Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5546

Search results for: multilingual education

5546 Teachers Handbook: A Key to Imparting Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms at Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS)

Authors: Sushree Sangita Mohanty

Abstract:

The pedagogic system, which is used to work with indigenous groups, who have equally different socio-economic, socio-cultural & multi-lingual conditions with differing cognitive capabilities, makes the education situation complex. As a result, educating the indigenous people became just the dissemination of facts and information, but advancement in knowledge and possibilities somewhere hides. This gap arises complexities due to the language barrier and the teachers from a conventional background of teaching practices are unable to understand or connect with the students in the schools. This paper presents the research work of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) project that has developed a creative pedagogic endeavor for the students of Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS) for facilitating Multilingual Education (MLE) teaching. KISS is a home for 25,000 indigenous children. The students enrolled here are from 62 different indigenous communities who speak around 24 different languages with geographical articulation. The book contents include concept, understanding languages, similitudes among languages, the need of mother tongue in teaching and learning, skill development (Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing), teachers activities for teaching in multilingual schools, the process of teaching, training format of multilingual teaching and procedures for basic data collection regarding multilingual schools and classroom handle.

Keywords: indigenous, multi-lingual, pedagogic, teachers, teaching practices

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5545 Strategies and Problems of Teachers in Using Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

Authors: Ezayra Dubria, Leonora Yambao

Abstract:

Mother Tongue–Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is a salient part of the recent reform in the country’s Education system which is the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Its importance is highlighted by the passing of Republic Act 10523, otherwise known as the ‘Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013’. However, teachers, especially new teachers encounter problems in using mother tongue as medium of instruction. Fortunately, teachers are able to create strategies which address these problems. Specifically, this paper gathered the viewpoints of teachers in using mother tongue and analyzed the different problems and strategies used. The problems encountered by teachers are lack of instructional materials written in mother tongue, especially books, lack of vocabulary, lack of teacher training, and influences of social media to learners. The strategies which address these problems are translation of literary pieces and other instructional materials, vocabulary enrichment through the use of word-of-the-day and picture-word association, remedial class, storytelling, differentiated instruction, explicit teaching, individual and group activities, and utilization of multilingual teaching.

Keywords: mother tongue-based instruction, multilingualism, problems, strategies

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5544 Enhancing Quality Education through Multilingual Pedagogy: A Critical Perspective

Authors: Aita Bishowkarma

Abstract:

Ensuring quality education in primary level in multi-ethnic, multi- religious, multi-cultural and multilingual country Nepal which accommodates 123 ethnic languages (CBS 2011) has come across a big challenge. The discourse on the policies and practices to take advantage of the rich heritage of cultural and linguistic diversity in the pursuit of quality primary education to ethnic/linguistic minority children in Nepal gives in a critical observation of Nepalese perspective in the global academia. Situating the linguistic diversity of Nepal, primary education to children is better through mother tongue. Nepali as official or national language is another important language to be taught to the children. Similarly, craze for English has been inevitable for international communication and job opportunity in the global markets. This paper critically examines the current use of trilingual policy in mother tongue based multilingual education (MT-MLE) in Nepal from the perspective of exploiting linguistic diversity in classroom pedagogy. The researcher adopted mixed method research design applying descriptive measure and explanatory research methods. 24 teachers and 48 students from 6 multilingual schools were selected purposively to dig out their language use, language attitude and language preferences to reveal their preference and attitude towards mother tongue, Nepali and English through questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The study shows, in a true multilingual system, all languages (mother tongue, languages of region, nation and wider communication) can have their legitimate place; bridging from the mother tongue to the regional language and national to international language; further leading to meaningful participation in the wider democratic global context. Trilingual policy of mother tongue, national language and international language seemed pertinent however, not sufficient. The finding of the study shows that for quality education in primary education mother tongue based critical multilingual pedagogy through language coexistence approach with contextual variation seems enviable.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, language co-existence, linguistic diversity, quality education

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5543 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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5542 Mother Tounge Based Multilingual Education Policy: Voices of Two Cities, 'The Voice of Laguna'

Authors: Cecilia Velasco, Q.

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to find out the perceived efficiency, appropriateness effectiveness, acceptability and relevance, if at all such exist, of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy under the K-12 Curriculum, as seen by the stakeholders who are directly affected by this policy. The researcher believed that it is right and fitting to get the views and opinions of the people directly involved and/or concerned about this education policy. The results of the study will hopefully guide lawmakers and/or policymakers to fine-tune educational policy or policies. The locale of the study was the DepEd schools in Laguna, (San Pablo City and other nearby cities). The subjects of the study were the teachers (first phase) from the public schools of Department of Education (San Pablo City), in particular and parents (second phase) from nearby cities who are the direct stakeholders of this Policy. To determine the perception of the teachers toward Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy; its acceptability, efficiency, appropriateness, effectiveness and relevance, factor analysis was used to refine the instrument (questionnaire). To find out the significant difference between the perceptions of the primary and intermediate group of teachers, including those who teach mother tongue and non-mother tongue subjects, t-test of difference between means was employed.

Keywords: DepEd, K12 curriculum, MTBMLE, stakeholders

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5541 Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

Authors: Stanle Madonsela

Abstract:

For learning to take place effectively, learners have to use language. Language becomes a critical tool by which to communicate, to express feelings, desires and thoughts, and most of all to learn. However, each individual’s capacity to use language is unique. In multilingual countries, classrooms usually comprise learners from different language backgrounds, and therefore the language used for teaching and learning requires rethinking. Interaction in the classroom, if done in a language that is understood by the learners, could maximise the outcomes of learning. This paper explores the extent to which the use of a single code becomes a source of anxiety to learners in multilingual classrooms in South African schools. It contends that a multilingual approach in the learning process should be explored in order to promote learner autonomy in the learning process.

Keywords: anxiety, classroom, foreign language teaching, multilingual

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5540 Raising Multilingual Awareness towards Plurilingual Competence Development: Through Which Approach and Which Pedagogical Material-A Case Study in the Greek Primary Education

Authors: Eftychia Damaskou

Abstract:

This article intends to place the question of the adequate approach for teaching multilingualism within the public education. Linguistic education, as it is defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for the Languages, is no longer the proficiency in one or two languages. It’s about the development of a linguistic repertoire, where all linguistic skills find their place. In fact, the linguistic theories that frame the development of plurilingual competence point out the affective and intercultural aspect of such a process, insisting on an awareness of linguistic diversification, rather than an acquisition of communicative competence in many languages. In this spirit, our article attempts to go beyond a mere plurilingual awareness, present a research based on an experience in class, within 115 pupils, aiming at the development of plurilingual competence in five unknown foreign languages. This experience was held through a teaching unit personally conceived and applied, and consisted of a series of 6 activities based on a cross-linguistic content approach. The data analysis proves to be very interesting, as it reveals the development of plurilingual competences, as well as positive attitudes towards less common languages by the majority of our sample.

Keywords: multilingual awareness, multilingual teaching material, plurilingual competence

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5539 Wireless Response System Internationalisation Testing for Multilingual

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Abduladim Ali, Joan Lu

Abstract:

Recently, wireless technologies have made tremendous influences in advanced technology era, precisely on the learning environment through PADs and smart phones to engage learners to collaborate effectively. In fact, the wireless communication technologies are widely adopted in the education sectors within most of the countries to deliver education support electronically. Today, Introducing multilingual Wireless Response System (WRS) application is an enormous challenge and complex. The purpose of this paper is to implementing internationalization testing strategy through WRS application case study and proposed a questionnaire in multilingual speakers like (Arabic, Kurdish, Chines, Malaysian, Turkish, Dutch, Polish, Russian) to measure the internationalization testing results which includes localization and cultural testing results. This paper identifies issues with each language’s specification attributes for instance right to left (RTL) screen direction related languages, Linguistic test or word spaces in Chines and Dutch languages. Finally, this paper attempt to emphasizes many challenges and solutions that associated with globalization testing model.

Keywords: mobile WRS, internationalization, globalization testing

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5538 A Multilingual Model in the Multicultural World

Authors: Marina Petrova

Abstract:

Language policy issues related to the preservation and development of the native languages of the Russian peoples and the state languages of the national republics are increasingly becoming the focus of recent attention of educators and parents, public and national figures. Is it legal to teach the national language or the mother tongue as the state language? Due to that dispute language phobia moods easily evolve into xenophobia among the population. However, a civilized, intelligent multicultural personality can only be formed if the country develops bilingualism and multilingualism, and languages as a political tool help to find ‘keys’ to sufficiently closed national communities both within a poly-ethnic state and in internal relations of multilingual countries. The purpose of this study is to design and theoretically substantiate an efficient model of language education in the innovatively developing Republic of Sakha. 800 participants from different educational institutions of Yakutia worked at developing a multilingual model of education. This investigation is of considerable practical importance because researchers could build a methodical system designed to create conditions for the formation of a cultural language personality and the development of the multilingual communicative competence of Yakut youth, necessary for communication in native, Russian and foreign languages. The selected methodology of humane-personal and competence approaches is reliable and valid. Researchers used a variety of sources of information, including access to related scientific fields (philosophy of education, sociology, humane and social pedagogy, psychology, effective psychotherapy, methods of teaching Russian, psycholinguistics, socio-cultural education, ethnoculturology, ethnopsychology). Of special note is the application of theoretical and empirical research methods, a combination of academic analysis of the problem and experienced training, positive results of experimental work, representative series, correct processing and statistical reliability of the obtained data. It ensures the validity of the investigation’s findings as well as their broad introduction into practice of life-long language education.

Keywords: intercultural communication, language policy, multilingual and multicultural education, the Sakha Republic of Yakutia

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5537 Designing an MTB-MLE for Linguistically Heterogenous Contexts: A Practitioner’s Perspective

Authors: Ajay Pinjani, Minha Khan, Ayesha Mehkeri, Anum Iftikhar

Abstract:

There is much research available on the benefits of adopting mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB MLE) in primary school classrooms, but there is limited guidance available on how to design such programs for low-resource and linguistically diverse contexts. This paper is an effort to bridge the gap between theory and practice by offering a practitioner’s perspective on designing an MTB MLE program for linguistically heterogeneous contexts. The research compounds findings from current academic literature on MTB MLE, the study of global MTB MLE programs, interviews with practitioners, policy-makers, and academics worldwide, and a socio-linguistic survey carried out in parts of Tharparkar, Pakistan, the area selected for envisioned pilot implementation. These findings enabled the creation of ‘guiding principles’ which provide structure for the development of a contextualized and holistic MTB-MLE program. The guiding principles direct the creation of teaching and learning materials, creating effective teaching and learning environment, community engagement, and program evaluation. Additionally, the paper demonstrates the development of a context-specific language ladder framework which outlines the language journey of a child’s education, beginning with the mother tongue/ most familiar language in the early years and then gradually transitioning into other languages. Both the guiding principles and language ladder can be adapted to any multilingual context. Thus, this research provides MTB MLE practitioners with assistance in developing an MTB MLE model, which is best suited for their context.

Keywords: mother tongue based multilingual education, education design, language ladder, language issues, heterogeneous contexts

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5536 Multiple Identity Construction among Multilingual Minorities: A Quantitative Sociolinguistic Case Study

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

This paper aims to reveal criterions involved in the process of identity-forming among multilingual minority language speakers in Northeastern Thailand and in the capital Bangkok. Using sociolinguistic interviews and questionnaires, it is asked which factors are important for speakers and how they define their identity by their interactions socially as well as linguistically. One key question to answer is how sociolinguistic factors may force or diminish the process of forming social identity of multilingual minority speakers. However, the motivation for specific language use is rarely overt to the speaker’s themselves as well as to others. Therefore, identifying the intentions included in the process of identity construction is to approach by scrutinizing speaker’s behavior and attitudes. Combining methods used in sociolinguistics and social psychology allows uncovering the tools for identity construction that ethnic Kui uses to range themselves within a multilingual setting. By giving an overview of minority speaker’s language use in context of the specific border near multilingual situation and asking how speakers construe identity within this spatial context, the results exhibit some of the subtle and mostly unconscious criterions involved in the ongoing process of identity construction.

Keywords: social identity, identity construction, minority language, multilingualism, social networks, social boundaries

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5535 Sentiment Analysis: Comparative Analysis of Multilingual Sentiment and Opinion Classification Techniques

Authors: Sannikumar Patel, Brian Nolan, Markus Hofmann, Philip Owende, Kunjan Patel

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis and opinion mining have become emerging topics of research in recent years but most of the work is focused on data in the English language. A comprehensive research and analysis are essential which considers multiple languages, machine translation techniques, and different classifiers. This paper presents, a comparative analysis of different approaches for multilingual sentiment analysis. These approaches are divided into two parts: one using classification of text without language translation and second using the translation of testing data to a target language, such as English, before classification. The presented research and results are useful for understanding whether machine translation should be used for multilingual sentiment analysis or building language specific sentiment classification systems is a better approach. The effects of language translation techniques, features, and accuracy of various classifiers for multilingual sentiment analysis is also discussed in this study.

Keywords: cross-language analysis, machine learning, machine translation, sentiment analysis

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5534 Particular Features of the First Romanian Multilingual Dictionaries

Authors: Mihaela Mocanu

Abstract:

The Romanian multilingual dictionaries – also named polyglot, plurilingual or polylingual dictionaries, have known a slow yet constant development starting with the end of the 17th century, when the first such work is attested, to the present time, when we witness a considerable increase of the number of polyglot dictionaries, especially the terminological ones. This paper aims at analyzing the context in which the first Romanian multilingual dictionaries were issued, as well as and the organization and structure particularities of the first lexicographic works of this type. The irretrievable loss of some of these works as well as the partial conservation of others renders the attempt to retrace the beginnings of Romanian lexicography extremely difficult. The research methodology is part of a descriptive and analytical approach based on two types of sources, subject to contrastive analysis: the notes made by the initiators of lexicographic projects and the testimonies of their contemporaries, respectively, along with the specialized studies regarding the history of the old Romanian lexicography. The analysis of the contents has indicated that these dictionaries lacked a scientific apparatus in the true sense of the phrase, failed to obey unitary organizational criteria, being limited, most of the times, to mere inventories of words, where the Romanian term was assigned its correspondent in other languages. Motivated by practical reasons, the first multilingual dictionaries were aimed at the clerics their purpose being to ensure the translators’ fidelity towards the original religious texts, regarded as sacred.

Keywords: Romanian lexicography, multilingual dictionary, terminology, language

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5533 A Case Study on Vocational Teachers’ Perceptions on Their Linguistically and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Authors: Kirsi Korkealehto

Abstract:

In Finland the transformation from homogenous culture into multicultural one as a result of heavy immigration has been rapid in the recent decades. As multilingualism and multiculturalism are growing features in our society, teachers in all educational levels need to be competent for encounters with students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Consequently, also the number of multicultural and multilingual vocational school students has increased which has not been taken into consideration in teacher education enough. To bridge this gap between teachers’ competences and the requirements of the contemporary school world, Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education established the DivEd-project. The aim of the project is to prepare all teachers to work in the linguistically and culturally diverse world they live in, to develop and increase culturally sustaining and linguistically responsive pedagogy in Finland, increase awareness among Teacher Educators working with preservice teachers and to increase awareness and provide specific strategies to in-service teachers. The partners in the nationwide project are 6 universities and 2 universities of applied sciences. In this research, the linguistically and culturally sustainable teaching practices developed within the DivEd-project are tested in practice. This research aims to explore vocational teachers’ perceptions of these multilingualism and multilingual educational practices. The participants of this study are vocational teachers in of different fields. The data were collected by individual, face-to-face interviews. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis. The findings indicate that the vocational teachers experience that they lack knowledge on linguistically and culturally responsive pedagogy. Moreover, they regard themselves in some extent incompetent in incorporating multilingually and multiculturally sustainable pedagogy in everyday teaching work. Therefore, they feel they need more training pertaining multicultural and multilingual knowledge, competences and suitable pedagogical methods for teaching students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: multicultural, multilingual, teacher competence, vocational school

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5532 Communicating Meaning through Translanguaging: The Case of Multilingual Interactions of Algerians on Facebook

Authors: F. Abdelhamid

Abstract:

Algeria is a multilingual speech community where individuals constantly mix between codes in spoken discourse. Code is used as a cover term to refer to the existing languages and language varieties which include, among others, the mother tongue of the majority Algerian Arabic, the official language Modern Standard Arabic and the foreign languages French and English. The present study explores whether Algerians mix between these codes in online communication as well. Facebook is the selected platform from which data is collected because it is the preferred social media site for most Algerians and it is the most used one. Adopting the notion of translanguaging, this study attempts explaining how users of Facebook use multilingual messages to communicate meaning. Accordingly, multilingual interactions are not approached from a pejorative perspective but rather as a creative linguistic behavior that multilingual utilize to achieve intended meanings. The study is intended as a contribution to the research on multilingualism online because although an extensive literature has investigated multilingualism in spoken discourse, limited research investigated it in the online one. Its aim is two-fold. First, it aims at ensuring that the selected platform for analysis, namely Facebook, could be a source for multilingual data to enable the qualitative analysis. This is done by measuring frequency rates of multilingual instances. Second, when enough multilingual instances are encountered, it aims at describing and interpreting some selected ones. 120 posts and 16335 comments were collected from two Facebook pages. Analysis revealed that third of the collected data are multilingual messages. Users of Facebook mixed between the four mentioned codes in writing their messages. The most frequent cases are mixing between Algerian Arabic and French and between Algerian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. A focused qualitative analysis followed where some examples are interpreted and explained. It seems that Algerians mix between codes when communicating online despite the fact that it is a conscious type of communication. This suggests that such behavior is not a random and corrupted way of communicating but rather an intentional and natural one.

Keywords: Algerian speech community, computer mediated communication, languages in contact, multilingualism, translanguaging

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5531 Reed: An Approach Towards Quickly Bootstrapping Multilingual Acoustic Models

Authors: Bipasha Sen, Aditya Agarwal

Abstract:

Multilingual automatic speech recognition (ASR) system is a single entity capable of transcribing multiple languages sharing a common phone space. Performance of such a system is highly dependent on the compatibility of the languages. State of the art speech recognition systems are built using sequential architectures based on recurrent neural networks (RNN) limiting the computational parallelization in training. This poses a significant challenge in terms of time taken to bootstrap and validate the compatibility of multiple languages for building a robust multilingual system. Complex architectural choices based on self-attention networks are made to improve the parallelization thereby reducing the training time. In this work, we propose Reed, a simple system based on 1D convolutions which uses very short context to improve the training time. To improve the performance of our system, we use raw time-domain speech signals directly as input. This enables the convolutional layers to learn feature representations rather than relying on handcrafted features such as MFCC. We report improvement on training and inference times by atleast a factor of 4x and 7.4x respectively with comparable WERs against standard RNN based baseline systems on SpeechOcean's multilingual low resource dataset.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, language compatibility, low resource languages, multilingual automatic speech recognition

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5530 Children and Communities Benefit from Mother-Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education

Authors: Binay Pattanayak

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Multilingual state, Jharkhand is home to more than 19 tribal and regional languages. These are used by more than 33 communities in the state. The state has declared 12 of these languages as official languages of the state. However, schools in the state do not recognize any of these community languages even in early grades! Children, who speak in their mother tongues at home, local market and playground, find it very difficult to understand their teacher and textbooks in school. They fail to acquire basic literacy and numeracy skills in early grades. Out of frustration due to lack of comprehension, the majority of children leave school. Jharkhand sees the highest dropout in early grades in India. To address this, the state under the guidance of the author designed a mother tongue based pre-school education programme named Bhasha Puliya and bilingual picture dictionaries in 9 tribal and regional mother tongues of children. This contributed significantly to children’s school readiness in the school. Followed by this, the state designed a mother-tongue based multilingual education programme (MTB-MLE) for multilingual context. The author guided textbook development in 5 tribal (Santhali, Mundari, Ho, Kurukh and Kharia) and two regional (Odia and Bangla) languages. Teachers and community members were trained for MTB-MLE in around 1,000 schools of the concerned language pockets. Community resource groups were constituted along with their academic calendars in each school to promote story-telling, singing, painting, dancing, riddles, etc. with community support. This, on the one hand, created rich learning environments for children. On the other hand, the communities have discovered a great potential in the process of developing a wide variety of learning materials for children in own mother-tongue using their local stories, songs, riddles, paintings, idioms, skits, etc. as a process of their literary, cultural and technical enrichment. The majority of children are acquiring strong early grade reading skills (basic literacy and numeracy) in grades I-II thereby getting well prepared for higher studies. In a phased manner they are learning Hindi and English after 4-5 years of MTB-MLE using the foundational language learning skills. Community members have started designing new books, audio-visual learning materials in their mother-tongues seeing a great potential for their cultural and technological rejuvenation.

Keywords: community resource groups, MTB-MLE, multilingual, socio-linguistic survey, learning

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5529 The Multi-Lingual Acquisition Patterns of Elementary, High School and College Students in Angeles City, Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante, Leonora Yambao

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The Philippines is a multilingual community. A Filipino learns at least three languages throughout his lifespan. Since languages are learned and picked up simultaneously in the environment, a student naturally develops a language system that combines features of at least three languages: the local language, English and Filipino. This study seeks to investigate this particular phenomenon and aspires to propose a theoretical framework of unique language acquisition in the elementary, high school and college in the three languages spoken and used in media, community, business and school: Kapampangan, the local language; Filipino, the national language; and English. The study randomly selects five students from three participating schools in order to acquire language samples. The samples were analyzed in the subsentential, sentential and suprasentential levels using grammatical theories. The data are classified to map out the pattern of substitution or shifting from one language to another.

Keywords: language acquisition, mother tongue, multiculturalism, multilingual education

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5528 Exploring Mtb-Mle Practices in Selected Schools in Benguet, Philippines

Authors: Jocelyn L. Alimondo, Juna O. Sabelo

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This study explored the MTB-MLE implementation practices of teachers in one monolingual elementary school and one multilingual elementary school in Benguet, Philippines. It used phenomenological approach employing participant-observation, focus group discussion and individual interview. Data were gathered using a video camera, an audio recorder, and an FGD guide and were treated through triangulation and coding. From the data collected, varied ways in implementing the MTB-MLE program were noted. These are: Teaching using a hybrid first language, teaching using a foreign LOI, using translation and multilingual instruction, and using L2/L3 to unlock L1. However, these practices come with challenges such as the a conflict between the mandated LOI and what pupils need, lack of proficiency of teachers in the mandated LOI, facing unreceptive parents, stagnation of knowledge resulting from over-familiarity of input, and zero learning resulting from an incomprehensible language input. From the practices and challenges experienced by the teachers, a model of MTB-MLE approach, the 3L-in-one approach, to teaching was created to illustrate the practice which teachers claimed to be the best way to address the challenges besetting them while at the same time satisfying the academic needs of their pupils. From the findings, this paper concludes that despite the challenges besetting the teachers, they still displayed creativity in coming up with relevant teaching practices, the unreceptiveness of some teachers and parents sprung from the fact that they do not understand the real concept of MTB-MLE, greater challenges are being faced by teachers in multilingual school due to the diverse linguistic background of their clients, and the most effective approach in implementing MTB-MLE is the multilingual approach, allowing the use of the pupils’ mother tongue, L2 (Filipino), L3 (English), and other languages familiar to the students.

Keywords: MTB-MLE Philippines, MTB-MLE model, first language, multilingual instruction

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5527 Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study

Authors: Yesha Devi Mahadeo-Doorgakant

Abstract:

The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.

Keywords: multilingualism, translanguaging, multilingual learner, linguistic ethnography

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5526 English and Information and Communication Technology: Zones of Exclusion in Education in Low-Income Countries

Authors: Ram A. Giri, Amna Bedri, Abdou Niane

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Exclusion in education on the basis of language in multilingual contexts operates at multiple levels. Learners of diverse ethnolinguistic backgrounds are often expected to learn through English and are pushed further down the learning ladder if they also have to access education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper explores marginalized children’s lived experiences in accessing technology and English in four low-income countries in Africa and Asia. Based on the findings of the first phase of a multinational qualitative research study, we report on the factors or barriers that affect children’s access, opportunities and motivation for learning through technology and English. ICT and English - the language of ICT and education - can enhance learning and can even be essential. However, these two important keys to education can also function as barriers to accessing quality education, and therefore as zones of exclusion. This paper looks into how marginalized children (aged 13-15) engage in learning through ICT and English and to what extent the restrictive access and opportunities contribute to the widening of the already existing gap in education. By applying the conceptual frameworks of “access and accessibility of learning” and “zones of exclusion,” the paper elucidates how the barriers prevent children’s effective engagement with learning and addresses such questions as to how marginalized children access technology and English for learning; whether the children value English, and what their motivation and opportunity to learn it are. In addition, the paper will point out policy and pedagogic implications.

Keywords: exclusion, inclusion, inclusive education, marginalization

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5525 Primary School Teacher's Perception of the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam Ambong, Kevin Banawag, Wynne Shane Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moises Kevin Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as respondents of this study in an attempt to answer the major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction. A research on the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and the number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium gave that the respondents are in melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural and urban schools are encouraged. Future researchers should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

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5524 Primary School Teachers’ Perception on the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam C. Ambong, Kevin G. Banawag, Wynne Shane B. Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay R. Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moses Kevin L. Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as the respondents of this study in an attempt to answer three major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as medium of instruction. A research of the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium given that the respondents are in a melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural schools and urban schools are encouraged. Future researches should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

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5523 A Collaborative Platform for Multilingual Ontology Development

Authors: Ahmed Tawfik, Fausto Giunchiglia, Vincenzo Maltese

Abstract:

Ontologies provide a common understanding of a specific domain of interest that can be communicated between people and used as background knowledge for automated reasoning in a wide range of applications. In this paper we address the design of multilingual ontologies following well-defined knowledge engineering methodologies with the support of novel collaborative development approaches. In particular, we present a collaborative platform which allows ontologies to be developed incrementally in multiple languages. This is made possible via an appropriate mapping between language independent concepts and one lexicalization per language (or a lexical gap in case such lexicalization does not exist). The collaborative platform has been designed to support the development of the Universal Knowledge Core, a multilingual ontology currently in English, Italian, Chinese, Mongolian, Hindi, and Bangladeshi. Its design follows a workflow-based development methodology that models resources as a set of collaborative objects and assigns customizable workflows to build and maintain each collaborative object in a community driven manner, with extensive support of modern web 2.0 social and collaborative features.

Keywords: knowledge diversity, knowledge representation, ontology, development

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5522 Multilingualism and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Salome Labeh

Abstract:

Diverse Languages that exist in Nigeria, gave rise to the need to choose among these languages, which one or ones to be used as the National Language(s) in Nigeria. The Multilingual Nature of Nigeria has been examined, in relation to the provisional result of 1991 census conducted in Nigeria and the status of language policy in the country, which eventually led to the discovery of the fact that Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba languages have the highest speaker in terms of population, and are already made co-official languages in Nigeria, alongside with English language. Then, these languages should be considered as the National Languages, if eventually a language policy emerges in Nigeria.

Keywords: multilingual, languages, culture, Nigeria

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5521 The Dilemma of Translanguaging Pedagogy in a Multilingual University in South Africa

Authors: Zakhile Somlata

Abstract:

In the context of international linguistic and cultural diversity, all languages can be used for all purposes. Africa in general and South Africa, in particular, is not an exception to multilingual and multicultural society. The multilingual and multicultural nature of South African society has a direct bearing to the heterogeneity of South African Universities in general. Universities as the centers of research, innovation, and transformation of the entire society should be at the forefront in leading multilingualism. The universities in South Africa had been using English and to a certain extent Afrikaans as the only academic languages during colonialism and apartheid regime. The democratic breakthrough of 1994 brought linguistic relief in South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa recognizes 11 official languages that should enjoy parity of esteem for the realization of multilingualism. The elevation of the nine previously marginalized indigenous African languages as academic languages in higher education is central to multilingualism. It is high time that Afrocentric model instead of Eurocentric model should be the one which underpins education system in South Africa at all levels. Almost all South African universities have their language policies that seek to promote access and success of students through multilingualism, but the main dilemma is the implementation of language policies. This study is significant to respond to two objectives: (i) To evaluate how selected institutions use language policies for accessibility and success of students. (ii) To study how selected universities integrate African languages for both academic and administrative purposes. This paper reflects the language policy practices in one selected University of Technology (UoT) in South Africa. The UoT has its own language policy which depicts linguistic diversity of the institution and its commitment to promote multilingualism. Translanguaging pedagogy which accommodates minority languages' usage in the teaching and learning process plays a pivotal role in promoting multilingualism. This research paper employs mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative research) approach. Qualitative data has been collected from the key informants (insiders and experts), while quantitative data has been collected from a cohort of third-year students. A mixed methods approach with its convergent parallel design allows the data to be collected separately, analysed separately but with the comparison of the results. Language development initiatives have been discussed within the framework of language policy and policy implementation strategies. Theoretically, this paper is rooted in language as a problem, language as a right and language as a resource. The findings demonstrate that despite being a multilingual institution, there is a perpetuation of marginalization of African languages to be used as academic languages. Findings further display the hegemony of English. The promotion of status quo compromises the promotion of multilingualism, Africanization of Higher Education and intellectualization of indigenous African languages in South Africa under a democratic dispensation.

Keywords: afro-centric model, hegemony of English, language as a resource, translanguaging pedagogy

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5520 An Ethnography of Language Policy in Puebla: Investigating Discourses About Multilingualism

Authors: Rosalba Karina Ortiz Saenz

Abstract:

The field of language planning and policy (LPP) has been a fast-developing area of research over the past decades. Recent LPP studies have turned their attention to multilingual contexts where intercultural bilingual programmes have been implemented in an attempt to revitalise indigenous languages. This study focuses on one such programme in the multilingual state of Puebla, Mexico, where Nahuatl used to be the most widely spoken indigenous language before the Colonial Period. In the last decades, however, there has been a language shift due to migration and the influence of Spanish on younger generations. Most grandparents and parents, who experienced racial discrimination due to their indigenous roots, were forced to assimilate the colonial language and culture, and no longer speak Nahuatl to the younger generations, but use Spanish instead. Whilst previous research has focused on teaching methodologies to develop biliteracy skills, the aims, challenges and opportunities of intercultural bilingual education in Puebla and the wider Mexican context, there is scant research on the discursive links between language policy discourses and linguistic practices at the community level. To help fill this gap, this study explores 1) macro-level discourses in official policy documents, 2) school authorities, teachers, and parents’ views on education for indigenous people and use of language varieties, and 3) parents and children’s linguistic practices instantiated in diary entries. Following an Ethnography of Language Policy methodological approach, data were collected from three official language policy documents, seventeen semi-structured interviews with main stakeholders, ten diaries and diary-based interviews, and field note entries. The approach to analysing the data was the Discourse Historical Approach since it is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive connections between discourses and texts from specific contexts and triangulates the analysis of the data by conceptualising ‘context’ in four levels. The findings shed light on three orientations towards LPP in this context: language as problem, as right and as resource. These orientations relate to linguistic discrimination, homogeneity, rights, interculturality, inclusivity, and cultural diversity, and are illustrated in the findings with reference to nomination, predication, argumentation, perspectivisation, and intensification/mitigation strategies. The limitations and implications for LPP are also considered.

Keywords: ethnography of language policy, Mexico, multilingual education, discourse-historical approach

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5519 Multilingual Females and Linguistic Change: A Quantitative and Qualitative Sociolinguistic Case Study of Minority Speaker in Southeast Asia

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Men and women use minority and majority languages differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors of minority language speakers in Southeast Asia. Language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender. Potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes will be given. Moreover, it is analyzed whether women in multilingual minority speakers’ society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It is asked whether the societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal speaking preferences and suggest predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism. The study further exhibits differences between male and females identity-forming processes and shows why females are the leaders of (socio-) linguistic change.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, multilingual minorities, linguistic change, social networks

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5518 Exploring the Dynamic Identities of Multilingual Adolescents in Contexts of L3+ Learning in Four European Sites

Authors: Harper Staples

Abstract:

A necessary outcome of today’s contemporary globalised reality, current views of multilingualism hold that it no longer represents the exception, but rather the rule. As such, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple languages represents a common experience for many of today's students and therefore represents a key area of inquiry in the domain of foreign language learner identity. Second and multilingual language acquisition processes parallel each other in many ways; however, there are differences to be found in the ways in which a student may learn a third language. A multilingual repertoire will have to negotiate complex change as language competencies dynamically evolve; moreover, this process will vary according to the contextual factors attributed to a unique learner. A developing multilingual identity must, therefore, contend with an array of potential challenges specific to the individual in question. Despite an overarching recognition in the literature that pluri-language acquisition represents a unique field of inquiry within applied linguistic research, there is a paucity of empirical work which examines the ways in which individuals construct a sense of their own identity as multilingual speakers in such contexts of learning. This study explores this phenomenon via a mixed-methods, comparative case study approach at four school sites based in Finland, France, Wales, and England. It takes a strongly individual-in-context view, conceptualising each adolescent participant in dynamic terms in order to undertake a holistic exploration of the myriad factors that might impact upon, and indeed be impacted by, a learner's developing multilingual identity. Emerging themes of note thus far suggest that, beyond the expected divergences in the experience of multilinguality at the individual level, there are contradictions in the way in which adolescent students in each site 'claim' their plurilingualism. This can be argued to be linked to both meso and macro-level factors, including the foreign language curriculum and, more broadly, societal attitudes towards multilingualism. These diverse emergent identifications have implications not only for attainment in the foreign language but also for student well-being more generally.

Keywords: foreign language learning, student identity, multilingualism, educational psychology

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5517 Cultural Identity and Differentiation: Linguistic Landscape in Multilingual Tourist Community of Hangzhou

Authors: Qianqian Chen

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The article intends to design a new research perspective on a linguistic landscape with the research background on multilingual urban tourism by analyzing the collected data, including a number of surveys on current urban tourism and the possibility of internationalization. The language usage analysis focuses on terms of English, Japanese and Spanish, which is based on the previous investigations. The analysis highlights the fact that contemporary tourism management and planning emphasizes cultural memories and heritage, and the combination between culture and tourism recalls the importance of "re-humanity" inhuman activities.

Keywords: multilingualism, culture, linguistic landscape, Hangzhou

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