Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: thermoelectric cooler

122 Optimizing the Performance of Thermoelectric for Cooling Computer Chips Using Different Types of Electrical Pulses

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Thermoelectric technology is currently being used in many industrial applications for cooling, heating and generating electricity. This research mainly focuses on using thermoelectric to cool down high-speed computer chips at different operating conditions. A previously developed and validated three-dimensional model for optimizing and assessing the performance of cascaded thermoelectric and non-cascaded thermoelectric is used in this study to investigate the possibility of decreasing the hotspot temperature of computer chip. Additionally, a test assembly is built and tested at steady-state and transient conditions. The obtained optimum thermoelectric current at steady-state condition is used to conduct a number of pulsed tests (i.e. transient tests) with different shapes to cool the computer chips hotspots. The results of the steady-state tests showed that at hotspot heat rate of 15.58 W (5.97 W/cm2), using thermoelectric current of 4.5 A has resulted in decreasing the hotspot temperature at open circuit condition (89.3 °C) by 50.1 °C. Maximum and minimum hotspot temperatures have been affected by ON and OFF duration of the electrical current pulse. Maximum hotspot temperature was resulted by longer OFF pulse period. In addition, longer ON pulse period has generated the minimum hotspot temperature.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, TEG, thermoelectric cooler, TEC, chip hotspots, electronic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
121 Effects of a Cooler on the Sampling Process in a Continuous Emission Monitoring System

Authors: J. W. Ahn, I. Y. Choi, T. V. Dinh, J. C. Kim


A cooler has been widely employed in the extractive system of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to remove water vapor in the gas stream. The effect of the cooler on analytical target gases was investigated in this research. A commercial cooler for the CEMS operated at 4 C was used. Several gases emitted from a coal power plant (i.e. CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 and CO) were mixed with humid air, and then introduced into the cooler to observe its effect. Concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2 and CO were made as 200 ppm. The CO2 concentration was 8%. The inlet absolute humidity was produced as 12.5% at 100 C using a bubbling method. It was found that the reduction rate of SO2 was the highest (~21%), followed by NO2 (~17%), CO2 (~11%) and CO (~10%). In contrast, the cooler was not affected by NO gas. The result indicated that the cooler caused a significant effect on the water soluble gases due to condensate water in the cooler. To overcome this problem, a correction factor may be applied. However, water vapor might be different, and emissions of target gases are also various. Therefore, the correction factor is not only a solution, but also a better available method should be employed.

Keywords: cooler, CEMS, monitoring, reproductive, sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
120 Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Sam De Winne, Niek Blondeel, Ann Peeters, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi


The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as “Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in domestic environments: applications with limited temperature differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: thermoelectric cooler, TEC, complementary balanced energy harvesting, step-up converter, DC/DC converter, energy harvesting, thermal harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
119 Thermoelectric Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Te Doped Cu₃SbSe₄: Promising Thermoelectric Material

Authors: Kriti Tyagi, Bhasker Gahtori


Various groups have attempted on enhancing the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Cu₃SbSe₄ compound by employing doping process. Efforts are made to study the thermoelectric performance of Cu₃SbSe₄ material doped with Te in different compositions (i. e. Cu₃Sb₁₋ₓTeₓSe₄, x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02). The different doping concentration has been selected to identify the suitable doping to increase the thermoelectric performance. Compared to pristine Cu₃SbSe₄, an enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit was achieved for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄. This improvement can be attributed to the reduction of thermal conductivity for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄.

Keywords: figure-of-merit, polycrystalline, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
118 The Effect of Mean Pressure on the Performance of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Thermoacoustic Cooler

Authors: Irna Farikhah


Converting low-grade waste heat into useful energy such as sound energy which can then be used to generate acoustic power in a thermoacoustic engine has become an attracting issue for researchers. The generated power in thermoacoustic engine can be used for driving a thermoacoustic cooler when they are installed in a tube. This cooler system can be called as a heat-driven thermoacoustic cooler. In this study, low heating temperature of the engine is discussed. In addition, having high efficiency of the whole cooler is also essential. To design a thermoacoustic cooler having high efficiency with using low-grade waste heat for the engine, the effect of mean pressure is investigated. By increasing the mean pressure, the heating temperature to generate acoustic power can be decreased from 557 °C to 300 °C. Moreover, the efficiency of the engine and cooler regenerators attain 67% and 47% of the upper limit values, respectively and 49% of the acoustical work generated by the engine regenerator is utilized in the cooler regenerator. As a result, the efficiency of the whole cooler becomes 15% of the upper limit value.

Keywords: cooler, mean pressure, performance, thermoacoustic

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
117 Thermoelectric Cooler As A Heat Transfer Device For Thermal Conductivity Test

Authors: Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Azahar Mohd, Nor Idayu Arifin, Siti Nor Azila Khalid, Mohd Julzaha Zahari Mohamad Yusof


A thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an electronic component that uses ‘peltier’ effect to create a temperature difference by transferring heat between two electrical junctions of two different types of materials. TEC can also be used for heating by reversing the electric current flow and even power generation. A heat flow meter (HFM) is an equipment for measuring thermal conductivity of building materials. During the test, water is used as heat transfer medium to cool the HFM. The existing re-circulating cooler in the market is very costly, and the alternative is to use piped tap water to extract heat from HFM. However, the tap water temperature is insufficiently low to enable heat transfer to take place. The operating temperature for isothermal plates in the HFM is 40°C with the range of ±0.02°C. When the temperature exceeds the operating range, the HFM stops working, and the test cannot be conducted. The aim of the research is to develop a low-cost but energy-efficient TEC prototype that enables heat transfer without compromising the function of the HFM. The objectives of the research are a) to identify potential of TEC as a cooling device by evaluating its cooling rate and b) to determine the amount of water savings using TEC compared to normal tap water. Four (4) peltier sets were used, with two (2) sets used as pre-cooler. The cooling water is re-circulated from the reservoir into HFM using a water pump. The thermal conductivity readings, the water flow rate, and the power consumption were measured while the HFM was operating. The measured data has shown decrease in average cooling temperature difference (ΔTave) of 2.42°C and average cooling rate of 0.031°C/min. The water savings accrued from using the TEC is projected to be 8,332.8 litres/year with the application of water re-circulation. The results suggest the prototype has achieved required objectives. Further research will include comparing the cooling rate of TEC prototype against conventional tap water and to optimize its design and performance in terms of size and portability. The possible application of the prototype could also be expanded to portable storage for medicine and beverages.

Keywords: energy efficiency, thermoelectric cooling, pre-cooling device, heat flow meter, sustainable technology, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
116 Theoretical Investigation of Electronic, Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) Surface

Authors: M. Ramesh, Manish K. Niranjan


The electronic, structural and thermoelectric properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) surface are investigated within the framework of first principle density functional theory and semi classical Boltzmann approach. In particular, directional dependent thermoelectric properties such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit are explored. The (110)-oriented Mg₂SiSn surface exhibits narrow indirect band gap of ~0.17 eV. The thermoelectric properties are found to be significant along the y-axis at 300 K and along x-axis at 500 K. The figure of merit (ZT) for hole carrier concentration is found to be significantly large having magnitude 0.83 (along x-axis) at 500 K and 0.26 (y-axis) at 300 K. Our results suggest that Mg₂SiSn (110) surface is promising for various thermoelectric applications due to its overall good thermoelectric properties.

Keywords: thermoelectric, surface science, semiconducting silicide, first principles calculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
115 The Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Thermal Design of Fluidized Bed Cooler

Authors: Damiaa Saad Khudor


The paper describes an investigation for the thermal design of a fluidized bed cooler and prediction of heat transfer rate among the media categories. It is devoted to the thermal design of such equipment and their application in the industrial fields. It outlines the strategy for the fluidization heat transfer mode and its implementation in industry. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler is used to furnish a complete design for a fluidized bed cooler of Sodium Bicarbonate. The total thermal load distribution between the air-solid and water-solid along the cooler is calculated according to the thermal equilibrium. The step by step technique was used to accomplish the thermal design of the fluidized bed cooler. It predicts the load, air, solid and water temperature along the trough. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler revealed to the installation of a heat exchanger consists of (65) horizontal tubes with (33.4) mm diameter and (4) m length inside the bed trough.

Keywords: fluidization, powder technology, thermal design, heat exchangers

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
114 Impact of Legs Geometry on the Efficiency of Thermoelectric Devices

Authors: Angel Fabian Mijangos, Jaime Alvarez Quintana


Key concepts like waste heat recycling or waste heat recovery are the basic ideas in thermoelectricity so as to the design the newest solid state sources of energy for a stable supply of electricity and environmental protection. According to several theoretical predictions; at device level, the geometry and configuration of the thermoelectric legs are crucial in the thermoelectric performance of the thermoelectric modules. Thus, in this work, it has studied the geometry effect of legs on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of the device. First, asymmetrical legs are proposed in order to reduce the overall thermal conductance of the device so as to increase the temperature gradient in the legs, as well as by harnessing the Thomson effect, which is generally neglected in conventional symmetrical thermoelectric legs. It has been developed a novel design of a thermoelectric module having asymmetrical legs, and by first time it has been validated experimentally its thermoelectric performance by realizing a proof-of-concept device which shows to have almost twofold the thermoelectric figure of merit as compared to conventional one. Moreover, it has been also varied the length of thermoelectric legs in order to analyze its effect on the thermoelectric performance of the device. Along with this, it has studied the impact of contact resistance in these systems. Experimental results show that device architecture can improve up to twofold the thermoelectric performance of the device.

Keywords: asymmetrical legs, heat recovery, heat recycling, thermoelectric module, Thompson effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
113 Electric Power Generation by Thermoelectric Cells and Parabolic Solar Concentrators

Authors: A. Kianifar, M. Afzali, I. Pishbin


In this paper, design details, theoretical analysis and thermal performance analysis of a solar energy concentrator suited to combined heat and thermoelectric power generation are presented. The thermoelectric device is attached to the absorber plate to convert concentrated solar energy directly into electric energy at the focus of the concentrator. A cooling channel (water cooled heat sink) is fitted to the cold side of the thermoelectric device to remove the waste heat and maintain a high temperature gradient across the device to improve conversion efficiency.

Keywords: concentrator thermoelectric generator, CTEG, solar energy, thermoelectric cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
112 Electrophysical and Thermoelectric Properties of Nano-scaled In2O3:Sn, Zn, Ga-Based Thin Films: Achievements and Limitations for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, B. K. Cho


The thermoelectric properties of nano-scaled In2O3:Sn films deposited by spray pyrolysis are considered in the present report. It is shown that multicomponent In2O3:Sn-based films are promising material for the application in thermoelectric devices. It is established that the increase in the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion at CSn~5% occurred due to nano-scaled structure of the films studied and the effect of the grain boundary filtering of the low energy electrons. There are also analyzed the limitations that may appear during such material using in devices developed for the market of thermoelectric generators and refrigerators. Studies showed that the stability of nano-scaled film’s parameters is the main problem which can limit the application of these materials in high temperature thermoelectric converters.

Keywords: energy conversion technologies, thermoelectricity, In2O3-based films, power factor, nanocomposites, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
111 PTFE Capillary-Based DNA Amplification within an Oscillatory Thermal Cycling Device

Authors: Jyh J. Chen, Fu H. Yang, Ming H. Liao


This study describes a capillary-based device integrated with the heating and cooling modules for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The device consists of the reaction polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary, the aluminum blocks, and is equipped with two cartridge heaters, a thermoelectric (TE) cooler, a fan, and some thermocouples for temperature control. The cartridge heaters are placed into the heating blocks and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve the denaturation and the extension step. Some thermocouples inserted into the capillary are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction sample during thermal cycles. A 483-bp DNA template is amplified successfully in the designed system and the traditional thermal cycler. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, capillary, TE cooler

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
110 Thermoelectric Generators as Alternative Source for Electric Power

Authors: L. C. Ding, Bradley G. Orr, K. Rahauoi, S. Truza, A. Date, A. Akbarzadeh


The research on thermoelectric has been a blooming field of research for the latest decade, owing to large amount of heat source available to be harvested, being eco-friendly and static in operation. This paper provides the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) with bulk material of bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3. Later, the performance of the TEGs is evaluated by considering attaching the TEGs on a plastic (polyethylene sheet) in contrast to the common method of attaching the TEGs on the metal surface.

Keywords: electric power, heat transfer, renewable energy, thermoelectric generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
109 Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Chang-Hsien Tai, Kai-Wun Jin


When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.

Keywords: porous media, sinter, cooling index (CI), uniformity index (UI), CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
108 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar


Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
107 Design and Development of Solar Water Cooler Using Principle of Evaporation

Authors: Vipul Shiralkar, Rohit Khadilkar, Shekhar Kulkarni, Ismail Mullani, Omkar Malvankar


The use of water cooler has increased and become an important appliance in the world of global warming. Most of the coolers are electrically operated. In this study an experimental setup of evaporative water cooler using solar energy is designed and developed. It works on the principle of heat transfer using evaporation of water. Water is made to flow through copper tubes arranged in a specific array manner. Cotton plug is wrapped on copper tubes and rubber pipes are arranged in the same way as copper tubes above it. Water percolated from rubber pipes is absorbed by cotton plug. The setup has 40L water carrying capacity with forced cooling arrangement and variable speed fan which uses solar energy stored in 20Ah capacity battery. Fan speed greatly affects the temperature drop. Tests were performed at different fan speed. Maximum temperature drop achieved was 90C at 1440 rpm of fan speed. This temperature drop is very attractive. This water cooler uses solar energy hence it is cost efficient and it is affordable to rural community as well. The cooler is free from any harmful emissions like other refrigerants and hence environmental friendly. Very less maintenance is required as compared to the conventional electrical water cooler.

Keywords: evaporation, cooler, energy, copper, solar, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
106 Performance of Segmented Thermoelectric Materials Using 'Open-Short Circuit' Technique under Different Polarity

Authors: N. H. S. Mustafa, N. M. Yatim


Thermoelectric materials arrange in segmented design could increase the conversion of heat to electricity performance. This is due to the properties of materials that perform peak at narrow temperature range. Performance of the materials determines by dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT which consist of thermoelectric properties namely Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity. Since different materials were arrange in segmented, determination of ZT cannot be measured using the conventional approach. Therefore, this research used 'open-short circuit' technique to measure the segmented performance. Segmented thermoelectric materials consist of bismuth telluride, and lead telluride was segmented together under cold press technique. The results show thermoelectric properties measured is comparable with calculated based on commercially available of individual material. Performances of segmented sample under different polarity also indicate dependability of material with position and temperature. Segmented materials successfully measured under real condition and optimization of the segmented can be designed from the study of polarity change.

Keywords: thermoelectric, segmented, ZT, polarity, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
105 Determination of Temperature Dependent Characteristic Material Properties of Commercial Thermoelectric Modules

Authors: Ahmet Koyuncu, Abdullah Berkan Erdogmus, Orkun Dogu, Sinan Uygur


Thermoelectric modules are integrated to electronic components to keep their temperature in specific values in electronic cooling applications. They can be used in different ambient temperatures. The cold side temperatures of thermoelectric modules depend on their hot side temperatures, operation currents, and heat loads. Performance curves of thermoelectric modules are given at most two different hot surface temperatures in product catalogs. Characteristic properties are required to select appropriate thermoelectric modules in thermal design phase of projects. Generally, manufacturers do not provide characteristic material property values of thermoelectric modules to customers for confidentiality. Common commercial software applied like ANSYS ICEPAK, FloEFD, etc., include thermoelectric modules in their libraries. Therefore, they can be easily used to predict the effect of thermoelectric usage in thermal design. Some software requires only the performance values in different temperatures. However, others like ICEPAK require three temperature-dependent equations for material properties (Seebeck coefficient (α), electrical resistivity (β), and thermal conductivity (γ)). Since the number and the variety of thermoelectric modules are limited in this software, definitions of characteristic material properties of thermoelectric modules could be required. In this manuscript, the method of derivation of characteristic material properties from the datasheet of thermoelectric modules is presented. Material characteristics were estimated from two different performance curves by experimentally and numerically in this study. Numerical calculations are accomplished in ICEPAK by using a thermoelectric module exists in the ICEPAK library. A new experimental setup was established to perform experimental study. Because of similar results of numerical and experimental studies, it can be said that proposed equations are approved. This approximation can be suggested for the analysis includes different type or brand of TEC modules.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, material characteristics, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric coolers, seebeck coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
104 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya


The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 564
103 Towards the Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties by Controlling the Thermoelectrical Nature of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Materials

Authors: Angel Fabian Mijangos, Jaime Alvarez Quintana


Waste heat occurs in many areas of daily life because world’s energy consumption is inefficient. In general, generating 1 watt of power requires about 3 watt of energy input and involves dumping into the environment the equivalent of about 2 watts of power in the form of heat. Therefore, an attractive and sustainable solution to the energy problem would be the development of highly efficient thermoelectric devices which could help to recover this waste heat. This work presents the influence on the thermoelectric properties of metallic, semiconducting, and dielectric nanoparticles added into the grain boundaries of polycrystalline antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi) matrixes in order to obtain p- and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, by hot pressing methods. Results show that thermoelectric properties are significantly affected by the electrical and thermal nature as well as concentration of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, by optimizing the amount of the nanoparticles on the grain boundaries, an oscillatory behavior in ZT as function of the concentration of the nanoscale constituents is present. This effect is due to energy filtering mechanism which module the quantity of charge transport in the system and affects thermoelectric properties. Accordingly, a ZTmax can be accomplished through the addition of the appropriate amount of nanoparticles into the grain boundaries region. In this case, till three orders of amelioration on ZT is reached in both systems compared with the reference sample of each one. This approach paves the way to pursuit high performance thermoelectric materials in a simple way and opens a new route towards the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit.

Keywords: energy filtering, grain boundaries, thermoelectric, nanostructured materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
102 Thermal and Acoustic Design of Mobile Hydraulic Vehicle Engine Room

Authors: Homin Kim, Hyungjo Byun, Jinyoung Do, Yongil Lee, Hyunho Shin, Seungbae Lee


Engine room of mobile hydraulic vehicle is densely packed with an engine and many hydraulic components mostly generating heat and sound. Though hydraulic oil cooler, ATF cooler, and axle oil cooler etc. are added to vehicle cooling system of mobile vehicle, the overheating may cause downgraded performance and frequent failures. In order to improve thermal and acoustic environment of engine room, the computational approaches by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) are used together with necessary modal analysis of belt-driven system. The engine room design layout and process, which satisfies the design objectives of sound power level and temperature levels of radiator water, charged air cooler, transmission and hydraulic oil coolers, is discussed.

Keywords: acoustics, CFD, engine room design, mobile hydraulics

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
101 Numerical Simulation of Air Flow, Exhaust and Their Mixture in a Helicopter Exhaust Injective Cooler

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Krzysztof Skiba


Due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, regressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This study presents the results of simulating the flow of the mixture of exhaust and air in the flow duct of an injective exhaust cooler, adapted to cooperate with the PZL 10W turbine engine. The simulation was performed using a numerical model and the ANSYS Fluent software. Simulation computations were conducted for set flight conditions of the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter. The conclusions resulting from the conducted numerical computations should allow for optimisation of the flow duct geometry in the cooler, in order to achieve the greatest possible temperature reduction of exhaust exiting into the surroundings. It is expected that the obtained results should be useful for further works related to the development of the final version of exhaust cooler for the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter, numerical simulation, stealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
100 Thin Film Thermoelectric Generator with Flexible Phase Change Material-Based Heatsink

Authors: Wu Peiqin


Flexible thermoelectric devices are light and flexible, which can be in close contact with any shape of heat source surfaces to minimize heat loss and achieve efficient energy conversion. Among the wide application fields, energy harvesting via flexible thermoelectric generators can adapt to a variety of curved heat sources (such as human body, circular tubes, and surfaces of different shapes) and can drive low-power electronic devices, exhibiting one of the most promising technologies in self-powered systems. The heat flux along the cross-section of the flexible thin-film generator is limited by the thickness, so the temperature difference decreases during the generation process, and the output power is low. At present, most of the heat flow directions of the thin film thermoelectric generator are along the thin-film plane; however, this method is not suitable for attaching to the human body surface to generate electricity. In order to make the film generator more suitable for thermoelectric generation, it is necessary to apply a flexible heatsink on the air sides with the film to maintain the temperature difference. In this paper, Bismuth telluride thermoelectric paste was deposited on polyimide flexible substrate by a screen printing method, and the flexible thermoelectric film was formed after drying. There are ten pairs of thermoelectric legs. The size of the thermoelectric leg is 20 x 2 x 0.1 mm, and adjacent thermoelectric legs are spaced 2 mm apart. A phase change material-based flexible heatsink was designed and fabricated. The flexible heatsink consists of n-octadecane, polystyrene, and expanded graphite. N-octadecane was used as the thermal storage material, polystyrene as the supporting material, and expanded graphite as the thermally conductive additive. The thickness of the flexible phase change material-based heatsink is 2mm. A thermoelectric performance testing platform was built, and its output performance was tested. The results show that the system can generate an open-circuit output voltage of 3.89 mV at a temperature difference of 10K, which is higher than the generator without a heatsink. Therefore, the flexible heatsink can increase the temperature difference between the two ends of the film and improve the output performance of the flexible film generator. This result promotes the application of the film thermoelectric generator in collecting human heat for power generation.

Keywords: flexible thermoelectric generator, screen printing, PCM, flexible heatsink

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
99 CFD Modeling of Stripper Ash Cooler of Circulating Fluidized Bed

Authors: Ravi Inder Singh


Due to high heat transfer rate, high carbon utilizing efficiency, fuel flexibilities and other advantages numerous circulating fluidized bed boilers have grown up in India in last decade. Many companies like BHEL, ISGEC, Thermax, Cethar Limited, Enmas GB Power Systems Projects Limited are making CFBC and installing the units throughout the India. Due to complexity many problems exists in CFBC units and only few have been reported. Agglomeration i.e clinker formation in riser, loop seal leg and stripper ash coolers is one of problem industry is facing. Proper documentation is rarely found in the literature. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler bottom ash contains large amounts of physical heat. While the boiler combusts the low-calorie fuel, the ash content is normally more than 40% and the physical heat loss is approximately 3% if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. In addition, the red-hot bottom ash is bad for mechanized handling and transportation, as the upper limit temperature of the ash handling machinery is 200 °C. Therefore, a bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to have the ash easily handled and transported. As a key auxiliary device of CFB boilers, the BAC has a direct influence on the secure and economic operation of the boiler. There are many kinds of BACs equipped for large-scale CFB boilers with the continuous development and improvement of the CFB boiler. These ash coolers are water cooled ash cooling screw, rolling-cylinder ash cooler (RAC), fluidized bed ash cooler (FBAC).In this study prototype of a novel stripper ash cooler is studied. The Circulating Fluidized bed Ash Coolers (CFBAC) combined the major technical features of spouted bed and bubbling bed, and could achieve the selective discharge on the bottom ash. The novel stripper ash cooler is bubbling bed and it is visible cold test rig. The reason for choosing cold test is that high temperature is difficult to maintain and create in laboratory level. The aim of study to know the flow pattern inside the stripper ash cooler. The cold rig prototype is similar to stripper ash cooler used industry and it was made after scaling down to some parameter. The performance of a fluidized bed ash cooler is studied using a cold experiment bench. The air flow rate, particle size of the solids and air distributor type are considered to be the key parameters of the operation of a fluidized bed ash cooler (FBAC) are studied in this.

Keywords: CFD, Eulerian-Eulerian, Eulerian-Lagraingian model, parallel simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
98 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri


Operation enhancement in an air cooler (heat exchanger) depends on the rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper, for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (fin per inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on two parameters mentioned above is considered in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ software are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, rating, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI (fin per inch) steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI = 12 (for circular fins about 47% and for hexagonal fins about 69%) and then decreased gradually to FPI = 15 (for circular fins about 5% and for hexagonal fins about 8%), and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI = 12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI).

Keywords: air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
97 Helicopter Exhaust Gases Cooler in Terms of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Ksenia Siadkowska


Due to the low-altitude and relatively low-speed flight, helicopters are easy targets for actual combat assets e.g. infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness of the military helicopters. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. One of them is cooling hot exhaust gasses, emitting from the engines to the atmosphere in special heat exchangers. Nowadays, this process is realized in ejective coolers, where strong heat and momentum exchange between hot exhaust gases and cold air ejected from atmosphere takes place. Flow effects of air, exhaust gases; mixture of those two and the heat transfer between cold air and hot exhaust gases are given by differential equations of: Mass transportation–flow continuity, ejection of cold air through expanding exhaust gasses, conservation of momentum, energy and physical relationship equations. Calculation of those processes in ejective cooler by means of classic mathematical analysis is extremely hard or even impossible. Because of this, it is necessary to apply the numeric approach with modern, numeric computer programs. The paper discussed the general usability of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in a process of projecting the ejective exhaust gases cooler cooperating with helicopter turbine engine. In this work, the CFD calculations have been performed for ejective-based cooler cooperating with the PA W3 helicopter’s engines.

Keywords: aviation, CFD analysis, ejective-cooler, helicopter techniques

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96 Stretchable and Flexible Thermoelectric Polymer Composites for Self-Powered Volatile Organic Compound Vapors Detection

Authors: Petr Slobodian, Pavel Riha, Jiri Matyas, Robert Olejnik, Nuri Karakurt


Thermoelectric devices generate an electrical current when there is a temperature gradient between the hot and cold junctions of two dissimilar conductive materials typically n-type and p-type semiconductors. Consequently, also the polymeric semiconductors composed of polymeric matrix filled by different forms of carbon nanotubes with proper structural hierarchy can have thermoelectric properties which temperature difference transfer into electricity. In spite of lower thermoelectric efficiency of polymeric thermoelectrics in terms of the figure of merit, the properties as stretchability, flexibility, lightweight, low thermal conductivity, easy processing, and low manufacturing cost are advantages in many technological and ecological applications. Polyethylene-octene copolymer based highly elastic composites filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) were prepared by sonication of nanotube dispersion in a copolymer solution followed by their precipitation pouring into non-solvent. The electronic properties of MWCNTs were moderated by different treatment techniques such as chemical oxidation, decoration by Ag clusters or addition of low molecular dopants. In this concept, for example, the amounts of oxygenated functional groups attached on MWCNT surface by HNO₃ oxidation increase p-type charge carriers. p-type of charge carriers can be further increased by doping with molecules of triphenylphosphine. For partial altering p-type MWCNTs into less p-type ones, Ag nanoparticles were deposited on MWCNT surface and then doped with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquino-dimethane. Both types of MWCNTs with the highest difference in generated thermoelectric power were combined to manufacture polymeric based thermoelectric module generating thermoelectric voltage when the temperature difference is applied between hot and cold ends of the module. Moreover, it was found that the generated voltage by the thermoelectric module at constant temperature gradient was significantly affected when exposed to vapors of different volatile organic compounds representing then a self-powered thermoelectric sensor for chemical vapor detection.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymer composites, thermoelectric materials, self-powered gas sensor

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95 Role of Interlayer Coupling for the Power Factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

Authors: Najebah Alsaleh, Nirpendra Singh, Udo Schwingenschlogl


The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

Keywords: density functional theory, thermoelectric, electronic properties, monolayer

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94 Thermodynamic Cycle Using Cyclopentane for Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation from Clinker Cooler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Vijayakumar Kunche


Waste heat recovery from Pre Heater exhaust gases and Clinker cooler vent gases is now common place in Cement Industry. Most common practice is to use Steam Rankine cycle for heat to power conversion. In this process, waste heat from the flue gas is recovered through a Heat Recovery steam generator where steam is generated and fed to a conventional Steam turbine generator. However steam Rankine cycle tends to have lesser efficiency for smaller power plants with less than 5MW capacity and where the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is less than 350 deg C. further a steam Rankine cycle needs treated water and maintenance intensive. These problems can be overcome by using Thermodynamic cycle using Cyclopentane vapour in place of steam. This innovative cycle is best suited for Heat recovery in cement plants and results in best possible heat to power conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about Heat Recovery Power generation using innovative thermal cycle which uses Cyclopentane vapour in place of water- steam. And how this technology has been adopted for a Clinker cooler hot gas from mid-tap.

Keywords: clinker cooler, energy efficiency, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery

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93 Heat Sink Optimization for a High Power Wearable Thermoelectric Module

Authors: Zohreh Soleimani, Sally Salome Shahzad, Stamatis Zoras


As a result of current energy and environmental issues, the human body is known as one of the promising candidate for converting wasted heat to electricity (Seebeck effect). Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is one of the most prevalent means of harvesting body heat and converting that to eco-friendly electrical power. However, the uneven distribution of the body heat and its curvature geometry restrict harvesting adequate amount of energy. To perfectly transform the heat radiated by the body into power, the most direct solution is conforming the thermoelectric generators (TEG) with the arbitrary surface of the body and increase the temperature difference across the thermoelectric legs. Due to this, a computational survey through COMSOL Multiphysics is presented in this paper with the main focus on the impact of integrating a flexible wearable TEG with a corrugated shaped heat sink on the module power output. To eliminate external parameters (temperature, air flow, humidity), the simulations are conducted within indoor thermal level and when the wearer is stationary. The full thermoelectric characterization of the proposed TEG fabricated by a wavy shape heat sink has been computed leading to a maximum power output of 25µW/cm2 at a temperature gradient nearly 13°C. It is noteworthy that for the flexibility of the proposed TEG and heat sink, the applicability and efficiency of the module stay high even on the curved surfaces of the body. As a consequence, the results demonstrate the superiority of such a TEG to the most state of the art counterparts fabricated with no heat sink and offer a new train of thought for the development of self-sustained and unobtrusive wearable power suppliers which generate energy from low grade dissipated heat from the body.

Keywords: device simulation, flexible thermoelectric module, heat sink, human body heat

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