Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: poems

60 The Divan Poets Whose Works Have Been Composed in the 17th Century

Authors: Mehmet Nuri Parmaksız

Abstract:

Ottoman poetry and Ottoman music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. These periods without doubt have been 17th and 18th centuries. Since the poems written in these periods were better than those in the other periods, composers composed many of the poems of these periods and still keep composing. Music composers did not discriminate the poets of the poems they would compose, and composed the poems coherent with the meaning and form.

Keywords: music, 17th ottoman divan poetry, ottoman poets, poems

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59 Form and Content in Adonis Durado’s Poesy: Integrated Teaching Guide

Authors: Angen May T. Fabro

Abstract:

This study analyzed how the form and content in Adonis Durado’s select poems revealed universal realities for a proposed integrated teaching guide. The study employed discourse analysis that generates verbal interpretation of data to answer the variables under study in order to satisfy the main problem. This method used analyses and interpretations of discourse texts of the literary work under study. This research made use of studies and research investigations relevant to the present investigation. Findings of the study showed that form and content play a significant role in identifying the universal realities found in the select poems of Adonis Durado.

Keywords: poems, poesy, integrated teaching guide, Adonis Durado’s poesy

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58 Grief and Repenting: The Engaging Remembrance in Thomas Hardy’s ‘Poems of 1912-13’

Authors: Chih-Chun Tang

Abstract:

Nostalgia, to some people, may seem foolhardy in a way. However, nostalgia is a completely and intensely private but social, collective emotion. It has continuing consequence and outgrowth for our lives as social actions. It leads people to hunt and explore remembrance of persons and places of our past in an effort to confer meaning of persons and places of present. In the ‘Poems of 1912-13’ Thomas Hardy, a British poet, composed a series of poems after the unexpected death of his long-disaffected wife, Emma. The series interprets the cognitive and emotional concussion of Emma’s death on Hardy, concerning his mind and real visit to the landscape in Cornwall, England. Both spaces perform the author’s innermost in thought to his late wife and to the landscape. They present an apparent counterpart of the poet and his afflicted conscience. After Emma had died, Hardy carried her recollections alive by roaming about in the real visit and whimsical land (space) they once had drifted and meandered. This paper highlights the nostalgias and feds that seem endlessly to crop up.

Keywords: Thomas Hardy, remembrance, psychological, poems 1912-13, Fred Davis, nostalgia

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57 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

Abstract:

This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

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56 Representation of Master–Disciple Relationship in Rumi’s Poems: Spirituality Vis-A-Vis Collective Consciousness

Authors: Nodi Islam

Abstract:

This paper critically reads Rumi’s poems in The Masnavi (Book One) and the philosophy of master-disciple relationship, as reflected as a medium to attain the higher consciousness in the poems which is considered as spiritual by the Sufi practitioners. This paper further applies the concept of collective consciousness introduced by Durkheim, which stands for a set of beliefs, ideas, moral attitudes that operate as a unifying force in a certain society, in reading Rumi’s poems. According to Sufi philosophy, in order to reach to the beloved who is the Higher Being, a lover has to be a disciple of a master and dedicate himself completely even if it means to give up the earthly desires. When the process is completed, he achieves the divinity which is the utmost happiness to be one with the beloved. As this process is considered spiritual by the Sufi practitioners, this paper suggests that, apart from being spiritual, this is a reflection of collective consciousness also. This process plays a part to construct the collectivity as a means to create masters and disciples. Collective consciousness operates in this particular belief system of Sufis who tend to follow this phenomenon as a rule of obedience and accepts the rule because this is how their particular community proceeds on. This paper offers a view of Rumi’s poems which reflect such relationship and tends to offer a general discussion on the hegemonic approach of the Sufi society especially of the Mevlevi order. Finally, this paper offers a constructive representation of Mevlevi society based upon the idea of spirituality which could be an outcome of psychological and social issues and practices.

Keywords: collective consciousness, divinity, master-disciple relationship, Mevlevi order

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55 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib

Abstract:

This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

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54 The Quest for Palestinian Identity throughout Zayyad's Poetry

Authors: Saleem Abu Jaber, Khaled Igbaria

Abstract:

Tawfiq Zayyad was born in Nazareth in 1929 and died in 1994. He was a prominent Palestinian poet, writer, scholar and politician. He had participated in the Palestinian political life not only as a poet and writer but also as a mayor of Nazareth as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset. All of the above confirms not only that it is worthy to investigate deeply and academically Palestinian commitment and identity throughout poems of the poet, but also that the poet deserves to include him within the top significant Arab Palestinian poets in despite of his being Israeli citizen. This paper studies to what extent the poet was committed to the Palestinian goals and agenda throughout poetry as well as to explore the ways and techniques in which the poet employed poetry in order to explore the Palestinian belonging and identification of the Palestinians in Israel. Methodologically, this paper will literary analyze some considerable poems of the poet looking in-depth critically and objectively. Moreover, this article relies on several poems of the poet because they are much relevant to the aimed discussion. By addressing both commitment and identity, this article hopes to contribute to a fuller understanding of Palestinian poets of 1960s to 2000s.

Keywords: Tawfiq Zayyad, Palestinian poetry, poetic commitment, poetic techniques

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53 Revolution and Political Opposition in Contemporary Arabic Poetry: A Thematic Study of Two Poems by Muzaffar Al-Nawwab

Authors: Nasser Y. Athamneh

Abstract:

Muzaffar al-Nawwab (1934--) is a modern Iraqi poet, critic, and painter, well-known to Arab youth of the second half of the 20th century for his revolutionary spirit and political activism. For the greater part of his relatively long life, al-Nawwab was wanted 'dead or alive,' so to speak, by most of the Arab regimes and authorities due to his scathing, and at times unsparingly obscene attacks on them. Hence it is that the Arab masses found in his poetry the rebellious expression of their own anger and frustration, stifled by fear for their physical safety. Thus, al-Nawwab’s contemporary Arab audience loved and embraced him both as an Arab exile and as a poet. They memorized and celebrated his poems and transmitted them secretly by word of mouth and on compact cassette tapes. He himself recited his own poetry and had it recorded on compact cassette tapes for fans to smuggle from one Arab country to the other. The themes of al-Nawwab’s poems are varied, but the most predominant among them is political opposition. In most of his poems, al-Nawwab takes up politics as the major theme. Yet, he often represents it coupled with the leitmotifs of women and wine. Indeed he oscillates almost systematically between political commitment to the revolutionary cause of the masses of his nation and homeland on the one hand and love for women and wine on the other. For the persona in al-Nawwab’s poetry, love-longing for the woman and devotion to the cause of revolution and Pan-Arabism are interrelated; each of them readily evokes the other. In this paper, an attempt is made at investigating the treatment and representation of the theme of revolution and political opposition in some of al-Nawwab’s poems. This investigation will be conducted through close reading and textual analysis of representative sections of the poetic texts under consideration in the paper. The primary texts for the study are selected passages from two representative poems, namely, 'The Night Song of the Bow Strings' (Watariyyaat Layliyyah) and 'In Wine and Sorrow My Heart [Is Immersed]' (bil-khamri wa bil-huzni fu’aady). Other poems and extracts from al-Nawwab’s poetic works will be drawn upon as secondary texts to clarify the arguments in the paper and support its thesis. The discussions and textual analysis of the texts under consideration are meant to show that revolution and undaunted political opposition is a predominant theme in al-Nawwab’s poetry, often represented through the use of the leitmotifs of women and wine.

Keywords: Arabic poetry, Muzaffar al-Nawwab, politics, revolution

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52 Enhancing Creative Writing Skill through the Implementation of Creative Thinking Process

Authors: Bussabamintra Chalauisaeng

Abstract:

The creative writing skill of Thai fourth year university learners majoring in English at Khon Kaen University, Thailand has been enhanced in an English creative writing course through the implementation of creative thinking process. The creative writing assignments cover writing a variety of short poems and a short story, bibliography and short play scripts. However, this study focuses mainly on writing short poems and short stories through the implementation of creative thinking process via action research design with on-going needs analysis and feedbacks to meet their learning needs for 45 hours. At the end of the course, forty two learners’ creative writing skill appeared to be significantly improved. Through the research instruments such as the tasks assigned both inside and outside the class as self –study including class observation, semi-conversational interviews and teacher feedback both in persons and on line including peer feedbacks. The research findings show that the target learners could produce better short poems and short story assessed by the set of criteria such as the creative and innovative short poems and short stories with complete and interesting elements of a short story like plot, theme, setting, symbolism and so on. This includes a higher level of the awareness of the pragmatic use of English writing in terms of word choices, grammar rules and writing styles. All of these outcomes reflect positive trends of success in terms of the learners’ improved creative writing skill as well as better attitudes to and motivation for learning to write English for pleasure. More interestingly, many learners claimed that this innovative teaching method through the implementation of creative thinking process integrated with creative writing help stretch their imaginations and inspire them to become a writer in the future.

Keywords: creative thinking process, creative writing skill, enhancing, implementing

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51 An Investigation of the Mystic Term on 'The Conference of the Birds' of Attar on the Basis of Van Doorslaer's Map

Authors: Saber Noie

Abstract:

This research follows some objectives to consider the mystic terms as one of the main issues in translation of poems. Firstly, it is an attempt to find out what strategies have been used to find equivalents for source text mystic. Second, it is hoped that this study of the translations of the mystic terms in Attar’s poems will further address and explore the problems in translating mystic texts, proposed by other Persian poets and suggest instructional points from Davis work for translation education. In order to deal with such a breadth of work, a new conceptual tool was developed, as explained by Van Doorslaer (2007). This study shows that according to Van Doorslaer’s map, the mystic terms can be transferred to the target language (TL) with their exact content of the source language (SL) if the translator has a good choice for any term.

Keywords: metaphor, mystic, mysticism, source language (SL), target language (TL)

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50 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

Abstract:

Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: poem, novel, Arabic, translation

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49 Treatment of Carribean Colonial Historical Experience in Walcott and Brathwaite's Poems: Finding the Long Lost 'Root' in the Route

Authors: Gopashis Biswas G. Son

Abstract:

This paper will attempt to explore the notions that the two Caribbean poets- Derek Walcott and Edward Kamau Brathwaite endorse on Caribbean history in their poems. Though both of these poets hold almost the same notion regarding history but their approach is totally different from one another. Coming from a 'hybrid' race, Walcott is aware of the history and acknowledges it and writes in 'mulatto of style'; whereas Brathwaite is enraged by it and attempts to sublimate it to erect a history of the new world. It is Walcott’s view to rise above the delusion and hatred and engulf the world of literature with creativity. On the other hand, Brathwaite holds the grudge which helps him not to forget and forgive the past experience but to transform that very experience into something positive which may help the Caribbean to transform their frustration into something creative and to help the Caribbean to overcome the present struggle against the legacy of colonization. Following discourse analysis, this paper seeks to identify if it is possible to rewrite and re-‘right’ the Caribbean history which has been lost in the route and analyze Walcott and Brathwaite’s attitude towards that very history which has been implemented through their poetry.

Keywords: Caribbean history, colonialism, mulatto of style, Walcott vis-à-vis Brathwaite

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48 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan

Abstract:

The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Arab contemporary poetry, identity, memory, argumentation

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47 An Ecological Reading of Indian Regional Literature: A Comparative Ecocritical Analysis of Punjabi Poet Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar's Poetry

Authors: Zameerpal Kaur

Abstract:

Ecocriticism comes into existence in 1990s, it tries to explore the relationship of literature with the natural world and further it examines the role that natural surroundings and environment play in the minds of the creative writers during their imagination and creative process. The present study is an attempt to focus on the comparative ecocritical analysis of Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar’s selected poetry in the theoretical framework of ecocriticism in order to shed light on the poet’s vigilant views about the relationship of human life and nature. Shiv Kumar Batalvi is a renowned modern Punjabi poet. He is essentially a poet of nature and love. His opinions towards nature support his position to be considered as a major representative of recent environmental issues and ecocritical concerns in Punjabi literature. He is one of the most outstanding modern Punjabi poets, is endowed with the most artistic temperament in whose poetry nature always has a dominating existence. He seems to consciously portray the scenes of natural surroundings into his poetry; in fact the titles of his poems in themselves signify his love for the nature. Surjit Patar, an imminent modern Punjabi poet tries to present a different picture of nature into his poems; he also uses to write poems about contemporary problems. Surjit Patar’s radical quarrel with the modern cultural context makes him reject all the absolutes and finalities in the form of transcendental reason and religion, history and evolution, he freely writes about the deterioration of nature at selfish materialistic society. He is modern poet who weaves the natural imagery with the syntax of his poems. Patar’s work reflects a universal voice that is dribbled with nuanced humanism and a sense of modernity that seemed neither dated, nor trapped in regional boundaries. Through his poetry he has given a voice to the fragile, disrupting borders, disturbing the status quo. An attempt to analyse the poetic works of above said poets from ecocritical perspective as well as especially focussing on various aspects of ecocriticism like ecocentric ethics, ecoaesthetics, anthropomorphism etc. has been made throughout the comparative study of the selected works.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, degradation, environment and literature, nature

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46 Augusto De Campos Translator: The Role of Translation in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Project

Authors: Juliana C. Salvadori, Jose Carlos Felix

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This paper aims at discussing the role literary translation has played in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Movement – an aesthetic, critical and pedagogical project which conceived translation as poiesis, i.e., as both creative and critic work in which the potency (dynamic) of literary work is unfolded in the interpretive and critic act (energeia) the translating practice demands. We argue that translation, for concrete poets, is conceived within the framework provided by the reinterpretation –or deglutition– of Oswald de Andrade’s anthropophagy – a carefully selected feast from which the poets pick and model their Paideuma. As a case study, we propose to approach and analyze two of Augusto de Campos’s long-term translation projects: the translation of Emily Dickinson’s and E. E. Cummings’s works to Brazilian readers. Augusto de Campos is a renowned poet, translator, critic and one of the founding members of Brazilian Concrete Poetry movement. Since the 1950s he has produced a consistent body of translated poetry from English-speaking poets in which the translator has explored creative translation processes – transcreation, as concrete poets have named it. Campos’s translation project regarding E. E. Cummings’s poetry comprehends a span of forty years: it begins in 1956 with 10 poems and unfolds in 4 works – 20 poem(a)s, 40 poem(a)s, Poem(a)s, re-edited in 2011. His translations of Dickinson’s poetry are published in two works: O Anticrítico (1986), in which he translated 10 poems, and Emily Dickinson Não sou Ninguém (2008), in which the poet-translator added 35 more translated poems. Both projects feature bilingual editions: contrary to common sense, Campos translations aim at being read as such: the target readers, to fully enjoy the experience, must be proficient readers of English and, also, acquainted with the poets in translation – Campos expects us to perform translation criticism, as Antoine Berman has proposed, by assessing the choices he, as both translator and poet, has presented in order to privilege aesthetic information (verse lines, word games, etc.). To readers not proficient in English, his translations play a pedagogycal role of educating and preparing them to read both the target poet works as well as concrete poetry works – the detailed essays and prefaces in which the translator emphasizes the selection of works translated and strategies adopted enlighten his project as translator: for Cummings, it has led to the oblieraton of the more traditional and lyrical/romantic examples of his poetry while highlighting the more experimental aspects and poems; for Dickinson, his project has highligthed the more hermetic traits of her poems. To the domestic canons of both poets in Brazilian literary system, we analyze Campos’ contribution in this work.

Keywords: translation criticism, Augusto de Campos, E. E. Cummings, Emily Dickinson

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45 Job in Modern Arabic Poetry: A Semantic and Comparative Approach to Two Poems Referring to the Poet Al-Sayyab

Authors: Jeries Khoury

Abstract:

The use of legendary, folkloric and religious symbols is one of the most important phenomena in modern Arabic poetry. Interestingly enough, most of the modern Arabic poetry’s pioneers were so fascinated by the biblical symbols and they managed to use many modern techniques to make these symbols adequate for their personal life from one side and fit to their Islamic beliefs from the other. One of the most famous poets to do so was al-Sayya:b. The way he employed one of these symbols ‘job’, the new features he adds to this character and the link between this character and his personal life will be discussed in this study. Besides, the study will examine the influence of al-Sayya:b on another modern poet Saadi Yusuf, who, following al-Sayya:b, used the character of Job in a special way, by mixing its features with al-Sayya:b’s personal features and in this way creating a new mixed character. A semantic, cultural and comparative analysis of the poems written by al-Sayya:b himself and the other poets who evoked the mixed image of al-Sayya:b-Job, can reveal the changes Arab poets made to the original biblical figure of Job to bring it closer to Islamic culture. The paper will make an intensive use of intertextuality idioms in order to shed light on the network of relations between three kinds of texts (indeed three palimpsests’: 1- biblical- the primary text; 2- poetic- al-Syya:b’s secondary version; 3- re-poetic- Sa’di Yusuf’s tertiary version). The bottom line in this paper is that that al-Sayya:b was directly influenced by the dramatic biblical story of Job more than the brief Quranic version of the story. In fact, the ‘new’ character of Job designed by al-Sayya:b himself differs from the original one in many aspects that we can safely say it is the Sayyabian-Job that cannot be found in the poems of any other poets, unless they are evoking the own tragedy of al-Sayya:b himself, like what Saadi Yusuf did.

Keywords: Arabic poetry, intertextuality, job, meter, modernism, symbolism

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44 Hero’s Journey in the Poetry of Mahdi Akhavsn Sales and T. S. Eliot: A Comparative Study

Authors: Mahin Pourmorad Naseri

Abstract:

Myths have been an inseparable aspect of man’s life in all nations and cultures across the world over time; however, it seems that the form and use of myths in the poetry of the 20th century have gained a new meaning and purpose. Among the poets of the time, T. S. Eliot in English and Mahdi Akhavan Sales in Persian are the two mostly referred to in this regard. In this paper, the pattern of heroic journey as the main theme in the poetry of Akhavan and Eliot will be reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Attempts have been made to find out how the myth of the hero’s journey has been reflected in the century’s well-known poetry and if myth allusions in these poems confirm or reject Campbell’s claim that mythology can be an appropriate psychological cure for man’s loneliness in today’s life. T. S. Eliot (1888-1965), the English poet, essayist, playwright, publisher, and critic, is mostly known for his modernist poetry and the extensive allusions to mythologies and world literary masterpieces. At the same time, Mahdi Akhavan Sales (1929-1990) Iranian poet, one of the pioneers of modern Persian poetry, is also most well-known for his epic poetic style (Khorasani Style) and also his high amount of allusions to myths, especially Zoroastrian mythology, and his myth-making technique. Although their greatly different cultural background may cause the similarities in their poetic style and themes not to attract attention, at first sight, reading the poems closely through the light of the 20th century’s life context and literary movements reveal interesting similarities in the way they understand and apply myth in their poetry. The present paper reviews the theme of the hero’s journey in Akhavan’s Chavooshi and Eliot’s “Journey of the Magi” from the perspective of Campbell’s notion of mono-myth or the pattern of mythic hero’s journey. The poems will be reviewed in search of the steps of the inward journey the heroes make, the goals they pursue, and how successful they are in achieving the goals. The findings of the study reveal that while the difference in the social context of the poets makes the small differences in the stages of the journey, both journeys end in a gloomy atmosphere for the disappointedly isolated hero who is finally left alone in the godless and materialistic world of 20th century. It is also evident that both poets meant to fulfill their responsibility of reviving mythology in writing the poems.

Keywords: myth, Akhavan, Eliot, poetry, hero's journey

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43 The Manifestation of Decadent Mood in Vagif Samadoglu's Poetry

Authors: İlahe Hajiyeva Mesim

Abstract:

The term "Azerbaijani decadent literature" that dates back to the 70s of the 20th century emerged due to the frustration of the people's wishes concerning egalitarian society and bright future pledged by Soviet Russia. The decadent mood - despair, loneliness, stagnation born of this delusion became the major theme of Azerbaijani literature. One of the zealous promulgators of the philosophy of decadence in Azerbaijani literature, so to speak, the founder of "Azerbaijani decadent literature" appeared to be Vagif Samadoglu known as a poet, playwright, essayist whose poems reflecting his decadent mood and motifs have become the scope of research in this paper. In his poems, the poet depicts realities with unusual metaphors, symbols and similes, giving them new breath. Vagif Samadoglu's poetry is particularly based on absurd situations of life. The figurative language and non-traditional forms of expression of associative thinking unique to the poet distinguish him from his other counterparts. A different view of reality and special approach to objects had enabled Vagif Samadoglu to occupy a leading place among modernist writers. The key purpose of the article is to reveal similar properties of decadent character in Vagif Samadoglu's poetry.

Keywords: Azerbaijan decadent literature, Vagif Samadoglu, poetry, modernism

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42 Girls, Justice, and Advocacy: Using Arts-Based Public Health Strategies to Challenge Gender Inequities in Juvenile Justice

Authors: Tasha L. Golden

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Girls in the U.S. juvenile justice system are most often arrested for truancy, drug use, or running from home, all of which are symptoms of abuse. In fact, some have called this 'The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline.' Such abuse has consequences for girls' health, education, employment, and parenting, often resulting in significant health disparities. Yet when arrested, girls rarely encounter services designed to meet their unique needs. Instead, they are expected to cope with a system that was historically designed for males. In fact, even literature advocating for increased gender equity frequently fails to include girls’ voices and firsthand accounts. In response to these combined injustices, public health researchers launched a trauma-informed creative writing intervention in a southern juvenile detention facility. The program was designed to improve the health of detained girls, while also establishing innovative methods of both data collection and social justice advocacy. Girls’ poems and letters were collected and coded, adding rich qualitative data to traditional survey responses. In addition, as part of the intervention, these poems are regularly published by international literary publisher Sarabande Books—and distributed to judges, city leaders, attorneys, state representatives, and more. By utilizing a creative medium, girls generated substantial civic engagement with their concerns—thus expanding their influence and improving policy advocacy efforts. Researchers hypothesized that having access to their communities and policy makers would provide its own health benefits for incarcerated girls: cultivating self-esteem, locus of control, and a sense of leadership. This paper discusses the establishment of this intervention, examines findings from its evaluation, and includes several girls’ poems as exemplars. Grounded in social science regarding expressive writing, stigma, muted group theory, and health promotion, the paper theorizes about the application of arts-based advocacy efforts to other social justice endeavors.

Keywords: advocacy, public health, social justice, women’s health

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41 Induced Affectivity and Impact on Creativity: Personal Growth and Perceived Adjustment when Narrating an Intense Emotional Experience

Authors: S. Da Costa, D. Páez, F. Sánchez

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We examine the causal role of positive affect on creativity, the association of creativity or innovation in the ideation phase with functional emotional regulation, successful adjustment to stress and dispositional emotional creativity, as well as the predictive role of creativity for positive emotions and social adjustment. The study examines the effects of modification of positive affect on creativity. Participants write three poems, narrate an infatuation episode, answer a scale of personal growth after this episode and perform a creativity task, answer a flow scale after creativity task and fill a dispositional emotional creativity scale. High and low positive effect was induced by asking subjects to write three poems about high and low positive connotation stimuli. In a neutral condition, tasks were performed without previous affect induction. Subjects on the condition of high positive affect report more positive and less negative emotions, more personal growth (effect size r = .24) and their last poem was rated as more original by judges (effect size r = .33). Mediational analysis showed that positive emotions explain the influence of the manipulation on personal growth - positive affect correlates r = .33 to personal growth. The emotional creativity scale correlated to creativity scores of the creative task (r = .14), to the creativity of the narration of the infatuation episode (r = .21). Emotional creativity was also associated, during performing the creativity task, with flow (r = .27) and with affect balance (r = .26). The mediational analysis showed that emotional creativity predicts flow through positive affect. Results suggest that innovation in the phase of ideation is associated with a positive affect balance and satisfactory performance, as well as dispositional emotional creativity is adaptive.

Keywords: affectivity, creativity, induction, innovation, psychological factors

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40 Contextual Distribution for Textual Alignment

Authors: Yuri Bizzoni, Marianne Reboul

Abstract:

Our program compares French and Italian translations of Homer’s Odyssey, from the XVIth to the XXth century. We focus on the third point, showing how distributional semantics systems can be used both to improve alignment between different French translations as well as between the Greek text and a French translation. Although we focus on French examples, the techniques we display are completely language independent.

Keywords: classical receptions, computational linguistics, distributional semantics, Homeric poems, machine translation, translation studies, text alignment

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39 Contributions of Women to the Development of Hausa Literature as an Effective Means of Public Enlightenment: The Case of a 19th Century Female Scholar Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

Authors: Balbasatu Ibrahim

Abstract:

In the 19th century, Hausaland an Islamic revolution known as the Sokoto Jihad took place that led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1804 under the leadership of the famous Sheik Uthman Bn Fodiye. Before the Jihad movement in Hausaland (now Northern Nigeria), women were left in ignorance and were used and dumped like old kitchen utensils. The sheik and his followers did their best to actualising women’s right to education by using their female family members as role models who were highly educated and renowned scholars. After the Jihad with the establishment of an Islamic state, the women scholars initiated different strategies to teach the generality of the women. The most efficient strategy was the ‘Yantaru Movement founded by Nana Asma’u the daughter of Sheikh Uthman Bn Fodiye in collaboration with her sisters around 1840. The ‘Yantaru movement is a women’s educational movement aimed at enlightening women in rural and urban areas. The move helped in massively mobilizing women for education. In addition to town pupils, women from villages and throughout the nooks and crannies of metropolitan Sokoto participated in the movement in the search for knowledge. Thus, the birth of the ‘Yantaru system of women’s education. The ‘Yantaru operates the three-tier system at village, town and the metropolitan capital of Sokoto. ‘Yantaru functions include imparting knowledge to elderly women and young girls. Step down enlightenment program on returning home. The most effective medium of communication in the ‘Yantaru movement was through poetry where scholars composed educational poems which were memorized by the ‘Yantaru, who on return recite it to fellow women at home. Through this system, many women were educated. This paper translated and examines one of such educative poems written by the second leader of the ‘Yantaru Movement Maryam Bn Uthman Bn Fodiye in 1855.

Keywords: English, Hausa language, public enlightenment, Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

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38 High Culture or Low Culture: The Propagation and Popularization of the Classic of Poetry in Modern China

Authors: Fang Tang

Abstract:

A major Confucian masterpiece and the earliest-known poetry anthology (composed approximately 1046-771 BCE), The Classic of Poetry, reflects different cultures in ancient China. It is regarded as a Chinese classic and one of the world’s most significant written works, an essential part of our global cultural heritage. This paper explores how the ancient Chinese classic became transformed into part of popular culture, found in folk songs circulated in Fangxian county, a mountainous location in Hubei province in central mainland China. It is the hometown of one of the most well-known authors of The Classic of Poetry, whose name is Yin Jifu. Local villagers process, refine, and recreate these poems into popular folk songs, which have been handed down from generation to generation. The folk songs based on The Classic of Poetry vividly reflect local customs, life styles, and various cultural activities. After thousands of years of singing these traditional songs, the region has become an important area to maintain part of Chinese cultural heritages; here, the original high culture is converted into a popular culture that is absorbed into people’s daily life. Based on a year’s field research and many interviews with local singers, this paper explores the ways in which locals have transformed the contents of The Classic of Poetry. It examines how today these popular folk songs become part of much-treasured culture heritage, illustrating the transformation of traditional high culture into popular culture. The paper argues that the modern adaptations of the traditional poems of The Classic of Poetry combine both oral and written cultural heritage and reflects the interaction between ancient Chinese official literature and folk literature. The paper also explores the reasons why the folk songs of The Classic of Poetry are so popular in the area, including the influences of its author Yin Jifu, the impact of ancient diasporic culture from the political centre to remote rural areas, and the interactions of local cultures (famous as Chu culture) and Chinese mainstream cultural policies.

Keywords: high/low culture, The Classic of Poetry, the functions of media, cultural policy

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37 Thus Spoke the Mouth: Problematizing Dalit Voice in Selected Poems

Authors: Barnali Saha

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Dalit writing is the interventionalist voice of the dispossessed subaltern in the cultural economy of the society. As such, Dalit writing, including Dalit poetry, considers the contradictions that permeate the socio-cultural structure historically allocated and religiously sanctioned in the Indian subcontinent. As an epicenter of all Dalit experiences of trauma and violence, the poetics the Dalit body is deeply rooted in the peripheral space socially assigned to it by anachronistic caste-based litigation. An appraisal of Dalit creative-critical work by writers like Sharan Kumar Limbale, Arjun Dangle, Namdeo Dhasal, Om Prakash Valmiki, Muktibodh and others underscore the conjunction of the physical, psychical and the psychological in their interpretation of Dalit consciousness. They put forward the idea that Dalit poetry is begotten by the trauma of societal oppression and therefore, Dalit language and its revitalization are two elements obdurately linked to Dalit poetics. The present research paper seeks to read the problematization of the Dalit agency through the conduit of the Dalit voice wherein the anatomical category of the mouth is closely related to the question of Dalit identity. Theoretically aligned to Heidegger’s notion of language as the house of being and Bachelard’s assertion of a house as an ideal metaphor of poetic imagination and Dylan Trigg’s view of the coeval existence of space and body, the paper examines a series of selected poems by Dalit poetic voices to examine how their distinct Dalit point of view underscores Dalit speech and directs our attention to the historical abstraction of it. The paper further examines how speech as a category in Dalit writing places the Dalit somatic entity as a site of contestation with the ‘Mouth’ as a loaded symbolic category inspiring rebellion and resistance. And as the quintessential purpose of Dalit literature is the unleashing of Dalit voice from the anti-verbal domain of social decrepitude, Dalit poetry needs to be critically read based on the experience of the mouth and the patois.

Keywords: Dalit, poetry, speech, mouth, subaltern, minority, exploitation, space

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36 Indigenous Learning of Animal Metaphors: The ‘Big Five’ in King Shaka’s Praise-Poems

Authors: Ntandoni Gloria Biyela

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During traditional times, there were no formal institutions of learning as they are today, where children attend classes to acquire or develop knowledge. This does not mean that there was no learning in indigenous African societies. Grandparents used to tell their grandchildren stories or teach them educational games around the fireplace, which this study refers to as a ‘traditional classroom’. A story recreated in symbolic or allegorical way, forms a base for a society’s beliefs, customs, accepted norms and language learning. Through folklore narratives, a society develops its own self awareness and education. So narrative characters, especially animals may be mythical products of the pre-literate folklore world and thus show the closeness that the Zulu society had with the wildlife. Oral cultures strive to create new facets of meaning by the use of animal metaphors to reflect the relationship of humans with the animal realm and to contribute to the language learning or literature in cross-cultural studies. Although animal metaphors are widespread in Zulu language because of the Zulu nation’s traditional closeness to wildlife, little field-research has been conducted on the social behavior of animals on the way in which their characteristics were transferred with precision to depictions of King Shaka’s behavior and activities during the amalgamation of Nguni clans into a Zulu kingdom. This study attempts to fill the gap by using first-hand interviews with local informants in areas traditionally linked to the king in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Departing from the conceptual metaphor theory, the study concentrates on King Shaka’s praise-poems in which the praise-poet describes his physical and dispositional characteristics through bold animal metaphors of the ‘Big Five’; namely, the lion, the leopard, the buffalo, the rhinoceros and the elephant, which are often referred to as Zulu royal favorites. These metaphors are still learnt by young and old in the 21st century because they reflect the responsibilities, status, and integrity of the king and the respect in which he is held by his people. They also project the crescendo growth of the Zulu nation, which, through the fulfillment of his ambitions, grew from a small clan to a mighty kingdom.

Keywords: animal, indigenous, learning, metaphor

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35 Reading and Teaching Poetry as Communicative Discourse: A Pragma-Linguistic Approach

Authors: Omnia Elkommos

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Language is communication on several discourse levels. The target of teaching a language and the literature of a foreign language is to communicate a message. Reading, appreciating, analysing, and interpreting poetry as a sophisticated rhetorical expression of human thoughts, emotions, and philosophical messages is more feasible through the use of linguistic pragmatic tools from a communicative discourse perspective. The poet's intention, speech act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary goal can be better understood when communicative situational context as well as linguistic discourse structure theories are employed. The use of linguistic theories in the teaching of poetry is, therefore, intrinsic to students' comprehension, interpretation, and appreciation of poetry of the different ages. It is the purpose of this study to show how both teachers as well as students can apply these linguistic theories and tools to dramatic poetic texts for an engaging, enlightening, and effective interpretation and appreciation of the language. Theories drawn from areas of pragmatics, discourse analysis, embedded discourse level, communicative situational context, and other linguistic approaches were applied to selected poetry texts from the different centuries. Further, in a simple statistical count of the number of poems with dialogic dramatic discourse with embedded two or three levels of discourse in different anthologies outweighs the number of descriptive poems with a one level of discourse, between the poet and the reader. Poetry is thus discourse on one, two, or three levels. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students in the area of ESL/EFL use the linguistics theories for a better understanding of poetry as communicative discourse. The practice of applying these linguistic theories in classrooms and in research will allow them to perceive the language and its linguistic, social, and cultural aspect. Texts will become live illocutionary acts with a perlocutionary acts goal rather than mere literary texts in anthologies.

Keywords: coda, commissives, communicative situation, context of culture, context of reference, context of utterance, dialogue, directives, discourse analysis, dramatic discourse interaction, duologue, embedded discourse levels, language for communication, linguistic structures, literary texts, poetry, pragmatic theories, reader response, speech acts (macro/micro), stylistics, teaching literature, TEFL, terms of address, turn-taking

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34 Representation of Reality in Nigerian Poetry

Authors: Zainab Abdulkarim

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Literature is the study of life, a source of knowledge. It involves the truth about many things in life. Most of these creative artistes most especially the poets are representatives of the voices of the people. These set of artistes have been the critics to all involved in the development of their nation. This paper will examine how Nigerian Poets goes further not just by writing but by showing the different ways the country has been convoluted. This paper intends to show the power and ability literature has in representation. The power is to represent the important values of life. There is no doubt that literature asserts truth. Through the various poems examined in this paper, Nigerian Poets have proved to portray the realities of the nation.

Keywords: literature, poets, reality, representation

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33 Nazik Al-Malaika and Nostalgic approach

Authors: sulmaz Mozaffari

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Nostalgia is one of the hot-debated issues in critical psychology which has been translated as the yearning or gloom in Persian. It is defined as the regret of the sweet past and the contrast of the present with the past. The feeling of alienation and being remote from the home, remembering death, the regret of childhood and youth, separation of the beloved, remembering the glorious era of history, desire for the ancient times, and the hope for Utopia are considered as its components. Nazik Al-Malaika, a contemporary poet of Arabic literature, has depicted some shapes and dimensions of sympathy, regret and anguish in her poems. Utilizing a nostalgic approach to the past, this paper has reflected upon love, memories of childhood and youth and hope for Utopia "and also aimed at explaining each one's manifestations through a comparative perspective.

Keywords: Nazik al-malaika, poem, nostalgia, personal memory, collective memory

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32 The Democracy of Love and Suffering in the Erotic Epigrams of Meleager

Authors: Carlos A. Martins de Jesus

Abstract:

The Greek anthology, first put together in the tenth century AD, gathers in two separate books a large number of epigrams devoted to love and its consequences, both of hetero (book V) and homosexual (book XII) nature. While some poets wrote epigrams of only one genre –that is the case of Strato (II cent. BC), the organizer of a wide-spread garland of homosexual epigrams –, several others composed within both categories, often using the same topics of love and suffering. Using Plato’s theorization of two different kinds of Eros (Symp. 180d-182a), the popular (pandemos) and the celestial (ouranios), homoerotic epigrammatic love is more often associated with the first one, while heterosexual poetry tends to be connected to a higher form of love. This paper focuses on the epigrammatic production of a single first-century BC poet, Meleager, aiming to look for the similarities and differences on singing both kinds of love. From Meleager, the Greek Anthology –a garland whose origins have been traced back to the poet’s garland itself– preserves more than sixty heterosexual and 48 homosexual epigrams, an important and unprecedented amount of poems that are able to trace a complete profile of his way of singing love. Meleager’s poetry deals with personal experience and emotions, frequently with love and the unhappiness that usually comes from it. Most times he describes himself not as an active and engaged lover, but as one struck by the beauty of a woman or boy, i.e., in a stage prior to erotic consummation. His epigrams represent the unreal and fantastic (literally speaking) world of the lover, in which the imagery and wordplays are used to convey emotion in the epigrams of both genres. Elsewhere Meleager surprises the reader by offering a surrealist or dreamlike landscape where everyday adventures are transcribed into elaborate metaphors for erotic feeling. For instance, in 12.81, the lovers are shipwrecked, and as soon as they have disembarked, they are promptly kidnapped by a figure who is both Eros and a beautiful boy. Particularly –and worth-to-know why significant – in the homosexual poems collected in Book XII, mythology also plays an important role, namely in the figure and the scene of Ganimedes’ kidnap by Zeus for his royal court (12. 70, 94). While mostly refusing the Hellenistic model of dramatic love epigram, in which a small everyday scene is portrayed –and 5. 182 is a clear exception to this almost rule –, Meleager actually focuses on the tumultuous inside of his (poetic) lovers, in the realm of a subject that feels love and pain far beyond his/her erotic preferences. In relation to loving and suffering –mostly suffering, it has to be said –, Meleager’s love is therefore completely democratic. There is no real place in his epigrams for the traditional association mentioned before between homoeroticism and a carnal-erotic-pornographic love, while the heterosexual one being more evenly and pure, so to speak.

Keywords: epigram, erotic epigram, Greek Anthology, Meleager

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31 Some Theoretical Approaches on the Style of Lyrical Subject of the Confessional Poetry

Authors: Lemac Tin

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This paper deals with the lyrical subject of the confessional poetry which is the main part of her stylistic strucuture. We concluded two types of this subject in the classical confessional poetic discourse; reflexive and authentic subject. We offer the model of their genesis, textual features and appeareance realisations. Genesis is related to the theories of deriving poetry from emotion and magic and their similar position in the primitive lyrics and lyrics of the ancient civilizations. Textual features are related to the emotive and semiotic analysis of each type. Appearance realisations of these two types are I-subject, We-subject, transvocal and objectified subject. We check this approaches on some of the poems from World literature.

Keywords: confessional poetry, confessional lyrical subject, magic, emotion, emotive analysis, semiotic analysis

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