Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Carol C. Opara

44 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
43 The Use of Mobile Applications for Language Learning in 21st-Century Teacher Education for Sustainable Development in Africa

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The need for ICT in Teacher Education due to the nature of 21st-century learners who are computer citizens is essential. The recent increase in the use of Mobile phones has equally revealed the importance of Mobile Applications for learning purposes. However, teacher-trainees and the trainers need to be well-grounded in basic ICT skills for an appropriate outcome. This study seeks to assess the use of Mobile Applications for language learning in Teacher Education teaching-learning process. A 22-item e-questionnaire was used to elicit information from teacher-trainers and teachers-trainees from Faculties of Education in Nigerian Universities. Major findings of this study include: That teacher-education sector is not adequately prepared for manipulative use of ICT and Mobile Applications for teaching and learning process; etc. It was recommended among others that, teacher-trainers should be trained and re-trained on the manipulative use of Mobile devices and the several applications for teaching-learning purpose, especially language education.

Keywords: information and communications technology, ICT, language learning, mobile application, sustainable development, teacher education

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42 When Talk Is the Cure for the Morning After: Talking Therapy in Conor Mcpherson’s Dublin Carol and Shining City

Authors: Maha Hamoud Alatawi

Abstract:

Drawing on the work of John McLeod and Ariel Watson, this paper explains the relationship between narrative and psychotherapy in two plays by the Irish playwright Conor McPherson. Dublin Carol presents John’s chequered past through his reminiscences of alcohol addiction and Shining City tells the story of John who is haunted by the ghost of his wife, recently died in a car accident, and who seeks the help of Ian, a therapist. At first, the significance of storytelling as an integral part of Irish culture is highlighted. Such a tradition features prominently in contemporary Irish drama. The paper concludes that it is the power of narrative and its therapeutic impact and not the act of psychotherapy and treatment which brings signs of change to characters’ lives.

Keywords: Conor McPherson, drama, psychotherapy, storytelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
41 Thai Teachers' Growth Mindset as Related to Thai Students' Achievements

Authors: Chintida Vichitsophaphan, Piyapat Chitpirom, Chaichana Nimnuan, Teerakiat Jareonsettasin

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a growth mindset, as defined by Prof. Dweck, in Thai teachers and Thai students’ achievements and success. The participants of the study were teachers of schools in Office of the Basic Education Commission in Bangkok. The teachers were recruited from high achievement schools and low achievement schools (based on average National Standard Test Score). Participants were divided into two groups: 85 teachers in 3 high achievement schools and 213 teachers in 6 low achievement schools. They were asked to complete the Carol Dweck’s Implicit Theories Scale – (Adults) 8 items. Data were analyzed including the use of mean, standard deviation and t-test to test hypothesis. The finding of this study revealed that teachers who were in the high achievement schools have higher scores in Carol Dweck’s Implicit Theories Scale (x ̅= 35.5, SE = .58) than teachers who were in the low achievement schools (x ̅= 33.9, SE = .35) at .05 level. The difference is statistically significant (t (296) = 2.44, p = .015) with the effect size of 0.31. In conclusion, teachers’ growth mindset from high achievement schools have higher scores than teachers’ growth mindset from low achievement schools, and this is statistically significant. From the study, it can be concluded that growth mindset development for teachers has a tendency to increase students’ achievements. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement such training and development in our education system in larger scale, and even nationwide policies.

Keywords: fixed mindset, growth mindset, students’ achievement, teachers’ growth mindset

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40 Humanistic Psychology Workshop to Increase Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Nidia Thalia Alva Rangel, Ferran Padros Blazquez, Ma. Ines Gomez Del Campo Del Paso

Abstract:

Happiness has been since antiquity a concept of interest around the world. Positive psychology is the science that begins to study happiness in a more precise and controlled way, obtaining wide amount of research which can be applied. One of the central constructs of Positive Psychology is Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being model as eudaimonic happiness, which comprehends six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Humanistic psychology is a clear precedent of Positive Psychology, which has studied human development topics and it features a great variety of intervention techniques nevertheless has little evidence with controlled research. Therefore, the present research had the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a humanistic intervention program to increase psychological well-being in healthy adults through a mixed methods study. Before and after the intervention, it was applied Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS) and the Symptom Check List 90 as pretest and posttest. In addition, a questionnaire of five open questions was applied after each session. The intervention program was designed in experiential workshop format, based on the foundational attitudes defined by Carl Rogers: congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy, integrating humanistic intervention strategies from gestalt, psychodrama, logotherapy and psychological body therapy, with the aim to strengthen skills in the six dimensions of psychological well-being model. The workshop was applied to six volunteer adults in 12 sessions of 2 hours each. Finally, quantitative data were analyzed with Wilcoxon statistic test through the SPSS program, obtaining as results differences statistically significant in pathology symptoms between prettest and postest, also levels of dimensions of psychological well-being were increased, on the other hand for qualitative strand, by open questionnaires it showed how the participants were experiencing the techniques and changing through the sessions. Thus, the humanistic psychology program was effective to increase psychological well-being. Working to promote well-being prompts to be an effective way to reduce pathological symptoms as a secondary gain. Experiential workshops are a useful tool for small groups. There exists the need for research to count with more evidence of humanistic psychology interventions in different contexts and impulse the application of Positive Psychology knowledge.

Keywords: happiness, humanistic psychology, positive psychology, psychological well-being, workshop

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39 Spectral Re-Evaluation of the Magnetic Basement Depth over Yola Arm of Upper Benue Trough Nigeria Using Aeromagnetic Data

Authors: Emberga Terhemb Opara Alexander, Selemo Alexader, Onyekwuru Samuel

Abstract:

The aeromagnetic data have been used to re-evaluate parts of the Upper Benue Trough Nigeria using spectral analysis technique in order to appraise the mineral accumulation potential of the area. The regional field was separated with a first order polynomial using polyfit program. The residual data was subdivided into 24 spectral blocks using OASIS MONTAJ software program. Two prominent magnetic depth source layers were identified. The deeper source depth values obtained ranges from 1.56km to 2.92km with an average depth of 2.37km as the magnetic basement depth while for the shallower sources, the depth values ranges from -1.17km to 0.98km with an average depth of 0.55km. The shallow depth source is attributed to the volcanic rocks that intruded the sedimentary formation and this could possibly be responsible for the mineralization found in parts of the study area.

Keywords: spectral analysis, Upper Benue Trough, magnetic basement depth, aeromagnetic

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38 The Pangs of Unemployment and Its Impediment to Nation Building

Authors: Vitalis Okwuchukwu Opara

Abstract:

The task of nation building primarily consist in welding together, diverse cultural groups into a united nation state, which develops a centripetal political culture that makes its people see themselves as members of one nation linked together by more reliable ties than the coercion offered by the state. Comparatively on the contrary, most countries in the world today are comprised of diverse nationalities, each with its unique set of norms and values, which often come into conflict with others. As such, the task of nation building is in uniting these diverse cultural groups into a united nation state and various human elements that make up its geopolitical zone. The most outstanding impediment to achieving this task is unemployment. Unemployment is like a peril against the nation building. Unemployment is an obstacle for growth of a nation. Often it is said that the wise see obstacles as stepping-stones to advance further. The pangs of unemployment impede nation building such that sometimes it takes very long time to do away with the problem. In recent times, there has been a revolutionary wind blowing across the world. This wind is bound to wake up nations leaders to sit up to their responsibility. Unemployment causes youth restiveness, brings leaders to their knees. It breeds problem. This work is intended to expose the pangs of unemployment and its impending peril to nation building.

Keywords: pangs, unemployment, obstacles, nation-building

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
37 Non-Parametric Regression over Its Parametric Couterparts with Large Sample Size

Authors: Jude Opara, Esemokumo Perewarebo Akpos

Abstract:

This paper is on non-parametric linear regression over its parametric counterparts with large sample size. Data set on anthropometric measurement of primary school pupils was taken for the analysis. The study used 50 randomly selected pupils for the study. The set of data was subjected to normality test, and it was discovered that the residuals are not normally distributed (i.e. they do not follow a Gaussian distribution) for the commonly used least squares regression method for fitting an equation into a set of (x,y)-data points using the Anderson-Darling technique. The algorithms for the nonparametric Theil’s regression are stated in this paper as well as its parametric OLS counterpart. The use of a programming language software known as “R Development” was used in this paper. From the analysis, the result showed that there exists a significant relationship between the response and the explanatory variable for both the parametric and non-parametric regression. To know the efficiency of one method over the other, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used, and it is discovered that the nonparametric regression performs better than its parametric regression counterparts due to their lower values in both the AIC and BIC. The study however recommends that future researchers should study a similar work by examining the presence of outliers in the data set, and probably expunge it if detected and re-analyze to compare results.

Keywords: Theil’s regression, Bayesian information criterion, Akaike information criterion, OLS

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36 The Use of Webquests in Developing Inquiry Based Learning: Views of Teachers and Students in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Carol Murphy, Nigel Calder, Nasser Mansour

Abstract:

This paper reports on an aspect of e-learning in developing inquiry-based learning (IBL). We present data on the views of teachers and students in Qatar following a professional development programme intended to help teachers implement IBL in their science and mathematics classrooms. Key to this programme was the use of WebQuests. Views of the teachers and students suggested that WebQuests helped students to develop technical skills, work collaboratively and become independent in their learning. The use of WebQuests also enabled a combination of digital and non-digital tools that helped students connect ideas and enhance their understanding of topics.

Keywords: digital technology, inquiry-based learning, mathematics and science education, professional development

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35 Cloning and Expression of the ansZ Gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 Isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru

Authors: Stephy Saavedra, Annsy C. Arredondo, Gisele Monteiro, Adalberto Pessoa Jr, Carol N. Flores-Fernandez, Amparo I. Zavaleta

Abstract:

L-asparaginase from bacterial sources is used in leukemic treatment and food industry. This enzyme is classified based on its affinity towards L-asparagine and L-glutamine. Likewise, ansZ genes express L-asparaginase with higher affinity to L-asparagine. The aim of this work was to clone and express of ansZ gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru. The gene encoding L-asparaginase was cloned into pET15b vector and transformed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expression was carried out in a batch culture using LB broth and 0.5 mM IPTG. The recombinant L-asparaginase showed a molecular weight of ~ 39 kDa by SDS PAGE and a specific activity of 3.19 IU/mg of protein. The cloning and expression of ansZ gene from this halotolerant Bacillus sp. CH11 allowed having a biological input to improve a future scaling-up.

Keywords: ansZ gene, Bacillus sp, Chilca salterns, recombinant L-asparaginase

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34 Positioning Food Safety in Halal Assurance

Authors: Marin Neio Demirci, Jan Mei Soon, Carol A. Wallace

Abstract:

Muslims follow the religion of Islam and the food they eat should be Halal, meaning lawful or permissible. Muslims are allowed to eat halal and wholesome food that has been provided for them. However, some of the main prohibitions are swine flesh, blood, carrion, animals not slaughtered according to Islamic laws and alcoholic drinks. At present Halal assurance is in a complicated state, with various Halal standards differing from each other without gaining mutual acceptance. The world is starting to understand the need for an influential globally accepted standard that would open doors to global markets and gain consumer confidence. This paper discusses issues mainly related to food safety in Halal assurance. The aim was to discover and describe the approach to food safety requirements in Halal food provision and how this is incorporated in the Halal assurance systems. The position of food safety regulation within Halal requirements or Halal standards’ requirements for food safety is still unclear. This review also considers whether current Halal standards include criteria in common with internationally accepted food hygiene standards and emphasizes the potential of using the HACCP system for Halal assurance.

Keywords: certification, GHP, HACCP, Halal standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
33 An Empirical Enquiry on Cultural Influence and Purchase Decision for Durable Goods in Nigeria

Authors: Bright C. Opara, Gideon C. Uboegbulam

Abstract:

This study can be appreciated from the significant role culture exert in purchase decision of durable goods the world over. This study is motivated by cultural diversity in Nigeria and socio-economic changes that have taken place in the recent times. These call for the validation of similarly studies in order to formulate informed marketing strategies that will enhance purchase behaviour. This study therefore, is set out to examine the cultural influence in family purchase decision-making for durable goods in the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria (Hausa, Ibo, and Yoruba). The primary data was sourced using structured and semi-structured research questionnaire, while the secondary information was generated from existing / available relevant literature journals / periodicals. A judgmental sampling technique was used to determine the sample size of 300 households. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. The finding showed that cultural influence on the family Purchase Decision of Durable Goods does not significantly differ in three ethnic groups, and that family Purchase Decision Making for Durable Goods does not significantly differ in the three ethnic groups. We therefore, conclude that culture do not really impact significantly on the purchase behaviour of the three ethnic groups in the Nigeria as it does in some others. However, there is need for marketers and marketing decision makers not to generalise the findings of this study. This is because of the significant role culture play in purchase behaviour which differs from one culture or country to another.

Keywords: cultural, durable goods, influence, purchase decision

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32 Metabolic Engineering of Yarrowia Lipolytica for the Simultaneous Production of Succinic Acid (SA) and Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)

Authors: Qingsheng Qi, Cuijuan Gao, Carol Sze Ki Lin

Abstract:

Food waste can be defined as a by-product of food processing by industries and consumers, which has not been recycled or used for other purposes. Stringent waste regulations worldwide are pushing local companies and sectors towards higher sustainability standards. The development of novel strategies for food waste re-use is economically and environmentally sound, as it solves a waste management issue and represents an inexpensive nutrient source for biotechnological processes. For example, Yarrowia lipolytica is a yeast which can utilize hydrophobic substrates, such as fatty acids, lipids, and alkanes and simple carbon sources, such as glucose and glycerol, which can all be found in food waste. This broad substrate range makes Y. lipolytica a promising candidate for the degradation and valorisation of food waste, and for the production of organic acids, such as citric and α-ketoglutaric acids. Current research conducted in our group demonstrated that Y. lipolytica was shown to be able to produce succinic acid. In this talk, we will focus on the application of genetically modified yeast Y. lipolytica for fermentative succinic acid production with an aim to increase productivity and yield.

Keywords: food waste, succinic acid, Yarrowia lipolytica, bioplastic

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31 Durability of Cement Bonded Particleboards Produced from Terminalia superba and Gmelina arborea against Subterranean Termite Attack

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the durability of wood-cement particleboards when exposed to attack by subterranean termites, Macrotermes subhylinus. The boards were made from Terminalia superba and Gmelina arborea wood sawdust at nominal board densities (BD) of 1000, 900, and 800 kg/m³ using wood-cement mixing ratios (MR) of 3:1, 2.5:1, 2:1, and 1:1. Above ground durability tests against termite attack were carried out according to ASTM D 2017 for 14 weeks. Results of visual assessment of the wood cement particleboards show that all the board samples had a visual rating that was not less than 7 (i.e., moderate attack) for both species irrespective of the MR and BD. T. superba boards were found to have higher resistance to termite attack compared to their G. arborea counterparts. The mean values for weight loss following exposure ranged from 1.93 to 6.13% and 3.24 to 12.44%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results of the weight loss assessment revealed a significant (p < 0.05) effect of species and mixing ratio on the weight loss of the boards due to termite attack with F(₁,₇₂) = 92.890 and P = 0.000 and F(₃,₇₂) = 8.318 and p = 0.000, while board density did not have any significant effect (p > 0.05) with F (₂,₇₂) = 1.307 and p = 0.277. Thus, boards made from a higher mixing ratio had better resistance against termite attacks. Thus, it can be concluded that the durability of cement-bonded particleboards when exposed to subterranean termite attack is not only dependent on the quality of the wood raw material (species) but also on the enhanced protection imparted by the cement matrix; the protection increased with increase in cement/wood mixing ratio.

Keywords: cement-bonded particleboard, mixing ratio, board density, Gmelina arborea, Terminalia superba

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30 Identification and Analysis of Supports Required for Teachers Moving to Remote Teaching and Learning during Disasters and Pandemics

Authors: Susan Catapano, Meredith Jones, Carol McNulty

Abstract:

Analysis of one state’s collaborative effort to support teachers, in both public and private schools, as they moved from face-to-face teaching to remote teaching during the Covid pandemic to identify lessons learned and materials put into place to support teachers and families. Surveys were created, distributed, and analyzed throughout the three months of remote teaching, documents and lesson plans were developed, and training materials were created. All data collected and materials developed were analyzed to identify supports teachers used and needed for successful remote teaching. Researchers found most teachers easily moved to online teaching; however, many families did not have access to technology, so teachers needed to develop non-technology-based access and support for remote teaching. Teachers also reported the need to prepare to teach remotely as part of their teaching training, so they were prepared in the future. Finally, data indicated teachers were able to establish stronger relationships with families than usual as a result of remote teaching. The lessons learned and support developed are part of the state’s ongoing policy for online teaching in the event of disasters and pandemics in the future.

Keywords: remote learning, teacher education, pandemic, families

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
29 Integrated Plant Protection Activities against (Tuta absoluta Meyrik) Moth in Tomato Plantings in Azerbaijan

Authors: Nazakat Ismailzada, Carol Jones

Abstract:

Tomato drilling moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato plants in many countries. The larvae of tomato leaves, the stems inside, in the end buds, they opened the gallery in green and ripe fruit. In this way the harmful products can be fed with all parts of the tomato plant can cause damage to 80-100%. Pest harms all above ground parts of the tomato plant. After the seedlings are planted in areas and during blossoming holder traps with tomato moth’s rubber capsule inside should be placed in the area by using five-tomato moth’s feremon per ha. Then there should be carried out observations in the fields in every three days regularly. During the researches, it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms. Therefore it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms with insecticide expenditure norm 320 qr\ha. In farms should be used plant rotation, plant fields should be plowed on the 25-30 sm depth, before sowing seeds should be proceeded by insecticides. As element of integrated plant protection activities, should be used pheromones trap. In tomato plant fields as an insecticide should be used AGROSAN 240 SC and Carogen 20 SP.

Keywords: lepidoptera, Tuta absoluta, chemical control, integrated pest management

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28 Attachment Patterns in a Sample of South African Children at Risk in Middle Childhood

Authors: Renate Gericke, Carol Long

Abstract:

Despite the robust empirical support of attachment, advancement in the description and conceptualization of attachment has been slow and has not significantly advanced beyond the identification of attachment security or type (namely, secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disorganized). This has continued despite papers arguing for theoretical refinement in the classification of attachment presentations. For thinking and practice to advance, it is critically important that these categories and their assessment be interrogated in different contexts and across developmental age. To achieve this, a quantitative design was used with descriptive and inferential statistics, and general linear models were employed to analyze the data. The Attachment Story Completion Test (ASCT) was administered to 105 children between the ages of eight and twelve from socio-economically deprived contexts with high exposure to trauma. A staggering 93% of the children had insecure attachments (specifically, avoidant 37%, disorganized 34% and ambivalent 22%) and attachment was more complex than currently conceptualized in the attachment literature. Primary attachment did not only present as one of four discreet categories, but 70% of the sample had a complex attachment with more than one type of maternal attachment style. Attachment intensity also varied along a continuum (between 1 and 5). The findings have implications for a) research that has not considered the potential complexity of attachment or attachment intensity, b) policy to more actively support mother-infant dyads, particularly in high-risk contexts and c) question the applicability of a western conceptualization of a primary maternal attachment figure in non-western collectivist societies.

Keywords: attachment, children at risk, middle childhood, non-western context

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27 Long-Term Results of Coronary Bifurcation Stenting with Drug Eluting Stents

Authors: Piotr Muzyk, Beata Morawiec, Mariusz Opara, Andrzej Tomasik, Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec, Wojciech Jachec, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Damian Kawecki

Abstract:

Background: Coronary bifurcation is one of the most complex lesion in patients with coronary ar-tery disease. Provisional T-stenting is currently one of the recommended techniques. The aim was to assess optimal methods of treatment in the era of drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods: The regis-try consisted of data from 1916 patients treated with coronary percutaneous interventions (PCI) using either first- or second-generation DES. Patients with bifurcation lesion entered the analysis. Major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (MACCE) were assessed at one year of follow-up and comprised of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), repeated PCI (re-PCI) of target ves-sel and stroke. Results: Of 1916 registry patients, 204 patients (11%) were diagnosed with bifurcation lesion >50% and entered the analysis. The most commonly used technique was provi-sional T-stenting (141 patients, 69%). Optimization with kissing-balloons technique was performed in 45 patients (22%). In 59 patients (29%) second-generation DES was implanted, while in 112 pa-tients (55%), first-generation DES was used. In 33 patients (16%) both types of DES were used. The procedure success rate (TIMI 3 flow) was achieved in 98% of patients. In one-year follow-up, there were 39 MACCE (19%) (9 deaths, 17 AMI, 16 re-PCI and 5 strokes). Provisional T-stenting resulted in similar rate of MACCE to other techniques (16% vs. 5%, p=0.27) and similar occurrence of re-PCI (6% vs. 2%, p=0.78). The results of post-PCI kissing-balloon technique gave equal out-comes with 3% vs. 16% of MACCE in patients in whom no optimization technique was used (p=0.39). The type of implanted DES (second- vs. first-generation) had no influence on MACCE (4% vs 14%, respectively, p=0.12) and re-PCI (1.7% vs. 51% patients, respectively, p=0.28). Con-clusions: The treatment of bifurcation lesions with PCI represent high-risk procedures with high rate of MACCE. Stenting technique, optimization of PCI and the generation of implanted stent should be personalized for each case to balance risk of the procedure. In this setting, the operator experience might be the factor of better outcome, which should be further investigated.

Keywords: coronary bifurcation, drug eluting stents, long-term follow-up, percutaneous coronary interventions

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26 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara

Abstract:

Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

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25 Information and Communication Technology Application in the Face of COVID-19 Pandemic in Effective Service Delivery in Schools

Authors: Odigie Veronica

Abstract:

The paper focused on the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in effective service delivery in view of the ongoing COVID-19 experience. It adopted the exploratory research method with three research objectives captured. Consequently, the objectives were to ascertain the meaning of online education, understand the concept of COVID-19 and to determine the relevance of online education in effective service delivery in institutions of learning. It is evident from the findings that through ICT, online mode of learning can be adopted in schools which helps greatly in promoting continual education. Online mode of education is practiced online; it brings both the teacher and learners from different places together, without any physical boundary/contact (at least 75%); and has helped greatly in human development in countries where it has been practiced. It is also a welcome development owing to its many benefits such as exposure to digital learning, having access to works of great teachers and educationists such as Socrates, Plato, Dewey, R.S. Peters, J. J. Rosseau, Nnamdi Azikwe, Carol Gilligan, J. I. Omoregbe, Jane Roland Martin, Jean Piaget, among others; and the facilitation of uninterrupted learning for class promotion and graduation of students. Developing the learners all round is part of human development which helps in developing a nation. These and many more are some benefits online education offers which make ICT very relevant in our contemporary society

Keywords: online education, COVID-19 pandemic, effective service delivery, human development

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24 Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters

Authors: Victor U. Odoemelam, Ihemdirim C. Unamba-Opara, Martins C. Anyanwuocha

Abstract:

Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P<0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P<0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P<0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P<0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.

Keywords: antibiotics, body weight, feed additives, intestinal morphology, phytogenics

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23 Determination of the Stability of Haloperidol Tablets and Phenytoin Capsules Stored in the Inpatient Dispensary System (Swisslog) by the Respective HPLC and Raman Spectroscopy Assay

Authors: Carol Yue-En Ong, Angelina Hui-Min Tan, Quan Liu, Paul Chi-Lui Ho

Abstract:

A public general hospital in Singapore has recently implemented an automated unit-dose machine in their inpatient dispensary, Swisslog, with the objective of reducing human error and improving patient safety. However, a concern in stability arises as tablets are removed from their original packaging (bottled loose tablets/capsules) and are repackaged into individual, clear plastic wrappers as unit doses in the system. Drugs that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic would be more susceptible to degradation as the wrapper does not offer full protection. Hence, this study was carried out to study the stability of haloperidol tablets and phenytoin capsules that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic respectively. Validated HPLC-UV assays were first established for quantification of these two compounds. The medications involved were put in the Swisslog and sampled every week for one month. The collected data was analysed and showed no degradation over time. This study also explored an alternative approach for drug stability determination-Raman spectroscopy. The advantage of Raman spectroscopy is its high time efficiency and non-destructive nature. The results suggest that drug degradation can indeed be detected using Raman microscopy, but further research is needed to establish this approach for quantification or qualification of compounds. NanoRam®, a portable Raman spectrocope was also used alongside Raman microscopy but was unsuccessful in detecting degradation in this study.

Keywords: drug stability, haloperidol, HPLC, phenytoin, raman spectroscopy, Swisslog

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22 The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pain Relief in the Elderly: An Investigational Analysis of Seniors Residing in an Independent/Assisted Seniors’ Living Facility

Authors: Carol Cameletti

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The goal of this study was to perform a pilot survey to assess pain frequency and intensity in an elderly population and to assess treatment options for chronic pain that include complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Ten participants were recruited from an independent and supportive living housing facility in Northern Ontario and asked to complete two questionnaires: 1) a self-assessment on pain, and 2) the use of CAM for pain. Results from our study show that 80% of the participants experienced pains other than the regular everyday pains such as minor headaches, sprains or toothaches. Although participants stated that on average the highest level of pain they experienced within the past 24 hours had a score of 6.5 (0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable) the level of pain they experienced moderately interfered with their daily activities. Unfortunately, participants stated that they were only able to attain minimal levels of pain relief using treatments or medications causing some of the participants to seek alternative therapies or self-help practices. The most commonly used CAMs were vitamins/minerals, herbs and supplements, and self-help practices such as meditation, prayer, visualization and relaxation techniques. Although some of the participants stated that they had received complementary treatments directly from their physician, four of the nine participants said that they had not disclosed CAM use to their physician thereby indicating a need to open the lines of communication between healthcare providers and patients with regards to CAM use. It is our hope that the data generated from this study will serve as the platform for a pain management clinic that is client-centered, consumer-driven and truly integrative and tailored in order to meet the unique needs of older adults in Great Sudbury, Ontario.

Keywords: alternative, complementary, elderly, medicine

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21 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Bottle Wastes and Sawdust of Three Tropical Hardwood Species

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Akpanobong Akpan Ekong, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape, Olawale John Olukunle

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This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of wood species and wood plastic ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs) produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle wastes and sawdust from three hardwood species, namely, Terminalia superba, Gmelina arborea, and Ceiba pentandra. The experimental WPCs were prepared from sawdust particle size classes of ≤ 0.5, 0.5 – 1.0, and 1.0 – 2.0 mm at wood/plastic ratios of 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 (percentage by weight). The WPCs for each study variable combination were prepared in 3 replicates and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The physical properties investigated water absorption (WA), linear expansion (LE) and thickness swelling (TS) while the mechanical properties evaluated were Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The mean values for WA, LE and TS ranged from 1.07 to 34.04, 0.11 to 1.76 and 0.11 to 4.05 %, respectively. The mean values of the three physical properties increased with decrease in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each particle size class generally resulted in the lowest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the highest values for each of the three species. For each of the physical properties, T. superba had the least mean values followed by G. arborea, while the highest values were observed C. pentandra. The mean values for MOE and MOR ranged from 458.17 to 1875.67 and 2.64 to 18.39 N/mm2, respectively. The mean values of the two mechanical properties decreased with increase in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each wood particle size class generally had the highest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the least values for each of the three species. For each of the mechanical properties, C. pentandra had the highest mean values followed by G. arborea, while the least values were observed T. superba. There were improvements in both the physical and mechanical properties due to decrease in sawdust particle size class with the particle size class of ≤ 0.5 mm giving the best result. The results of the Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) effects of the three study variables – wood species, sawdust particle size class and wood/plastic ratio on all the physical and mechanical properties of the WPCs. It can be concluded from the results of this study that wood plastic composites from sawdust particle size ≤ 0.5 and PET plastic bottle wastes with acceptable physical and mechanical properties are better produced using 40:60 wood/plastic ratio, and that at this ratio, all the three species are suitable for the production of wood plastic composites.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate plastic bottle wastes, wood plastic composite, physical properties, mechanical properties

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20 Analyzing the Perceptions of Accounting Practitioners regarding Communication Skills of Distance-Learning Graduates

Authors: Carol S. Binnekade, Deon Scott, Christina C. Shuttleworth, Annelien A. Van Rooyen

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Higher education institutions are constantly challenged to deliver skilled graduates into the workplace. Employers expect graduates to have the required technical knowledge as well as various pervasive skills. This also applies to accountants who need to know the technical requirements of financial reporting and be able to communicate with individuals, teams and clients at a high level. Accountants need to develop effective business conversational skills and use these skills to communicate up, down and across organizations, taking into consideration cultural and gender diversity. In addition, they need to master business writing and presentation skills. However, providing students with these skills in a distance-learning environment where interaction between students and instructors is limited, is a challenge for academics. The study on which this paper reports, forms part of a larger body of research, which explored the perceptions of accounting practitioners of the communication skills (or lack thereof) of recently qualified accounting students. Feedback (qualitative and quantitative) was obtained from various accounting practitioners in South Africa. Taking into consideration that distance learners communicate mainly with their instructors via email communication and their assignments are submitted using various word processor software, the researchers were of the opinion that the accounting graduates would be capable of communicating effectively once they entered the workplace. However, the research findings, inter alia, suggested that the accounting graduates lacked communication skills and that training was needed to differentiate between business and social communication once they entered the workplace. Recommendations on how these communication challenges may be addressed by higher education institutions are provided.

Keywords: accounting practitioners, communication skills, distance education, pervasive skills

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19 Accounting Practitioners’ Insight into Distance-Learning Graduates’ Workplace Ethics

Authors: Annelien A. Van Rooyen, Carol S. Binnekade, Deon Scott, Christina C. Shuttleworth

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Society expects professional accountants to uphold fundamental principles of professional competence, confidentiality, and ethical behavior. Their work needs to be trusted by the public, clients and other stakeholders. However, self-interest, intimidation and even ignorance could create conditions in which accounting practitioners and their staff may act contradictory to these principles. Similarly, plagiarism and cheating occur regularly at higher education institutions, where students claim ignorance of these actions and the accompanying consequences. Teaching students ethical skills in a distance-learning environment where interaction between students and instructors is limited is a challenge for academics. This also applies to instructors who teach accounting subjects to potential professional accountants. The researchers wanted to understand the concerns of accounting practitioners regarding recently qualified accounting students’ understanding of ethics and the resulting influence on their conduct. A mixed method approach was used to obtain feedback from numerous accounting practitioners in South Africa. The research questions focused mainly on ethical conduct in the workplace and the influence of social media on the behavior of graduates. The findings of the research suggested, inter alia, that accounting practitioners are of the opinion that the ethical conduct of graduates starts at home, but higher education institutions play a pivotal role in providing students with an understanding of ethics in the workplace, including the role of social media. The paper concludes with recommendations on how academics in higher education institutions need to address these challenges.

Keywords: accounting profession, distance learning, ethics, workplace

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18 Qualitative Case Studies in Reading Specialist Education

Authors: Carol Leroy

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This presentation focuses on the analysis qualitative case studies in the graduate education of reading specialists. The presentation describes the development and application of an integrated conceptual framework for reading specialist education, drawing on Robert Stake’s work on case study research, Kenneth Zeichner’s work on professional learning, and various tools for reading assessment (e.g. the Qualitative Reading Inventory). Social constructivist theory is used to provide intersecting links between the various influences on the processes used to assess and teaching reading within the case study framework. Illustrative examples are described to show the application of the framework in reading specialist education in a teaching clinic at a large urban university. Central to education of reading specialists in this teaching clinic is the collection, analysis and interpretation of data for the design and implementation of reading and writing programs for struggling readers and writers. The case study process involves the integrated interpretation of data, which is central to qualitative case study inquiry. An emerging theme in this approach to graduate education is the ambiguity and uncertainty that governs work with the adults and children who attend the clinic for assistance. Tensions and contradictions are explored insofar as they reveal overlapping but intersecting frameworks for case study analysis in the area of literacy education. An additional theme is the interplay of multiple layers of data with a resulting depth that goes beyond the practical need of the client and toward the deeper pedagogical growth of the reading specialist. The presentation makes a case for the value of qualitative case studies in reading specialist education. Further, the use of social constructivism as a unifying paradigm provides a robustness to the conceptual framework as a tool for understanding the pedagogy that is involved.

Keywords: assessment, case study, professional education, reading

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17 Reduction of Plutonium Production in Heavy Water Research Reactor: A Feasibility Study through Neutronic Analysis Using MCNPX2.6 and CINDER90 Codes

Authors: H. Shamoradifar, B. Teimuri, P. Parvaresh, S. Mohammadi

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One of the main characteristics of Heavy Water Moderated Reactors is their high production of plutonium. This article demonstrates the possibility of reduction of plutonium and other actinides in Heavy Water Research Reactor. Among the many ways for reducing plutonium production in a heavy water reactor, in this research, changing the fuel from natural Uranium fuel to Thorium-Uranium mixed fuel was focused. The main fissile nucleus in Thorium-Uranium fuels is U-233 which would be produced after neutron absorption by Th-232, so the Thorium-Uranium fuels have some known advantages compared to the Uranium fuels. Due to this fact, four Thorium-Uranium fuels with different compositions ratios were chosen in our simulations; a) 10% UO2-90% THO2 (enriched= 20%); b) 15% UO2-85% THO2 (enriched= 10%); c) 30% UO2-70% THO2 (enriched= 5%); d) 35% UO2-65% THO2 (enriched= 3.7%). The natural Uranium Oxide (UO2) is considered as the reference fuel, in other words all of the calculated data are compared with the related data from Uranium fuel. Neutronic parameters were calculated and used as the comparison parameters. All calculations were performed by Monte Carol (MCNPX2.6) steady state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation (CINDER90). The obtained computational data showed that Thorium-Uranium fuels with four different fissile compositions ratios can satisfy the safety and operating requirements for Heavy Water Research Reactor. Furthermore, Thorium-Uranium fuels have a very good proliferation resistance and consume less fissile material than uranium fuels at the same reactor operation time. Using mixed Thorium-Uranium fuels reduced the long-lived α emitter, high radiotoxic wastes and the radio toxicity level of spent fuel.

Keywords: Heavy Water Reactor, Burn up, Minor Actinides, Neutronic Calculation

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16 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES) and Later-Life Depression: Perceived Social Support as a Potential Protective Factor

Authors: E. Von Cheong, Carol Sinnott, Darren Dahly, Patricia M. Kearney

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Introduction and Aim: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are all too common and have been linked to poorer health and wellbeing across the life course. While the prevention of ACEs is a worthy goal, it is important that we also try to lessen the impact of ACEs for those who do experience them. This study aims to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and later-life depressive symptoms; and to explore whether perceived social support (PSS) moderates these. Method: We analysed baseline data from the Mitchelstown (Ireland) 2010-11 cohort involving 2047 men and women aged 50–69 years. Self-reported assessments included ACEs (Centre for Disease Control ACE questionnaire), PSS (Oslo Social Support Scale), and depressive symptoms (CES-D). The primary exposure was self-report of at least one ACE. We also investigated the effects of ACE exposure by the subtypes abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Associations between each of these exposures and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for socio-demographic factors that were selected using the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) approach. We also tested whether the estimated associations varied across levels of PSS (poor, moderate, and good). Results: 23.7% of participants reported at least one ACE (95% CI: 21.9% to 25.6%). ACE exposures (overall or subtype) were associated with a higher odds of depressive symptoms, but only among individuals with poor PSS. For example, exposure to any ACE (vs. none) was associated with 3 times the odds of depressive symptoms (Adjusted OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.63 to 5.40) among individuals reporting poor PSS, while among those reporting moderate PSS, the adjusted OR was 1.18 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.94). Discussion: ACEs are common among older adults in Ireland and are associated with higher odds of later-life depressive symptoms among those also reporting poor PSS. Interventions that enhance perception of social support following ACE exposure may help reduce the burden of depression in older populations.

Keywords: adverse childhood experiences, depression, later-life, perceived social support

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15 An Automated Stock Investment System Using Machine Learning Techniques: An Application in Australia

Authors: Carol Anne Hargreaves

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A key issue in stock investment is how to select representative features for stock selection. The objective of this paper is to firstly determine whether an automated stock investment system, using machine learning techniques, may be used to identify a portfolio of growth stocks that are highly likely to provide returns better than the stock market index. The second objective is to identify the technical features that best characterize whether a stock’s price is likely to go up and to identify the most important factors and their contribution to predicting the likelihood of the stock price going up. Unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as cluster analysis, were applied to the stock data to identify a cluster of stocks that was likely to go up in price – portfolio 1. Next, the principal component analysis technique was used to select stocks that were rated high on component one and component two – portfolio 2. Thirdly, a supervised machine learning technique, the logistic regression method, was used to select stocks with a high probability of their price going up – portfolio 3. The predictive models were validated with metrics such as, sensitivity (recall), specificity and overall accuracy for all models. All accuracy measures were above 70%. All portfolios outperformed the market by more than eight times. The top three stocks were selected for each of the three stock portfolios and traded in the market for one month. After one month the return for each stock portfolio was computed and compared with the stock market index returns. The returns for all three stock portfolios was 23.87% for the principal component analysis stock portfolio, 11.65% for the logistic regression portfolio and 8.88% for the K-means cluster portfolio while the stock market performance was 0.38%. This study confirms that an automated stock investment system using machine learning techniques can identify top performing stock portfolios that outperform the stock market.

Keywords: machine learning, stock market trading, logistic regression, cluster analysis, factor analysis, decision trees, neural networks, automated stock investment system

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