexcitation electron-hole pair generation, (ii) separation and migration of charge carriers to the surface of the photocatalyst, and (iii) surface reaction of the carriers with its environment. Much effort has been invested on optimizing hierarchical nanostructures of semiconductors for efficient photoactivity due to the fact that the visible light absorption capability and occurrence of the chemical reactions mostly depend on the dimension of photocatalysts. In this work, we incorporated zero-dimensional (0D) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and one dimensional (1D) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) onto strontium titanate (STO) for efficient visible light absorption, charge transfer, and separation. We demonstrate that the electrical and optical properties of the photocatalyst can be tuned by controlling the dimensional structures of AuNPs and ZnO NRs. We found that smaller AuNPs sizes exhibited higher photoactivity because of Fermi level shifting toward the conductive band of STO, STO band gap narrowing and broadening of absorption spectrum to the visible light region. For ZnO NRs, it was found that the average ZnO NRs c-axis length must achieve of certain length to induce multiphoton absorption as a result of light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs hence broadening the absorption spectrum of ZnO from UV to visible light region. This work opens up a new way of broadening the absorption spectrum by incorporating controllable nanostructures of semiconductors, which is important in optimizing the solar water splitting process.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, photoelectrochemical, PEC, semiconductor photocatalyst, zinc oxide nanorods

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461 Identifying and Optimizing the Critical Excipients in Moisture Activated Dry Granulation Process for Two Anti TB Drugs of Different Aqueous Solubilities

Authors: K. Srujana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Isoniazide (INH) a freely water soluble and pyrazinamide (Z) a practically water insoluble first line anti tubercular (TB) drugs were identified as candidates for optimizing the Moisture Activated Dry Granulation (MADG) process. The work focuses on identifying the effect of binder type and concentration as well as the effect of magnesium stearate level on critical quality attributes of Disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution test when the tablets are processed by the MADG process. Also, the level of the drug concentration, binder concentration and fluid addition during the agglomeration stage of the MADG process was evaluated and optimized. For INH, it was identified that for tablets with HPMC as binder at both 2% w/w and 5% w/w level and Magnesium stearate upto 1%w/w as lubrication the DT is within 1 minute and the dissolution rate is the fastest (> 80% in 15 minutes) as compared to when PVP or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. Regarding the process, fast disintegrating and rapidly dissolving tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 25% w/w 0% w/w binder and 0.033%. w/w. At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is also slower. For pyrazinamide,it was identified that for the tablets with 2% w/w level of each of PVP as binder and Cross Caramellose Sodium disintegrant the DT is within 2 minutes and the dissolution rate is the fastest(>80 in 15 minutes)as compared to when HPMC or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. This may be attributed to the fact that PVP may be acting as a solubilizer for the practically insoluble Pyrazinamide. Regarding the process,fast dispersing and rapidly disintegrating tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 10% w/w,25% w/w binder and 1% w/w.At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is comparatively slower and less complete.

Keywords: agglomeration stage, isoniazide, MADG, moisture distribution stage, pyrazinamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 173