Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2401

Search results for: road transport

2401 European Environmental Policy for Road Transport: Analysis of the Perverse Effects Generated and Proposals for a Good Practice Guide

Authors: Pedro Pablo Ramírez Sánchez, Alassane Ballé Ndiaye, Roberto Rendeiro Martín-Cejas

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyse the different environmental policies adopted in Europe for car emissions, to comment on some of the possible perverse effects generated and point out these policies which are considered more efficient under the environmental perspective. This paper is focused on passenger cars as this category is the most significant in road transport. The utility of this research lies in this being the first step or basis to improve and optimise actual policies. The methodology applied in this paper refers to a comparative analysis from a practical and theoretical point of view of European environmental policies in road transport. This work describes an overview of the road transport industry in Europe pointing out some relevant aspects such as the contribution of road transport to total emissions and the vehicle fleet in Europe. Additionally, we propose a brief practice guide with the combined policies in order to optimise their aim.

Keywords: air quality, climate change, emission, environment, perverse effect, road transport, tax policy

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2400 Optimizing Road Transportation Network Considering the Durability Factors

Authors: Yapegue Bayogo, Ahmadou Halassi Dicko, Brahima Songore

Abstract:

In developing countries, the road transportation system occupies an important place because of its flexibility and the low prices of infrastructure and rolling stock. While road transport is necessary for economic development, the movement of people and their goods, it is urgent to use transportation systems that minimize carbon emissions in order to ensure sustainable development. One of the main objectives of OEDC and the Word Bank is to ensure sustainable economic’ development. This paper aims to develop a road transport network taking into account environmental impacts. The methodology adopted consists of formulating a model optimizing the flow of goods and then collecting information relating to the transport of products. Our model was tested with data on product transport in CMDT areas in the Republic of Mali. The results of our study indicate that emissions from the transport sector can be significantly reduced by minimizing the traffic volume. According to our study, optimizing the transportation network, we benefit from a significant amount of tons of CO₂.

Keywords: road transport, transport sustainability, pollution, flexibility, optimized network

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2399 Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Yanghon Chung, Nyunbae Park, Sangyong Park

Abstract:

South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.

Keywords: green car, greenhouse gas, LEAP model, road transport sector

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2398 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

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2397 Diagnostic and Analysis of the Performance of Freight Transportation on Urban Logistics System in the City of Sfax

Authors: Tarak Barhoumi, Younes Boujelbene

Abstract:

Nowadays, the problems of freight transport pose logistical constraints on the urban system in the city. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of the interactions between local traffic and interurban traffic on the one hand and between the location system and the transport system on the other hand. Thus, in a simulation and analysis approach cannot be restricted to the only transport system. The proposed approach is based on an assessment of the impact of freight transport, which is closely linked to the diagnostic method, based on two surveys carried out on the territory of the urban community of Sfax. These surveys are based on two main components 'establishment component' first and 'driver component' second. The results propose a reorganization of freight transport in the city of Sfax. First, an orientation of the heavy goods vehicles traffic towards the major axes of transport namely the ring roads (ring road N° 2, ring road N° 4 and ring road N° 11) and the penetrating news of the city. Then, the implementation of a retail goods delivery policy and the strengthening of logistics in the city. The creation of a logistics zone at the ring road N° 11 where various modes of freight transport meet, in order to decongest the roads of heavy goods traffic, reduce the cost of transport and thus improve the competitiveness of the economy regional.

Keywords: urban logistics systems, transport freight, diagnostics, evaluation

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2396 Exploring the Relationship between Building Construction Activity and Road-Related Expenditure in Victoria

Authors: Md. Aftabuzzaman, Md. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

Road-related expenditure and building construction activity are two significant drivers of the Victorian economy. This paper investigates the relationship between building construction activity and road-related expenditure. Data for construction activities were collected from Victorian Building Authority, and road-related expenditure data were explored from the Bureau of Infrastructure and Transport Research Economics. The trend between these two sectors was compared. The analysis found a strong relationship between road-related expenditure and the volume of construction activity, i.e., the more the construction activities, the greater the requirement of road-related expenditure, or vice-versa. The road-related expenditure has a two-year lag period, suggesting that the road sector requires two years to respond to the growth in the building sector.

Keywords: building construction activity, infrastructure, road expenditure, Victorian Building Authority

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2395 Evaluation of External Costs of Traffic Accident in Slovak Republic

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Jozef Danis, Juraj Camaj

Abstract:

The report deals with comparison of traffic accidents in Slovak republic in road and rail transport since year 2009 until 2014, with evaluation of external costs and consequently with the possibilities of their internalization. The results of road traffic accidents analysis are realized in line with after-effects they have caused; in line with main cause, place of origin (within or out of town) and in accordance to age of people they were killed or hard, eventually easy injured in traffic accidents. Evaluation of individual after-effects is carried in terms of probability of traffic accidents occurrence.

Keywords: external costs, traffic accident, rail transport, road transport

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2394 Scenario-Based Analysis of Electric Vehicle Penetration in Road Transportation in Laos

Authors: Bouneua Khamphilavanh, Toshihiko Masui

Abstract:

The penetration of EV (electric vehicle) technology in Lao road transportation, in this study, was analyzed by using the AIM/CGE [Laos] model. The computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was developed by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) team. In line with the increase of the number of road vehicles, the energy demand in the transport sector has been gradually increased which resulted in a large amount of budget spent for importing fossil fuels during the last decade, and a high carbon dioxide emission from the transport sector, hence the aim of this research is to analyze the impact of EVs penetration on economic and CO₂ emission in short-term, middle-term, and long-term. By the year 2050, the expected gross domestic product (GDP) value, due to Laos will spend more budget for importing the EV, will be gradually lost up to one percent. The cumulative CO₂ emission from 2020 to 2050 in BAU case will be 12,000 GgCO₂eq, and those in the EV mitigation case will be 9,300 GgCO₂eq, which accounting for likely 77% cumulative CO₂ emission reduction in the road transport sector by introducing the EV technology.

Keywords: GDP, CO₂ mitigation, CGE model, EV technology, transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2393 Climate Impact-Minimizing Road Infrastructure Layout for Growing Cities

Authors: Stanislovas Buteliauskas, Aušrius Juozapavičius

Abstract:

City road transport contributes significantly to climate change, and the ongoing world urbanization is only increasing the problem. The paper describes a city planning concept minimizing the number of vehicles on the roads while increasing overall mobility. This becomes possible by utilizing a recently invented two-level road junction with a unique property of serving both as an intersection of uninterrupted traffic and an easily accessible transport hub capable of accumulating private vehicles, and therefore becoming an especially effective park-and-ride solution, and a logistics or business center. Optimized layouts of city road infrastructure, living and work areas, and major roads are presented. The layouts are suitable both for the development of new cities as well as for the expansion of existing ones. Costs of the infrastructure and a positive impact on climate are evaluated in comparison to current city growth patterns.

Keywords: congestion, city infrastructure, park-and-ride, road junctions

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2392 Comparison of Noise Emissions in the Interior of Passenger Cars

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jaroslav Masek

Abstract:

The noise is one of the negative elements influencing the human health. This article is due to the measurement of noise emitted by road vehicle and its parts during the operation. Measurement was done in the interior of common passenger cars with a digital sound meter. The results compare the noise value in different cars with different body shape, which influences the driver’s health. Transport has considerable ecological effects, many of them detrimental to environmental sustainability. Roads and traffic exert a variety of direct and mostly detrimental effects on nature.

Keywords: driver, noise measurement, passenger road vehicle, road transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2391 Strategic Thinking to Enhance Critical Transport Infrastructure and Build Resilience

Authors: Jayantha Withanaarachchi, Sujeeva Setunge, Sara Moridpour

Abstract:

Gaps in strategic thinking and planning lead to critical transport infrastructure resilience. These gaps in strategic transport and land use development planning have an impact on communities and cities. Natural and man-induced disasters can be catastrophic to communities. After a disaster, many types of critical infrastructure, including transport infrastructure gets un-usable or gets damaged. This paper examines strategic thinking behind the resilience and protection of Critical Transport Infrastructure (CI) within transport networks by investigating the impact of disasters such as bushfires, hurricanes and earthquakes. A detailed analysis of three case studies have been conducted to identify the gaps in strategic transport planning and strategic decision making processes required to mitigate the impacts of disasters. Case studies will be analysed to identify existing gaps in road design, transport planning and decision making. This paper examines the effect of road designing, transport corridors and decision making during transport planning stages and how it impacts transport infrastructure as well as community resilience. A set of recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of existing strategic planning and designing process are presented. This research paper reviews transport infrastructure planning issues and presents the common approach suitable for future strategic thinking and planning which could be adopted in practices.

Keywords: community resilience, decision making , infrastructure resilience, strategic transport planning, transport infrastructure

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2390 Giving Right-of-Way to Emergency Ambulances: Attitude and Behavior of Road Users in Developing Countries

Authors: Mahmoud T. Alwidyan, Ahmad Alrawashdeh, Alaa O. Oteir

Abstract:

Background: Emergency medical service (EMS) providers, oftentimes, use the lights and sirens (L&S) of their ambulances to warn road users, navigate through traffic, and expedite transport to save lives of ill and injured patients. Despite the contribution of road users in the effectiveness of reducing transport time of EMS ambulances using L&S, there is a lack of empirical assessments exploring the road user’s attitude and behavior in such situations. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the attitude and behavior of road users in response to EMS ambulances with warning L&S in use. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey developed and distributed to adult road users in Northern Jordan. The questionnaire included 20 items addressing demographics, attitudes, and behavior toward emergency ambulances. We described the participants’ responses and assessed the association between demographics and attitude statements using logistic regression. Results: A total of 1302 questionnaires were complete and appropriate for analysis. The mean age was 34.2 (SD± 11.4) years, and the majority were males (72.6%). About half of road users (47.9%) in our sample would perform inappropriate action in response to EMS ambulances with L&S in use. The multivariate logistic regression model show that being female (OR, 0.63; 95% CI = 0.48-0.81), more educated (OR, 0.68; 95% CI = 0.53-0.86), or public transport driver (OR, 0.55; 95% CI = 0.34-0.90) is significantly associated with inappropriate response to EMS ambulances. Additionally, a significant proportion of road users may perform inappropriate and lawless driving practices such as crossing red traffic lights or following the passing by EMS ambulances, which would, in turn, increase the risk on ambulances and other road users. Conclusions: A large proportion of road users in Jordan may respond inappropriately to the EMS ambulances, and many engage in risky driving behaviors due perhaps to the lack of procedural knowledge. Policy-related interventions and educational programs are crucially needed to increase public awareness of the traffic law concerning EMS ambulances and to enhance appropriate driving behavior, which, in turn, improves the efficiency of ambulance services.

Keywords: EMS ambulances, lights and sirens, road users, attitude and behavior

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2389 Optimizing the Location of Parking Areas Adapted for Dangerous Goods in the European Road Transport Network

Authors: María Dolores Caro, Eugenio M. Fedriani, Ángel F. Tenorio

Abstract:

The transportation of dangerous goods by lorries throughout Europe must be done by using the roads conforming the European Road Transport Network. In this network, there are several parking areas where lorry drivers can park to rest according to the regulations. According to the "European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road", parking areas where lorries transporting dangerous goods can park to rest, must follow several security stipulations to keep safe the rest of road users. At this respect, these lorries must be parked in adapted areas with strict and permanent surveillance measures. Moreover, drivers must satisfy several restrictions about resting and driving time. Under these facts, one may expect that there exist enough parking areas for the transport of this type of goods in order to obey the regulations prescribed by the European Union and its member countries. However, the already-existing parking areas are not sufficient to cover all the stops required by drivers transporting dangerous goods. Our main goal is, starting from the already-existing parking areas and the loading-and-unloading location, to provide an optimal answer to the following question: how many additional parking areas must be built and where must they be located to assure that lorry drivers can transport dangerous goods following all the stipulations about security and safety for their stops? The sense of the word “optimal” is due to the fact that we give a global solution for the location of parking areas throughout the whole European Road Transport Network, adjusting the number of additional areas to be as lower as possible. To do so, we have modeled the problem using graph theory since we are working with a road network. As nodes, we have considered the locations of each already-existing parking area, each loading-and-unloading area each road bifurcation. Each road connecting two nodes is considered as an edge in the graph whose weight corresponds to the distance between both nodes in the edge. By applying a new efficient algorithm, we have found the additional nodes for the network representing the new parking areas adapted for dangerous goods, under the fact that the distance between two parking areas must be less than or equal to 400 km.

Keywords: trans-european transport network, dangerous goods, parking areas, graph-based modeling

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2388 Providing a Road Pricing and Toll Allocation Method for Toll Roads

Authors: Ali Babaei

Abstract:

There is a worldwide growing tendency toward construction of infrastructures with the possibility of private sector participation instead of free exploitation of public infrastructures. The construction and development of roads through private sector participation is performed by different countries because of appropriate results and benefits such as compensation of public budget deficit in road construction and maintenance and responding to traffic growth (demand). Toll is the most definite form of budget provision in road development. There are two issues in the toll rate assignment: A. costing of transport, B. Cost allocation and distribution of cost between different types of vehicles as each vehicle pay its own share. There can be different goals in toll collection and its extent is variable according to the strategy of toll collection. Costing principles in different countries are based on inclusion of the whole transport and not peculiar to the toll roads. For example, fuel tax policy functions where the road network users pay transportation cost (not just users of toll road). Whereas transportation infrastructures in Iran are free, these methods are not applicable. In Iran, different toll freeways have built by public investment and government provides participation in the road construction through encouragement of financial institutions. In this paper, the existing policies about the toll roads are studied and then the appropriate method of costing and cost allocation to different vehicles is introduced.

Keywords: toll allocation, road pricing, transportation, financial and industrial systems

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2387 Energy Consumption and GHG Production in Railway and Road Passenger Regional Transport

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jozef Gnap, Jan Ponicky

Abstract:

Paper deals with the modeling and simulation of energy consumption and GHG production of two different modes of regional passenger transport – road and railway. These two transport modes use the same type of fuel – diesel. Modeling and simulation of the energy consumption in transport is often used due to calculation satisfactory accuracy and cost efficiency. Paper deals with the calculation based on EN standards and information collected from technical information from vehicle producers and characteristics of tracks. Calculation included maximal theoretical capacity of bus and train and real passenger’s measurement from operation. Final energy consumption and GHG production is calculated by using software simulation. In evaluation of the simulation is used system ‘well to wheel’.

Keywords: bus, consumption energy, GHG, production, simulation, train

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2386 The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Juraj Camaj, Martin Loch

Abstract:

Presently it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing performance of road freight have been a negative impact to environment and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The study describe the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for companies and society and research how the partial internalization of external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight. In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion costing for determine the external costs. We modelling of total society costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do good not only for society, but for companies providing freight services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society costs.

Keywords: delivery time, economy effectiveness, logistical centers, ecological efficiency, optimization, society

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2385 Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems

Authors: Taha Bensiradj, Samira Moussaoui

Abstract:

Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.

Keywords: HSVN, ITS, VANET, WSN

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2384 Supporting Densification through the Planning and Implementation of Road Infrastructure in the South African Context

Authors: K. Govender, M. Sinclair

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates a proof of concept whereby shorter trips and land use densification can be promoted through an alternative approach to planning and implementation of road infrastructure in the South African context. It briefly discusses how the development of the Compact City concept relies on a combination of promoting shorter trips and densification through a change in focus in road infrastructure provision. The methodology developed in this paper uses a traffic model to test the impact of synthesized deterrence functions on congestion locations in the road network through the assignment of traffic on the study network. The results from this study demonstrate that intelligent planning of road infrastructure can indeed promote reduced urban sprawl, increased residential density and mixed-use areas which are supported by an efficient public transport system; and reduced dependence on the freeway network with a fixed road infrastructure budget. The study has resonance for all cities where urban sprawl is seemingly unstoppable.

Keywords: compact cities, densification, road infrastructure planning, transportation modelling

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2383 Traffic Congestion Analysis and Modeling for Urban Roads of Srinagar City

Authors: Adinarayana Badveeti, Mohammad Shafi Mir

Abstract:

In Srinagar City, in India, traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. Traffic congestion is conventionally measured using indicators such as roadway level-of-service, the Travel Time Index and their variants. Several measures have been taken in order to counteract congestion like road pricing, car pooling, improved traffic management, etc. While new road construction can temporarily relieve congestion in the longer term, it simply encourages further growth in car traffic through increased travel and a switch away from public transport. The full paper report, on which this abstract is based, aims to provide policymakers and technical staff with the real-time data, conceptual framework and guidance on some of the engineering tools necessary to manage congestion in such a way as to reduce its overall impact on individuals, families, communities, and societies dynamic, affordable, liveable and attractive urban regions will never be free of congestion. Road transport policies, however, should seek to manage congestion on a cost-effective basis with the aim of reducing the burden that excessive congestion imposes upon travellers and urban dwellers throughout the urban road network.

Keywords: traffic congestion, modeling, traffic management, travel time index

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2382 Heuristic Approaches for Injury Reductions by Reduced Car Use in Urban Areas

Authors: Stig H. Jørgensen, Trond Nordfjærn, Øyvind Teige Hedenstrøm, Torbjørn Rundmo

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to estimate and forecast road traffic injuries in the coming 10-15 years given new targets in urban transport policy and shifts of mode of transport, including injury cross-effects of mode changes. The paper discusses possibilities and limitations in measuring and quantifying possible injury reductions. Injury data (killed and seriously injured road users) from six urban areas in Norway from 1998-2012 (N= 4709 casualties) form the basis for estimates of changing injury patterns. For the coming period calculation of number of injuries and injury rates by type of road user (categories of motorized versus non-motorized) by sex, age and type of road are made. A prognosticated population increase (25 %) in total population within 2025 in the six urban areas will curb the proceeded fall in injury figures. However, policy strategies and measures geared towards a stronger modal shift from use of private vehicles to safer public transport (bus, train) will modify this effect. On the other side will door to door transport (pedestrians on their way to/from public transport nodes) imply a higher exposure for pedestrians (bikers) converting from private vehicle use (including fall accidents not registered as traffic accidents). The overall effect is the sum of these modal shifts in the increasing urban population and in addition diminishing return to the majority of road safety countermeasures has also to be taken into account. The paper demonstrates how uncertainties in the various estimates (prediction factors) on increasing injuries as well as decreasing injury figures may partly offset each other. The paper discusses road safety policy and welfare consequences of transport mode shift, including reduced use of private vehicles, and further environmental impacts. In this regard, safety and environmental issues will as a rule concur. However pursuing environmental goals (e.g. improved air quality, reduced co2 emissions) encouraging more biking may generate more biking injuries. The study was given financial grants from the Norwegian Research Council’s Transport Safety Program.

Keywords: road injuries, forecasting, reduced private care use, urban, Norway

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2381 Development of Solar Energy Resources for Land along the Transportation Infrastructure: Taking the Lan-Xin Railway in the Silk Road Economic Belt as an Example

Authors: Dan Han, Yukun Zhang, Jie Zheng, Rui Zhang

Abstract:

Making full use of space along transportation infrastructure to develop renewable energy sources, especially solar energy resources, has become a research focus in relevant fields. In recent years, relevant international researches can be classified into three stages of theoretical and technical exploration, exploratory practice as well as planning implementation. Compared with traditional solar energy development mode, the development of solar energy resources in places along the transportation infrastructure has special advantages, which can also bring forth new opportunities for the development of green transportation. 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic', a development model of combining transport and new energy, has been actively studied and applied in developed countries, but it was still in its infancy in China. 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' has great advantage to carry out the 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' because of the rich solar energy resources in its path, the shortages of renewable energy, the constraints of agricultural land and other reasons. Especially the massive amount of construction of transportation infrastructure brought by Silk Road Economic Belt, large area of developable land along the transportation line will be generated. Abundant solar energy recourses along the Silk Road will provide extremely superb practical opportunities to the land development along transportation infrastructure. We take PVsyst, GIS and Google map software for simulation of its potential by taking Lan-Xin Railway as an example, so potential electrical energy generation can be quantified and further analyzed. Research of 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' combined with 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' is a creative development for the along transport and energy infrastructure. It not only can make full use of solar radiation and land in its path, but also bring more long-term advantages and benefits.

Keywords: land use, silk road economic belt, solar energy, transportation infrastructure

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2380 Analyzing Impacts of Road Network on Vegetation Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Elizabeth Malebogo Mosepele

Abstract:

Road transport has become increasingly common in the world; people rely on road networks for transportation purpose on a daily basis. However, environmental impact of roads on surrounding landscapes extends their potential effects even further. This study investigates the impact of road network on natural vegetation. The study will provide baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvements of road verges. The general hypothesis of this study is that the amount and condition of road side vegetation could be explained by road network conditions. Remote sensing techniques were used to analyze vegetation conditions. Landsat 8 OLI image was used to assess vegetation cover condition. NDVI image was generated and used as a base from which land cover classes were extracted, comprising four categories viz. healthy vegetation, degraded vegetation, bare surface, and water. The classification of the image was achieved using the supervised classification technique. Road networks were digitized from Google Earth. For observed data, transect based quadrats of 50*50 m were conducted next to road segments for vegetation assessment. Vegetation condition was related to road network, with the multinomial logistic regression confirming a significant relationship between vegetation condition and road network. The null hypothesis formulated was that 'there is no variation in vegetation condition as we move away from the road.' Analysis of vegetation condition revealed degraded vegetation within close proximity of a road segment and healthy vegetation as the distance increase away from the road. The Chi Squared value was compared with critical value of 3.84, at the significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of relationship. Given that the Chi squared value was 395, 5004, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected; there is significant variation in vegetation the distance increases away from the road. The conclusion is that the road network plays an important role in the condition of vegetation.

Keywords: Chi squared, geographic information system, multinomial logistic regression, remote sensing, road side vegetation

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2379 Safety Analysis and Accident Modeling of Transportation in Srinagar City

Authors: Adinarayana Badveeti, Mohammad Shafi Mir

Abstract:

In Srinagar city, in India, road safety is an important aspect that creates ecological balance and social well being. A road accident creates a situation that leaves behind distress, sorrow, and sufferings. Therefore identification of causes of road accidents becomes highly essential for adopting necessary preventive measures against a critical event. The damage created by road accidents to large extent is unrepairable and therefore needs attention to eradicate this continuously increasing trend of awful 'epidemic'. Road accident in India is among the highest in the world, with at least approximately 142.000 people killed each year on the road. Kashmir region is an ecologically sensitive place but lacks necessary facilities and infrastructure regarding road transportation, ultimately resulting in the critical event-road accidents creating a major problem for common people in the region. The objective of this project is to study the safety aspect of Srinagar City and also model the accidents with different aspect that causes accidents and also to suggest the possible remedies for lessening/eliminating the road accidents.

Keywords: road safety, road accident, road infrastructure, accident modeling

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2378 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases.

Keywords: competitor analysis, transport economics, transport generalized cost, quantitative modelling

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2377 An Evaluation of the Lae City Road Network Improvement Project

Authors: Murray Matarab Konzang

Abstract:

Lae Port Development Project, Four Lane Highway and other development in the extraction industry which have direct road link to Lae City are predicted to have significant impact on its road network system. This paper evaluates Lae roads improvement program with forecast on planning, economic and the installation of bypasses to ease congestion, effective and convenient transport service for bulk goods and reduce travel time. Land-use transportation study and plans for local area traffic management scheme will be considered. City roads are faced with increased number of traffic and some inadequate road pavement width, poor transport plans, and facilities to meet this transportation demand. Lae also has drainage system which might not hold a 100 year flood. Proper evaluation, plan, design and intersection analysis is needed to evaluate road network system thus recommend improvement and estimate future growth. Repetitive and cyclic loading by heavy commercial vehicles with different axle configurations apply on the flexible pavement which weakens and tear the pavement surface thus small cracks occur. Rain water seeps through and overtime it creates potholes. Effective planning starts from experimental research and appropriate design standards to enable firm embankment, proper drains and quality pavement material. This paper will address traffic problems as well as road pavement, capacities of intersections, and pedestrian flow during peak hours. The outcome of this research will be to identify heavily trafficked road sections and recommend treatments to reduce traffic congestions, road classification, and proposal for bypass routes and improvement. First part of this study will describe transport or traffic related problems within the city. Second part would be to identify challenges imposed by traffic and road related problems and thirdly to recommend solutions after the analyzing traffic data that will indicate current capacities of road intersections and finally recommended treatment for improvement and future growth.

Keywords: Lae, road network, highway, vehicle traffic, planning

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2376 A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver’s Behavior towards Road Safety

Authors: Sadia Afroza, Rakiba Rouf

Abstract:

Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers in UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young driver’s at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies such as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.

Keywords: driving behavior, Graduated Driver Licensing System (GLDS), road safety, UAE drivers, young drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2375 Improving the Quality of Transport Management Services with Fuzzy Signatures

Authors: Csaba I. Hencz, István Á. Harmati

Abstract:

Nowadays the significance of road transport is gradually increasing. All transport companies are working in the same external environment where the speed of transport is defined by traffic rules. The main objective is to accelerate the speed of service and it is only dependent on the individual abilities of the managing members. These operational control units make decisions quickly (in a typically experiential and/or intuitive way). For this reason, support for these decisions is an important task. Our goal is to create a decision support model based on fuzzy signatures that can assist the work of operational management automatically. If the model sets parameters properly, the management of transport could be more economical and efficient.

Keywords: freight transport, decision support, information handling, fuzzy methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2374 The Design of Imaginable Urban Road Landscape

Authors: Wang Zhenzhen, Wang Xu, Hong Liangping

Abstract:

With the rapid development of cities, the way that people commute has changed greatly, meanwhile, people turn to require more on physical and psychological aspects in the contemporary world. However, the current urban road landscape ignores these changes, for example, those road landscape elements are boring, confusing, fragmented and lack of integrity and hierarchy. Under such current situation, in order to shape beautiful, identifiable and unique road landscape, this article concentrates on the target of imaginability. This paper analyses the main elements of the urban road landscape, the concept of image and its generation mechanism, and then discusses the necessity and connotation of building imaginable urban road landscape as well as the main problems existing in current urban road landscape in terms of imaginability. Finally, this paper proposes how to design imaginable urban road landscape in details based on a specific case.

Keywords: identifiability, imaginability, road landscape, the image of the city

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2373 Perception of Risk toward Traffic Violence among Road Users in Makassar, Indonesia

Authors: Sulasmi Sudirman, Rachmadanty Mujah Hartika

Abstract:

Traffic violence is currently a big issue in Indonesia. However, the road users perceived risk that is caused by traffic violence is low. The lack of safety driving awareness is one of the factors that road users committed to traffic violence. There are several lists of common traffic violence in Indonesia such as lack of physical fitness, not wearing helmet, unfasten seatbelt, breaking through the traffic light, not holding a driving license, and some more violence. This research sought to explore the perception of road users toward traffic violence. The participants were road users in Makassar, Indonesia who were using cars and motorbikes. The method of the research was a qualitative approach by using a personal interview to collect data. The research showed that there three main ideas of perceiving traffic violence which are motives, environment that supported traffic violence, and reinforcement. The road users committed traffic violence had particular motive, for example, rushing. The road users committed to traffic violence when other road users and significant other did the same. The road users committed traffic violence when the police were not there to give a ticket. It can be concluded that the perception of road users toward traffic violence determined by internal aspect, the social aspect, and regulation.

Keywords: perception, road users, traffic, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2372 Reducing Accidents Using Text Stops

Authors: Benish Chaudhry

Abstract:

Most of the accidents these days are occurring because of the ‘text-and-drive’ concept. If we look at the structure of cities in UAE, there are great distances, because of which it is impossible to drive without using or merely checking the cellphone. Moreover, if we look at the road structure, it is almost impossible to stop at a point and text. With the introduction of TEXT STOPs, drivers will be able to stop different stops for a maximum of 1 and a half-minute in order to reply or write a message. They can be introduced at a distance of 10 minutes of driving on the average speed of the road, so the drivers can look forward to a stop and can reply to a text when needed. A user survey indicates that drivers are willing to NOT text-and-drive if they have such a facility available.

Keywords: transport, accidents, urban planning, road planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 282