Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Tucker

10 Engineering Optimization of Flexible Energy Absorbers

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

Elastic energy absorbers which consist of a ring-liked plate and springs can be a good choice for increasing the impact duration during an accident. In the current project, an energy absorber system is optimized using four optimizing methods Kuhn-Tucker, Sequential Linear Programming (SLP), Concurrent Subspace Design (CSD), and Pshenichny-Lim-Belegundu-Arora (PLBA). Time solution, convergence, Programming Length and accuracy of the results were considered to find the best solution algorithm. Results showed the superiority of PLBA over the other algorithms.

Keywords: Concurrent Subspace Design (CSD), Kuhn-Tucker, Pshenichny-Lim-Belegundu-Arora (PLBA), Sequential Linear Programming (SLP)

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9 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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8 Optimizing Cellulase Production from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Following a Solid State Fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

Authors: Jwan J. Abdullah, Greetham Darren, Gregory A, Tucker, Chenyu Du

Abstract:

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is an alternative to liquid fermentations for the production of commercially important products such as antibiotics, single cell proteins, enzymes, organic acids, or biofuels from lignocellulosic material. This paper describes the optimisation of SSF on municipal solid waste (MSW) for the production of cellulase enzyme. Production of cellulase enzymes was optimised by Trichoderma reesei or Aspergillus niger for temperature, moisture content, inoculation, and period of incubation. Also, presence of minerals, and alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Optimisation revealed that production of cellulolytic enzymes was optimal when using Trichoderma spp at 30°C with an incubation period of 168 hours with a 60% moisture content. Crude enzymes produced from MSW, by Trichoderma were evaluated for the saccharification of MSW and compared with activity of a commercially available enzyme, results demonstrated that MSW can be used as inexpensive lignocellulosic material for the production of cellulase enzymes using Trichoderma reesei.

Keywords: SSF, enzyme hydrolysis, municipal solid waste (MSW), optimizing conditions, enzyme hydrolysis

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7 Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom

Authors: Wu Qinglong, Zhou Qicai, Xiong Xiaolei, Zhang Richeng

Abstract:

In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic soft kill option (SKO) method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.

Keywords: tower crane boom, topology optimization, size optimization, periodic, SKO, optimization criterion

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6 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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5 Monte Carlo Simulation of X-Ray Spectra in Diagnostic Radiology and Mammography Using MCNP4C

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

The overall goal Monte Carlo N-atom radioactivity transference PC program (MCNP4C) was done for the regeneration of x-ray groups in diagnostic radiology and mammography. The electrons were transported till they slow down and stopover in the target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray creation were measured in this study. In this issue, the x-ray spectra forecast by several computational models recycled in the diagnostic radiology and mammography energy kind have been calculated by appraisal with dignified spectra and their outcome on the scheming of absorbed dose and effective dose (ED) told to the adult ORNL hermaphroditic phantom quantified. This comprises practical models (TASMIP and MASMIP), semi-practical models (X-rayb&m, X-raytbc, XCOMP, IPEM, Tucker et al., and Blough et al.), and Monte Carlo modeling (EGS4, ITS3.0, and MCNP4C). Images got consuming synchrotron radiation (SR) and both screen-film and the CR system were related with images of the similar trials attained with digital mammography equipment. In sight of the worthy feature of the effects gained, the CR system was used in two mammographic inspections with SR. For separately mammography unit, the capability acquiesced bilateral mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal(CC) mammograms attained in a woman with fatty breasts and a woman with dense breasts. Referees planned the common groups and definite absences that managed to a choice to miscarry the part that formed the scientific imaginings.

Keywords: mammography, monte carlo, effective dose, radiology

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4 Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury

Authors: Ziwei Song, Junjun Fan, Jeremy Teo, Yang Yu, Yukun Ma, Jie Yan, Shupei Mo, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Peter So, Hanry Yu

Abstract:

Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.

Keywords: hepatocyte, hypertrophy, intravital imaging, liver regeneration, migration

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3 Developing Social Responsibility Values in Nascent Entrepreneurs through Role-Play: An Explorative Study of University Students in the United Kingdom

Authors: David W. Taylor, Fernando Lourenço, Carolyn Branston, Paul Tucker

Abstract:

There are an increasing number of students at Universities in the United Kingdom engaging in entrepreneurship role-play to explore business start-up as a career alternative to employment. These role-play activities have been shown to have a positive influence on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Universities also play a role in developing graduates’ awareness of social responsibility. However, social responsibility is often missing from these entrepreneurship role-plays. It is important that these role-play activities include the development of values that support social responsibility, in-line with those running hybrid, humane and sustainable enterprises, and not simply focus on profit. The Young Enterprise (YE) Start-Up programme is an example of a role-play activity that is gaining in popularity amongst United Kingdom Universities seeking ways to give students insight into a business start-up. A Post-92 University in the North-West of England has adapted the traditional YE Directorship roles (e.g., Marketing Director, Sales Director) by including a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Director in all of the team-based YE Start-Up businesses. The aim for introducing this Directorship was to observe if such a role would help create a more socially responsible value-system within each company and in turn shape business decisions. This paper investigates role-play as a tool to help enterprise educators develop socially responsible attitudes and values in nascent entrepreneurs. A mixed qualitative methodology approach has been used, which includes interviews, role-play, and reflection, to help students develop positive value characteristics through the exploration of unethical and selfish behaviors. The initial findings indicate that role-play helped CSR Directors learn and gain insights into the importance of corporate social responsibility, influenced the values and actions of their YE Start-Ups, and increased the likelihood that if the participants were to launch a business post-graduation, that the intent would be for the business to be socially responsible. These findings help inform educators on how to develop socially responsible nascent entrepreneurs within a traditionally profit orientated business model.

Keywords: student entrepreneurship, young enterprise, social responsibility, role-play, values

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2 Spatial Distribution and Cluster Analysis of Sexual Risk Behaviors and STIs Reported by Chinese Adults in Guangzhou, China: A Representative Population-Based Study

Authors: Fangjing Zhou, Wen Chen, Brian J. Hall, Yu Wang, Carl Latkin, Li Ling, Joseph D. Tucker

Abstract:

Background: Economic and social reforms designed to open China to the world has been successful, but also appear to have rapidly laid the foundation for the reemergence of STIs since 1980s. Changes in sexual behaviors, relationships, and norms among Chinese contributed to the STIs epidemic. As the massive population moved during the last 30 years, early coital debut, multiple sexual partnerships, and unprotected sex have increased within the general population. Our objectives were to assess associations between residences location, sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adults living in Guangzhou, China. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling followed a two-step process was used to select populations aged 18-59 years in Guangzhou, China. Spatial methods including Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were utilized to identify 1400 coordinates with latitude and longitude. Face-to-face household interviews were conducted to collect self-report data on sexual risk behaviors and diagnosed STIs. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic was implemented to identify and detect spatial distribution and clusters of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The presence and location of statistically significant clusters were mapped in the study areas using ArcGIS software. Results: In this study, 1215 of 1400 households attempted surveys, with 368 refusals, resulting in a sample of 751 completed surveys. The prevalence of self-reported sexual risk behaviors was between 5.1% and 50.0%. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of diagnosed STIs was 7.06%. Anal intercourse clustered in an area located along the border within the rural-urban continuum (p=0.001). High rate clusters for alcohol or other drugs using before sex (p=0.008) and migrants who lived in Guangzhou less than one year (p=0.007) overlapped this cluster. Excess cases for sex without a condom (p=0.031) overlapped the cluster for college students (p<0.001). Conclusions: Short-term migrants and college students reported greater sexual risk behaviors. Programs to increase safer sex within these communities to reduce the risk of STIs are warranted in Guangzhou. Spatial analysis identified geographical clusters of sexual risk behaviors, which is critical for optimizing surveillance and targeting control measures for these locations in the future.

Keywords: cluster analysis, migrant, sexual risk behaviors, spatial distribution

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1 Ethnic Identity as an Asset: Linking Ethnic Identity, Perceived Social Support, and Mental Health among Indigenous Adults in Taiwan

Authors: A.H.Y. Lai, C. Teyra

Abstract:

In Taiwan, there are 16 official indigenous groups, accounting for 2.3% of the total population. Like other indigenous populations worldwide, indigenous peoples in Taiwan have poorer mental health because of their history of oppression and colonisation. Amid the negative narratives, the ethnic identity of cultural minorities is their unique psychological and cultural asset. Moreover, positive socialisation is found to be related to strong ethnic identity. Based on Phinney’s theory on ethnic identity development and social support theory, this study adopted a strength-based approach conceptualising ethnic identity as the central organising principle that linked perceived social support and mental health among indigenous adults in Taiwan. Aims. Overall aim is to examine the effect of ethnic identity and social support on mental health. Specific aims were to examine : (1) the association between ethnic identity and mental health; (2) the association between perceived social support and mental health ; (3) the indirect effect of ethnic identity linking perceived social support and mental health. Methods. Participants were indigenous adults in Taiwan (n=200; mean age=29.51; Female=31%, Male=61%, Others=8%). A cross-sectional quantitative design was implemented using data collected in the year 2020. Respondent-driven sampling was used. Standardised measurements were: Ethnic Identity Scale(6-item); Social Support Questionnaire-SF(6 items); Patient Health Questionnaire(9-item); and Generalised Anxiety Disorder(7-item). Covariates were age, gender and economic satisfaction. A four-stage structural equation modelling (SEM) with robust maximin likelihood estimation was employed using Mplus8.0. Step 1: A measurement model was built and tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Step 2: Factor covariates were re-specified as direct effects in the SEM. Covariates were added. The direct effects of (1) ethnic identity and social support on depression and anxiety and (2) social support on ethnic identity were tested. The indirect effect of ethnic identity was examined with the bootstrapping technique. Results. The CFA model showed satisfactory fit statistics: x^2(df)=869.69(608), p<.05; Comparative ft index (CFI)/ Tucker-Lewis fit index (TLI)=0.95/0.94; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05; Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual (SRMR)=0.05. Ethnic identity is represented by two latent factors: ethnic identity-commitment and ethnic identity-exploration. Depression, anxiety and social support are single-factor latent variables. For the SEM, model fit statistics were: x^2(df)=779.26(527), p<.05; CFI/TLI=0.94/0.93; RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.05. Ethnic identity-commitment (b=-0.30) and social support (b=-0.33) had direct negative effects on depression, but ethnic identity-exploration did not. Ethnic identity-commitment (b=-0.43) and social support (b=-0.31) had direct negative effects on anxiety, while identity-exploration (b=0.24) demonstrated a positive effect. Social support had direct positive effects on ethnic identity-exploration (b=0.26) and ethnic identity-commitment (b=0.31). Mediation analysis demonstrated the indirect effect of ethnic identity-commitment linking social support and depression (b=0.22). Implications: Results underscore the role of social support in preventing depression via ethnic identity commitment among indigenous adults in Taiwan. Adopting the strength-based approach, mental health practitioners can mobilise indigenous peoples’ commitment to their group to promote their well-being.

Keywords: ethnic identity, indigenous population, mental health, perceived social support

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