Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15778

Search results for: microemulsion method

15778 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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15777 Combination Approach Using Experiments and Optimal Experimental Design to Optimize Chemical Concentration in Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Process

Authors: H. Tai Pham, Bae Wisup, Sungmin Jung, Ivan Efriza, Ratna Widyaningsih, Byung Un Min


The middle-phase-microemulsion in Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) solution and oil play important roles in the success of an ASP flooding process. The high quality microemulsion phase has ultralow interfacial tensions and it can increase oil recovery. The research used optimal experimental design and response-surface-methodology to predict the optimum concentration of chemicals in ASP solution for maximum microemulsion quality. Secondly, this optimal ASP formulation was implemented in core flooding test to investigate the effective injection volume. As the results, the optimum concentration of surfactants in the ASP solution is 0.57 wt.% and the highest effective injection volume is 19.33% pore volume.

Keywords: optimize, ASP, response surface methodology, solubilization ratio

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15776 Formulation and Optimization of Topical 5-Fluorouracil Microemulsions Using Central Compisite Design

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, V. R. Sinha


Water in oil topical microemulsions of 5-FU were developed and optimized using face centered central composite design. Topical w/o microemulsion of 5-FU were prepared using sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), with different oils such as oleic acid (OA), triacetin (TA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM). The ternary phase diagrams designated the microemulsion region and face centered central composite design helped in determining the effects of selected variables viz. type of oil, smix ratio and water concentration on responses like drug content, globule size and viscosity of microemulsions. The CCD design exhibited that the factors have statistically significant effects (p<0.01) on the selected responses. The actual responses showed excellent agreement with the predicted values as suggested by the CCD with lower residual standard error. Similarly, the optimized values were found within the range as predicted by the model. Furthermore, other characteristics of microemulsions like pH, conductivity were investigated. For the optimized microemulsion batch, ex-vivo skin flux, skin irritation and retention studies were performed and compared with marketed 5-FU formulation. In ex vivo skin permeation studies, higher skin retention of drug and minimal flux was achieved for optimized microemulsion batch then the marketed cream. Results confirmed the actual responses to be in agreement with predicted ones with least residual standard errors. Controlled release of drug was achieved for the optimized batch with higher skin retention of 5-FU, which can further be utilized for the treatment of many dermatological disorders.

Keywords: 5-FU, central composite design, microemulsion, ternanry phase diagram

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15775 Dispersions of Carbon Black in Microemulsions

Authors: Mohamed Youssry, Dominique Guyomard, Bernard Lestriez


In order to enhance the energy and power densities of electrodes for energy storage systems, the formulation and processing of electrode slurries proved to be a critical issue in determining the electrode performance. In this study, we introduce novel approach to formulate carbon black slurries based on microemulsion and lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (namely, lamellar phase) composed of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100), decanol and water. Simultaneous measurements of electrical properties of slurries under shear flow (rheology) have been conducted to elucidate the microstructure evolution with the surfactant concentration and decanol/water ratio at rest, as well as, the structural transition under steady-shear which has been confirmed by rheo-microscopy. Interestingly, the carbon black slurries at low decanol/water ratio are weak-gel (flowable) with higher electrical conductivity than those at higher ratio which behave strong-gel viscoelastic response. In addition, the slurries show recoverable electrical behaviour under shear flow in tandem with the viscosity trend. It is likely that oil-in-water microemulsion enhances slurries’ stability without affecting on the percolating network of carbon black. On the other hand, the oil-in-water analogous and bilayer structure of lamellar phase cause the slurries less conductive as a consequence of losing the network percolation. These findings are encouraging to formulate microemulsion-based electrodes for energy storage system (lithium-ion batteries).

Keywords: electrode slurries, microemulsion, microstructure transition, rheo-electrical properties

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15774 Development of Biosurfactant-Based Adjuvant for Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency

Authors: Kanyarat Sikhao, Nichakorn Khondee


Adjuvant is commonly mixed with agricultural spray solution during foliar application to improve the performance of microbial-based biological control, including better spreading, absorption, and penetration on a plant leaf. This research aims to replace chemical surfactants in adjuvant by biosurfactants for reducing a negative impact on antagonistic microorganisms and crops. Biosurfactant was produced from Brevibacterium casei NK8 and used as a cell-free broth solution containing a biosurfactant concentration of 3.7 g/L. The studies of microemulsion formation and phase behavior were applied to obtain the suitable composition of biosurfactant-based adjuvant, consisting of cell-free broth (70-80%), coconut oil-based fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate (1-7%), and sodium chloride (8-30%). The suitable formula, achieving Winsor Type III microemulsion (bicontinuous), was 80% of cell-free broth, 7% of fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate, and 8% sodium chloride. This formula reduced the contact angle of water on parafilm from 70 to 31 degrees. The non-phytotoxicity against plant seed of Oryza sativa and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis were obtained from biosurfactant-based adjuvant (germination index equal and above 80%), while sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80 showed phytotoxic effects to these plant seeds. The survival of Bacillus subtilis in biosurfactant-based adjuvant was higher than sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80. The mixing of biosurfactant and plant-based surfactant could be considered as a viable, safer, and acceptable alternative to chemical adjuvant for sustainable organic farming.

Keywords: biosurfactant, microemulsion, bio-adjuvant, antagonistic microorganisms

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15773 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Pal, R. Singh, S. Sivakumar, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: nanoparticles, reverse micelles, nickel, tungsten

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15772 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand


In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: malachite green, nanocomposite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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15771 Socratic Style of Teaching: An Analysis of Dialectical Method

Authors: Muhammad Jawwad, Riffat Iqbal


Socratic Method, also known as dialectical method and elenctic method, has significant relevancy in the contemporary educational system. It can be incorporated in modern day educational systems theoretically as well as practically. Being interactive and dialogue based in nature, this teaching approach is followed by critical thinking and innovation. The pragmatic value of the Dialectical Method has been discussed in this article and the limitations of the Socratic Method have been highlighted also. The interactive Method of Socrates can be used in many subjects of the students of different grades. The Limitations and delimitations of the Method have also been discussed for its proper implementation. In this article, it has been attempted to elaborate and analyze the teaching method of Socrates with all its pre-suppositions and Epistemological character.

Keywords: Socratic method, dialectical method, knowledge, teaching, virtue

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15770 Detailed Analysis of Mechanism of Crude Oil and Surfactant Emulsion

Authors: Riddhiman Sherlekar, Umang Paladia, Rachit Desai, Yash Patel


A number of surfactants which exhibit ultra-low interfacial tension and an excellent microemulsion phase behavior with crude oils of low to medium gravity are not sufficiently soluble at optimum salinity to produce stable aqueous solutions. Such solutions often show phase separation after a few days at reservoir temperature, which does not suffice the purpose and the time is short when compared to the residence time in a reservoir for a surfactant flood. The addition of polymer often exacerbates the problem although the poor stability of the surfactant at high salinity remains a pivotal issue. Surfactants such as SDS, Ctab with large hydrophobes produce lowest IFT, but are often not sufficiently water soluble at desired salinity. Hydrophilic co-solvents and/or co-surfactants are needed to make the surfactant-polymer solution stable at the desired salinity. This study focuses on contrasting the effect of addition of a co-solvent in stability of a surfactant –oil emulsion. The idea is to use a co-surfactant to increase stability of an emulsion. Stability of the emulsion is enhanced because of creation of micro-emulsion which is verified both visually and with the help of particle size analyzer at varying concentration of salinity, surfactant and co-surfactant. A lab-experimental method description is provided and the method is described in detail to permit readers to emulate all results. The stability of the oil-water emulsion is visualized with respect to time, temperature, salinity of the brine and concentration of the surfactant. Nonionic surfactant TX-100 when used as a co-surfactant increases the stability of the oil-water emulsion. The stability of the prepared emulsion is checked by observing the particle size distribution. For stable emulsion in volume% vs particle size curve, the peak should be obtained for particle size of 5-50 nm while for the unstable emulsion a bigger sized particles are observed. The UV-Visible spectroscopy is also used to visualize the fraction of oil that plays important role in the formation of micelles in stable emulsion. This is important as the study will help us to decide applicability of the surfactant based EOR method for a reservoir that contains a specific type of crude. The use of nonionic surfactant as a co-surfactant would also increase the efficiency of surfactant EOR. With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that EOR technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. Taking this into consideration, the work focuses on the optimization of the secondary recovery(Water flooding) with the help of surfactant and/or co-surfactants by creating desired conditions in the reservoir.

Keywords: co-surfactant, enhanced oil recovery, micro-emulsion, surfactant flooding

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15769 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin


In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

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15768 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Arezoo Hakimi, Afshin Farahbakhsh


Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal method, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

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15767 A Comparison of Smoothing Spline Method and Penalized Spline Regression Method Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn


This paper presents a study about a nonparametric regression model consisting of a smoothing spline method and a penalized spline regression method. We also compare the techniques used for estimation and prediction of nonparametric regression model. We tried both methods with crude oil prices in dollars per barrel and the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index. According to the results, it is concluded that smoothing spline method performs better than that of penalized spline regression method.

Keywords: nonparametric regression model, penalized spline regression method, smoothing spline method, Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET)

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15766 Rheological Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Precursor of Based-Poloxamer 407 or Polyethylenimine Liquid Crystal System for Buccal Administration

Authors: Jéssica Bernegossi, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Marlus Chorilli


Mucoadhesive liquid crystalline systems are emerging how delivery systems for oral cavity. These systems are interesting since they facilitate the targeting of medicines and change the release enabling a reduction in the number of applications made by the patient. The buccal mucosa is permeable besides present a great blood supply and absence of first pass metabolism, it is a good route of administration. It was developed two systems liquid crystals utilizing as surfactant the ethyl alcohol ethoxylated and propoxylated (30%) as oil phase the oleic acid (60%), and the aqueous phase (10%) dispersion of polymer polyethylenimine (0.5%) or dispersion of polymer poloxamer 407 (16%), with the intention of applying the buccal mucosa. Initially, was performed for characterization of systems the conference by polarized light microscopy and rheological analysis. For the preparation of the systems the components described was added above in glass vials and shaken. Then, 30 and 100% artificial saliva were added to each prepared formulation so as to simulate the environment of the oral cavity. For the verification of the system structure, aliquots of the formulations were observed in glass slide and covered with a coverslip, examined in polarized light microscope (PLM) Axioskop - Zeizz® in 40x magnifier. The formulations were also evaluated for their rheological profile Rheometer TA Instruments®, which were obtained rheograms the selected systems employing fluency mode (flow) in temperature of 37ºC (98.6ºF). In PLM, it was observed that in formulations containing polyethylenimine and poloxamer 407 without the addition of artificial saliva was observed dark-field being indicative of microemulsion, this was also observed with the formulation that was increased with 30% of the artificial saliva. In the formulation that was increased with 100% simulated saliva was shown to be a system structure since it presented anisotropy with the presence of striae being indicative of hexagonal liquid crystalline mesophase system. Upon observation of rheograms, both systems without the addition of artificial saliva showed a Newtonian profile, after addition of 30% artificial saliva have been given a non-Newtonian behavior of the pseudoplastic-thixotropic type and after adding 100% of the saliva artificial proved plastic-thixotropic. Furthermore, it is clearly seen that the formulations containing poloxamer 407 have significantly larger (15-800 Pa) shear stress compared to those containing polyethyleneimine (5-50 Pa), indicating a greater plasticity of these. Thus, it is possible to observe that the addition of saliva was of interest to the system structure, starting from a microemulsion for a liquid crystal system, thereby also changing thereby its rheological behavior. The systems have promising characteristics as controlled release systems to the oral cavity, as it features good fluidity during its possible application and greater structuring of the system when it comes into contact with environmental saliva.

Keywords: liquid crystal system, poloxamer 407, polyethylenimine, rheology

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15765 Influence of Optimization Method on Parameters Identification of Hyperelastic Models

Authors: Bale Baidi Blaise, Gilles Marckmann, Liman Kaoye, Talaka Dya, Moustapha Bachirou, Gambo Betchewe, Tibi Beda


This work highlights the capabilities of particles swarm optimization (PSO) method to identify parameters of hyperelastic models. The study compares this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) method, Least Squares (LS) method, Pattern Search Algorithm (PSA) method, Beda-Chevalier (BC) method and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method. Four classic hyperelastic models are used to test the different methods through parameters identification. Then, the study compares the ability of these models to reproduce experimental Treloar data in simple tension, biaxial tension and pure shear.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, identification, hyperelastic, model

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15764 Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method

Authors: M. K. Balyan


The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.

Keywords: dynamical diffraction, hologram, object image, X-ray holography

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15763 Modified Approximation Methods for Finding an Optimal Solution for the Transportation Problem

Authors: N. Guruprasad


This paper presents a modification of approximation method for transportation problems. The initial basic feasible solution can be computed using either Russel's or Vogel's approximation methods. Russell’s approximation method provides another excellent criterion that is still quick to implement on a computer (not manually) In most cases Russel's method yields a better initial solution, though it takes longer than Vogel's method (finding the next entering variable in Russel's method is in O(n1*n2), and in O(n1+n2) for Vogel's method). However, Russel's method normally has a lesser total running time because less pivots are required to reach the optimum for all but small problem sizes (n1+n2=~20). With this motivation behind we have incorporated a variation of the same – what we have proposed it has TMC (Total Modified Cost) to obtain fast and efficient solutions.

Keywords: computation, efficiency, modified cost, Russell’s approximation method, transportation, Vogel’s approximation method

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15762 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman


Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: steepest descent, line search, iteration, running time, unconstrained optimization, convergence

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15761 Microstructural Investigations of Metal Oxides Encapsulated Thermochromic Materials

Authors: Yusuf Emirov, Abdullatif Hakami, Prasanta K Biswas, Elias K Stefanakos, Sesha S Srinivasan


This study is aimed to develop microencapsulated thermochromic materials and the analysis of core-shell formation using high resolution electron microscopy. The candidate metal oxides (e.g., titanium oxide and silicon oxide) used for the microencapsulation of thermochromic materials are based on the microemulsion route that involves the micelle formation using different surfactants. The effectiveness of the core-shell microstructure formationrevealed the influence of surfactants and the metal oxide precursor concentrations. Additionally, a detailed thermal and color chromic behavior of these core-shell microcapsules are evaluated with the pristine thermochromic dye particles.

Keywords: core-shell thermochromic materials, core-shell microstructure formation, thermal and color chromic behavior of core-shell microcapsules, development micro-capsulated thermochromic materials

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15760 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari


Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, crack, torsional loading, meshless method

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15759 An Efficient Approach to Optimize the Cost and Profit of a Tea Garden by Using Branch and Bound Method

Authors: Abu Hashan Md Mashud, M. Sharif Uddin, Aminur Rahman Khan


In this paper, we formulate a new problem as a linear programming and Integer Programming problem and maximize profit within the limited budget and limited resources based on the construction of a tea garden problem. It describes a new idea about how to optimize profit and focuses on the practical aspects of modeling and the challenges of providing a solution to a complex real life problem. Finally, a comparative study is carried out among Graphical method, Simplex method and Branch and bound method.

Keywords: integer programming, tea garden, graphical method, simplex method, branch and bound method

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15758 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito


In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is generally very demanding. In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new construction method called the 'shield switching type micro-tunneling method' which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield method. In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing an intermediate shaft. This paper provides the information, features and construction examples of this newly developed method.

Keywords: micro-tunneling method, secondary lining applied RC segment, sharp curve, shield method, switching type

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15757 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara


This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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15756 Constant Order Predictor Corrector Method for the Solution of Modeled Problems of First Order IVPs of ODEs

Authors: A. A. James, A. O. Adesanya, M. R. Odekunle, D. G. Yakubu


This paper examines the development of one step, five hybrid point method for the solution of first order initial value problems. We adopted the method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method was evaluated at selected grid points to give the discrete linear multistep method. The method was implemented using a constant order predictor of order seven over an overlapping interval. The basic properties of the derived corrector was investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The region of absolute stability was also investigated. The method was tested on some numerical experiments and found to compete favorably with the existing methods.

Keywords: interpolation, approximate solution, collocation, differential system, half step, converges, block method, efficiency

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15755 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee


In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

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15754 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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15753 Ductility Spectrum Method for the Design and Verification of Structures

Authors: B. Chikh, L. Moussa, H. Bechtoula, Y. Mehani, A. Zerzour


This study presents a new method, applicable to evaluation and design of structures has been developed and illustrated by comparison with the capacity spectrum method (CSM, ATC-40). This method uses inelastic spectra and gives peak responses consistent with those obtained when using the nonlinear time history analysis. Hereafter, the seismic demands assessment method is called in this paper DSM, Ductility Spectrum Method. It is used to estimate the seismic deformation of Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) systems based on DDRS, Ductility Demand Response Spectrum, developed by the author.

Keywords: seismic demand, capacity, inelastic spectra, design and structure

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15752 Stating Best Commercialization Method: An Unanswered Question from Scholars and Practitioners

Authors: Saheed A. Gbadegeshin


Commercialization method is a means to make inventions available at the market for final consumption. It is described as an important tool for keeping business enterprises sustainable and improving national economic growth. Thus, there are several scholarly publications on it, either presenting or testing different methods for commercialization. However, young entrepreneurs, technologists and scientists would like to know the best method to commercialize their innovations. Then, this question arises: What is the best commercialization method? To answer the question, a systematic literature review was conducted, and practitioners were interviewed. The literary results revealed that there are many methods but new methods are needed to improve commercialization especially during these times of economic crisis and political uncertainty. Similarly, the empirical results showed there are several methods, but the best method is the one that reduces costs, reduces the risks associated with uncertainty, and improves customer participation and acceptability. Therefore, it was concluded that new commercialization method is essential for today's high technologies and a method was presented.

Keywords: commercialization method, technology, knowledge, intellectual property, innovation, invention

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15751 Critical Comparison of Two Teaching Methods: The Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Teaching Method

Authors: Aicha Zohbie


The purpose of this paper is to critically compare two teaching methods: the communicative method and the grammar-translation method. The paper presents the importance of language awareness as an approach to teaching and learning language and some challenges that language teachers face. In addition, the paper strives to determine whether the adoption of communicative teaching methods or the grammar teaching method would be more effective to teach a language. A variety of features are considered for comparing the two methods: the purpose of each method, techniques used, teachers’ and students’ roles, the use of L1, the skills that are emphasized, the correction of students’ errors, and the students’ assessments. Finally, the paper includes suggestions and recommendations for implementing an approach that best meets the students’ needs in a classroom.

Keywords: language teaching methods, language awareness, communicative method grammar translation method, advantages and disadvantages

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15750 Numerical Iteration Method to Find New Formulas for Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Kholod Mohammad Abualnaja


A new algorithm is presented to find some new iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations F(x)=0 by using the variational iteration method. The efficiency of the considered method is illustrated by example. The results show that the proposed iteration technique, without linearization or small perturbation, is very effective and convenient.

Keywords: variational iteration method, nonlinear equations, Lagrange multiplier, algorithms

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15749 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady


In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method.

Keywords: cable ampacity, finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating

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