Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9876

Search results for: working conditions

9876 Working Conditions, Motivation and Job Performance of Hotel Workers

Authors: Thushel Jayaweera

Abstract:

In performance evaluation literature, there has been no investigation indicating the impact of job characteristics, working conditions and motivation on the job performance among the hotel workers in Britain. This study tested the relationship between working conditions (physical and psychosocial working conditions) and job performance (task and contextual performance) with motivators (e.g. recognition, achievement, the work itself, the possibility for growth and work significance) as the mediating variable. A total of 254 hotel workers in 25 hotels in Bristol, United Kingdom participated in this study. Working conditions influenced job performance and motivation moderated the relationship between working conditions and job performance. Poor workplace conditions resulted in decreasing employee performance. The results point to the importance of motivators among hotel workers and highlighted that work be designed to provide recognition and sense of autonomy on the job to enhance job performance of the hotel workers. These findings have implications for organizational interventions aimed at increasing employee job performance.

Keywords: hotel workers, working conditions, motivation, job characteristics, job performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
9875 The Influence of Construction Workers Wages and Working Conditions on Productivity in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Donkor

Abstract:

Aim/Purpose – This paper examines the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Design/methodology/Approach - The study adopted a quantitative research approach with purposive sampling techniques where data was collected using surveys. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0, which enables the findings of the study to be examined under thematic areas.Findings: - The study revealed that good wages and working condition of workers have a positive correlation on productivity in the construction industry. Increase and improved wages and working conditions can results in higher productivity in the construction industry.Originality/value - This paper is exceptional in the sense that, it does examine the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Social value/implications - The paper concludes that workers’ wages and their conditions have a high influence on productivity. It is then recommended that government should train, educate, give good wages to workers and improve on their working condition, give incentives and reduce tax importation on building or construction materials to aid in good productivity of construction firms.

Keywords: construction firms, construction industry, productivity, workers’ wages, working conditions

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9874 Investigation of the Effect of Pressure Changes on the Gas Proportional Detector

Authors: S. M. Golgoun, S. M. Taheri

Abstract:

Investigation of radioactive contamination of personnel working in radiation centers to identify radioactive materials and then measure the potential contamination and eliminate it has always been considered. For this purpose, various ways have been proposed so far and different devices have been designed and built. Gas sealed proportional counter has special working conditions. In this research, a gas sealed detector of proportional counter type was made and then its various parameters were investigated. Some parameters are influential on their working conditions and one of these most important parameters is the internal pressure of the proportional gas-filled detector. In this experimental research, we produced software for examination and altering high voltage, registering data, and calculating efficiency. By this, we investigated different gas pressure effects on detector efficiency and proposed optimizing working conditions of this detector. After reviewing the results, we suggested a range between 20-30 mbar pressure for this gas sealed detector.

Keywords: gas sealed, proportional detector, pressure, counter

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9873 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

Abstract:

The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: nurse, public hospitals, working conditions, working schedules

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9872 Assessment of Artists’ Socioeconomic and Working Conditions: The Empirical Case of Lithuania

Authors: Rusne Kregzdaite, Erika Godlevska, Morta Vidunaite

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to explore existing methodologies for artists’ labour force and create artists’ socio-economic and creative conditions in an assessment model. Artists have dual aims in their creative working process: 1) income and 2) artistic self-expression. The valuation of their conditions takes into consideration both sides: the factors related to income and the satisfaction of the creative process and its result. The problem addressed in the study: tangible and intangible artists' criteria used for assessments creativity conditions. The proposed model includes objective factors (working time, income, etc.) and subjective factors (salary covering essential needs, self-satisfaction). Other intangible indicators are taken into account: the impact on the common culture, social values, and the possibility to receive awards, to represent the country in the international market. The empirical model consists of 59 separate indicators, grouped into eight categories. The deviation of each indicator from the general evaluation allows for identifying the strongest and the weakest components of artists’ conditions.

Keywords: artist conditions, artistic labour force, cultural policy, indicator, assessment model

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9871 Hidden Markov Model for the Simulation Study of Neural States and Intentionality

Authors: R. B. Mishra

Abstract:

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been used in prediction and determination of states that generate different neural activations as well as mental working conditions. This paper addresses two applications of HMM; one to determine the optimal sequence of states for two neural states: Active (AC) and Inactive (IA) for the three emission (observations) which are for No Working (NW), Waiting (WT) and Working (W) conditions of human beings. Another is for the determination of optimal sequence of intentionality i.e. Believe (B), Desire (D), and Intention (I) as the states and three observational sequences: NW, WT and W. The computational results are encouraging and useful.

Keywords: hiden markov model, believe desire intention, neural activation, simulation

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9870 To Be a Nurse in Turkey: A Comparison Based on International Labour Organization's Nursing Personnel Recommendation

Authors: Arzu K. Harmanci Seren, Feride Eskin Bacaksiz

Abstract:

The shortage of nursing personnel is considered one of the most important labour force issues in health sector of developed countries since early 1970s. International Labour Organization developed standards for working conditions of nurses in collaboration with World Health Organization with the aim of helping to solve nursing shortage problem all over the world. As a result of this collaboration, ILO Nursing Personnel Convention (C. 149), and the accompanying Recommendation (R. 157) were adopted in 1977. Turkey as a country that has a serious nurse shortage problem, has been a member of ILO since 1932, and has not signed this convention yet. This study was planned to compare some of the working standards in Convention with the present working conditions of nurses in Turkey. The data were collected by an on line survey between 19 January-16 February 2015 for this cross-sectional study. Participants were reached through social network accounts in collaboration with nursing associations. Totally 828 nurses from the 57 provinces of Turkey participated in the study. Survey was consisted of 14 open ended questions related to working conditions of nurses and 34 Likert statements related to nursing policies of the facilities they are working in. The data were analysed using the IBM SPSS 21.0 (licensed to Istanbul University) software. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Most of the participants (81.5%) were staff and 18.5% of them were manager nurses. Most of them had baccalaureate (57.9%) or master (27.4%) degree in nursing. 18.5% of the participants were working in private hospitals, 34.9% of them in university hospitals and 46.6% of them were in Ministry of Health Hospitals. It was found that monthly working schedules were announced mostly 7 days ago (18%), working time of nurses was at least 8 hours (41.5%) and at most 24 hours (22.8%) in a day and had time for lunch or dinner 25.18 (SD=16.66), for resting 21.02 (SD=29.25) minutes. On the other hand, it was determined that 316 (43.2%) nurses did not have time for lunch and 61 (7.9%) of them could not find time for eating anything. It was also explored they were working 15-96 hours in a week (mean=48.28, SD=8.89 hours), 4-29 days in a month (mean=19.29, SD=5.03 days) and 597 (72%) nurses overworked changing form 1 hour to 150 hours (32.80, SD=23.42 hours) before the month in which surveys were filled. Most of the participants did not leave the job due to the sickness (47.5%) even if they felt sick. Also most of them did not leave the job due to any excuse (67.2%) or education (57.3%). This study has significance because of nurses from different provinces participated in and it provides brief information about the working conditions of nurses nationwide. It was explored that nurses in Turkey were working at worse conditions according the International Labour Organization’s recommendations.

Keywords: nurse, international labour organization, recommendations for nurses, working conditions

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9869 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

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9868 Constructing a Co-Working Innovation Model for Multiple Art Integration: A Case Study of Children's Musical

Authors: Nai-Chia Chao, Meng-Chi Shih

Abstract:

Under today’s fast technology and massive data era, the working method start to change. In this study, based under literature meaning of “Co-working” we had implemented the new “Co-working innovation model”. Research concluded that co-working innovation model shall not be limited in co-working space but use under different field when applying multiple art integration stragies. Research show co-working should not be limited in special field or group, should be use or adapt whenever different though or ideas where found, it should be use under different field and plans.

Keywords: arts integration, co-working, children's musical

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9867 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability: Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: working capital management, working capital investment, working capital finance, profitability, cash conversion cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
9866 Nurses' Assessments of Their Work Environments

Authors: Manar Aslan, Selver Gokdemir, Chatitze Chousein

Abstract:

This research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting the working environment of nurses working in three state hospitals. A favorable working environment contributes to increased job satisfaction of nurses and improved working conditions that affects the quality of the work done in a positive way. The population of the study was composed the three largest state hospitals in the region of Thrace in Turkey and 931 nurses working in there. In this research was not used any sampling method. The sampling was composed of nurses who accepted to take part in this research from three hospitals. It was used nursing work index-the practice work environment scale (Turkish version) for data collection (Cronbach alpha: 0.94).When the total scale scores of the nurses in the research were examined, it was determined that they evaluated the working environment below the average. It was also determined that the adequacy of human and other resources, dimensions of the physician-nurse communication scores were low. As in every profession group, the working environment in nursing has an importance to provide quality health and nursing care. A favorable working environment will increase nurses' performance and satisfaction with their work. Identifying the factors affecting the working environment and carrying out the remedial work for them will increase the quality of the health service.

Keywords: work environment, work index, nursing, hospitals

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9865 Economical Working Hours per Workday for a Production Worker under Hazardous Environment

Authors: Mohammed Darwish

Abstract:

Workplace injuries cost organizations significant amount of money. Causes of injuries at workplace are very well documented in the literature and attributed to variety of reasons. One important reason is the long working-hours. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model that finds the optimal working-hours at workplace. The developed model minimizes the expected total cost which consists of the expected cost incurred due to unsafe conditions of workplace, the other cost is related to the lost production due to work incidents, and the production cost.

Keywords: 8-hour workday, mathematical model, optimal working hours, workplace injuries

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9864 A Qualitative Study: Determination of the Working Conditions and Knowledge Levels of Oncology Nurses in Terms of Employee Safety

Authors: Rujnan Tuna, Ulku Baykal

Abstract:

The antineoplastic drugs used in cancer treatment directly have adverse effects on health of both patients receiving the treatment and oncology nurses preparing and administering the treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the working conditions of the oncology nurses in terms of employee safety as well as their knowledge levels regarding the safe use of antineoplastic drugs. This is a qualitative study conducted in the phenomenological design. Purposeful sampling method was used to carry out the interviews. The individual, in-depth, and semi-structured face-to-face interviews continued with 25 oncology nurses, who were working in an oncology centre in the city of Istanbul. Qualitative content analysis approach was used for the analysis of the obtained data in the study. The results of the study were gathered under 4 main themes; work-related factors, employee safety, working conditions, and training. The interviewed oncology nurses stated that the protective measures related to the safe use of the antineoplastic drugs were insufficient, and only 20% of the nurses have chemotherapy preparation certificate and they received this certificate after they started working in this unit. Also, after they had begun to work in that unit, they started to experience with so many health problems As happens all over the world, there have also been policies and standards regarding the safe use of antineoplastic drugs in Turkey; however, it is found that they remain insufficient to put into practice.

Keywords: antineoplastic drug, employee safety, nurse, oncology, qualitative study

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9863 COVID-19, Employee Perspectives, and the Shifting Nature of Work

Authors: Jonathan H. Westover, Maureen S. Andrade, Angela Schill, Jeff Peterson, Samuel Choi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to understand employee perspectives on their work characteristics and conditions, particularly related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the future of work. Working conditions impact job satisfaction. People tend to measure job satisfaction by comparing aspects of the job they have with those they want. Job satisfaction is related to the value that one places on specific aspects of a job, such as autonomy, pay and benefits, challenge, growth, or meaningful work, and the degree to which such elements are present. The value one places on these various job characteristics may differ based on gender, age, personality, occupation, context, or other factors. This study will examine various job characteristics and working conditions with an emphasis on COVID-19 to determine how managers and leaders and better support and develop their employees.

Keywords: COVID-19, employee perspectives nature of work, future of work

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9862 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi

Abstract:

The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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9861 Power Transformers Insulation Material Investigations: Partial Discharge

Authors: Jalal M. Abdallah

Abstract:

There is a great problem in testing and investigations the reliability of different type of transformers insulation materials. It summarized in how to create and simulate the real conditions of working transformer and testing its insulation materials for Partial Discharge PD, typically as in the working mode. A lot of tests may give untrue results as the physical behavior of the insulation material differs under tests from its working condition. In this work, the real working conditions were simulated, and a large number of specimens have been tested. The investigations first stage, begin with choosing samples of different types of insulation materials (papers, pressboards, etc.). The second stage, the samples were dried in ovens at 105 C0and 0.01bar for 48 hours, and then impregnated with dried and gasless oil (the water content less than 6 ppm.) at 105 C0and 0.01bar for 48 hours, after so specimen cooling at room pressure and temperature for 24 hours. The third stage is investigating PD for the samples using ICM PD measuring device. After that, a continuous test on oil-impregnated insulation materials (paper, pressboards) was developed, and the phase resolved partial discharge pattern of PD signals was measured. The important of this work in providing the industrial sector with trusted high accurate measuring results based on real simulated working conditions. All the PD patterns (results) associated with a discharge produced in well-controlled laboratory condition. They compared with other previous and other laboratory results. In addition, the influence of different temperatures condition on the partial discharge activities was studied.

Keywords: transformers, insulation materials, voids, partial discharge

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9860 Investigation of Enhanced Geothermal System with CO2 as Working Fluid

Authors: Ruina Xu, Peixue Jiang, Feng Luo

Abstract:

The novel concept of enhanced geothermal system with CO2 instead of water as working fluid (CO2-EGS) has attracted wide attention due to additional benefit of CO2 geological storage during the power generation process. In this research, numerical investigation on a doublet CO2-EGS system is performed, focusing on the influence of the injection/production well perforation location in the targeted geothermal reservoir. Three different reservoir inlet and outlet boundary conditions are used in simulations since the well constrains are different in reality. The results show that CO2-EGS system performance of power generation and power cost vary greatly among cases of different wells perforation locations, and the optimum options under different boundary conditions are also different.

Keywords: Enhanced Geothermal System, supercritical CO2, heat transfer, CO2-EGS

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9859 Motivation Needs in Working of the Employees in Rayong Province: A Case Study of Panakom Co., Ltd.

Authors: Ganratchakan Ninlawan, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to investigate motivation needs in working of the employees in Rayong Province at Panakom Co., Ltd. The sample group included 59 operational employees of Panakom Co., Ltd divided into 2 main parts to complete the questionnaires. Part 1 dealt with personal information of the staff in the form of checklist questions. Part 2 was about the motivation needs in working in the form of 5 rating scales. The data were analyzed to find frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, and SD with the results as follows. They reported their working conditions in the moderate level while the first aspect was on the regulation of the Working Support Department. The second rated aspect was on the modern facilities and office stationeries followed by the working environment such as lighting, temperature, sound system, and atmosphere. The last aspect was on the provision of enough working equipment. On the part of work stability and work progress, they rated this aspect at the moderate level with the details below. The first aspect was their satisfaction in work rotation followed by the encouragement in joining training and seminar to increase working knowledge. The third aspect was their perception on the progress of their careers. The last aspect was on the chance to get promoted in special cases. On the payment and fringe benefit, they rated this part in the moderate level with the highest aspect being on the provided fringe benefit such as health care. The second aspect was on the suitable salary compared to their knowledge and proficiency. The third aspect was on the satisfaction on the activities and seminars provided by the company. Finally, the last aspect was on the sufficient salary when compared with the current cost of living.

Keywords: motivation needs, working, employees, Rayong Province

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9858 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb

Abstract:

Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: fluid flow, heat transfer, numerical analysis, spongy-porous media, thermal performance, transient conditions

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9857 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze

Abstract:

In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

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9856 Working Capital Management Effectiveness

Authors: Asif Iqbal

Abstract:

Working capital management has its effect on liquidity as well as on profitability of a firm. In this research we have selected a sample of 100 respondents whose firms are listed on Karachi stock exchange. We have studied the effect of different variable s of working capital management. We find that organizations throughout the world as well as in Pakistan have to give immense recognition to the working capital management as it is an effective thing from their long term perspective especially to their shareholders to have a firm confidence over the companies for investment purpose.

Keywords: working capital management, Karachi stock exchange, shareholders, capital management

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
9855 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

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9854 An Occupational Analysis on Chikankari Industry Workers in Lucknow City, India

Authors: Mahvish Anjum

Abstract:

India is a land of craftsmen and a hub of many popular embroidery clusters. Chikankari is the name given to the delicate art of hand embroidery, traditionally practiced in the city of Lucknow and its environs. Chikankari not only provide employment to 250,000 artisans of different crafts but people from non-craft base also earn their livelihood by associating themselves with this craft. People working in this sector are exploited in term of working hours, low and irregular income, unsatisfactory work conditions, no legal protection and exposed to occupational health hazards. The present paper is an attempt to analyse occupational profile of workers engaged in Chikan embroidery industry. Being an empirical study, the entire work is based upon primary sources of data which have collected through field survey. Purposive random sampling has used for selection of data. Total 150 workers have surveyed through questionnaire technique in Lucknow city during October-November, 2017. For analysis of data Z-score, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation techniques are used. The result of present study indicates that artisans are exploited by the middle man and face the problem of late payment and long working hours because they are not directly associated with the manufacturers. Work conditions of the workers are quite poor such as improper ventilation, poor light and unhygienic conditions that adversely affect the health of workers.

Keywords: artisans, socio-economic status, unorganized industry, work condition

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9853 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla

Abstract:

The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

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9852 Analysis of the Advent of Multinational Corporations in Developing Countries: Case Study of Nike Factories Expansion in Vietnam

Authors: Khue Do Phan

Abstract:

Nike has been confronted by the press with their harsh working conditions, underpayment and highly-labor intensive requirement to their manufacturing workers and hiring of underage workers in Vietnam, Nike's largest production center. To analyze this topic critically through an international relations perspective, theory of dependency will be used to criticize the notion of exploitation of resources from developed countries towards developing countries. Theory of economic liberalism will be used to support the notion private property, the free market and generally capitalism as beneficial to both developing and developed countries. Workers are mentally, physically and sexually abused in the factories. In addition to this, their working conditions consist of improper training, lack of safety equipment, exposure of chemicals (glues and pants), their average wage is below the minimum wage in their country; the workers have to work around 60 hours or more a week. Even Nike says that the conditions are regulated often to make sure the workers get a voice to have their work rights and safe working environment. The monitors come to analyze the factories but in the end talk to the employers, whom are the direct abusers to the employees. Health benefits are rarely granted to the employees; they are forced to pay their bills first then the company will reimburse them later. They would also get in trouble for using the bathroom, taking a lunch break or sick days off because this would mean it would decrease their hours of work, leading to an even lower wage and a really angry employer. Of course with the press criticizing Nike’s lack of respect for human rights and working rights, Nike has been working on policy making and implementation to deal with the abuses. Due to its large chains and a great number of outsourcing host countries, the changes that Nike wish or attempt to make have not be in effect as quickly nor spreading to all countries it holds accountable for in its outsourcing factories.

Keywords: dependency theory, economic liberalism, human rights, outsource

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9851 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

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9850 An Analysis on Fibre-Reinforced Composite Material Usage on Urban Furniture

Authors: Nilgun Becenen

Abstract:

In this study, the structural properties of composite materials with the plastic matrix, which are used in body parts of urban furniture were investigated. Surfaces of the specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM: JSM-5200, JEOL) and Climatic environmental test analyses in laboratory conditions were used to analyze the performance of the composite samples. Climate conditions were determined as follow; 3 hour working under the conditions of -10 ºC heat and 20 % moisture, Heating until 45 ºC for 4 hours, 3 hour work at 45 ºC, 3 hour work under the conditions of 45 ºC heat and 80 % moisture, Cooling at -10 ºC for 4 hours. In this cycle, the atmospheric conditions that urban furniture would be exposed to in the open air were taken into consideration. Particularly, sudden heat changes and humidity effect were investigated. The climate conditions show that performance in Low Temperatures: The endurance isn’t affected, hardness does not change, tensile, bending and impact resistance does not change, the view isn’t affected. It has a high environmental performance.

Keywords: fibre-reinforced material, glass fiber, textile science, polymer composites

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9849 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: age, gender, short-term memory, working memory

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9848 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: transportation, subjective well-being (SWB), commuting, happiness

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9847 Investigation on The Feasibility of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System in Libya

Authors: A. S. Zgalei, B. T. Al-Mabrouk

Abstract:

With a particularly significant growth rate observed in the Libyan commercial and residential buildings coupled with a growth in energy demand, solar desiccant evaporative cooling offers energy savings and promises a good sharing for sustainable buildings where the availability of solar radiation matches with the cooling load demand. The paper presents a short introduction for the desiccant systems. A mathematical model of a selected system has been developed and a simulation has been performed in order to investigate the system performance at different working conditions and an optimum design of the system structure is established. The results showed a technical feasibility of the system working under the Libyan climatic conditions with a reasonable COP at temperatures that can be obtained through the solar reactivation system. Discussion of the results and the recommendations for future work are proposed.

Keywords: computer program, solar desiccant wheel cooling, system modelling, simulation, technical feasibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 466