Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Meghalaya

11 Social Status and Role of Women among the Khasi Tribe of Meghalaya

Authors: Jeffreyson Wahlang

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes in the social status and role of Khasi women with the advent of modernisation and globalisation. Since all societies inevitably undergo social change, this paper will attempt to enquire about the path and direction to which women in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya is moving.

Keywords: status, role, women, Khasi Matriliny, gender

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10 Channel Characteristics and Morphometry of a Part of Umtrew River, Meghalaya

Authors: Pratyashi Phukan, Ranjan Saikia

Abstract:

Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area ,altitude,volume, slope profiles of a land and drainage basin characteristics of the area concerned.Fluvial geomorphology includes the consideration of linear,areal and relief aspects of a fluvially originated drainage basin. The linear aspect deals with the hierarchical orders of streams, numbers, and lenghts of stream segments and various relationship among them.The areal aspect includes the analysis of basin perimeters,basin shape, basin area, and related morphometric laws. The relief aspect incorporates besides hypsometric, climographic and altimetric analysis,the study of absolute and relative reliefs, relief ratios, average slope, etc. In this paper we have analysed the relationship among stream velocity, channel shape,sediment load,channel width,channel depth, etc.

Keywords: morphometry, hydraulic geometry, Umtrew river, Meghalaya

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9 Induced Breeding of Neolissochilus hexagonolepis Using Pituitary and Synthetic Hormone under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Meghalaya, India

Authors: Lydia Booney Jyrwa, Rabindra Nath Bhuyan

Abstract:

Chocolate Mahseer (Neolissochilus hexagonolepis) is one of the Mahseer species inhabiting the North-eastern region of India and is a native species to the state of Meghalaya since it can adapt and grow well under the agro climatic conditions of the region. The natural population of this fish has been declining over the years from this part of the country. The natural population of this fish has been declining over the years from this part of the country. The fish is considered as one of the endangered species of the Mahseer group, which is having tremendous scope for culture, sports and tourism. But non-availability of quality seed is a hindrance for the culture of this fish. Thus induced breeding of the fish by hormonal administration with pituitary gland and synthetic hormones is the only reliable method to procure the pure seed of the fish. Chocolate Mahseer was successfully bred at the Hatchery Complex, St. Anthony’s College, Shillong, Meghalaya by using pituitary extract and synthetic hormone viz. ovaprim, ovatide and gonopro-FH. The dose standardized is @ 4mg/kg body weight to both male and female as 1st dose and @ 7.9 mg/kg body weight only to female as 2nd dose for pituitary extract and single dose @ 0.8 ml/kg body weight to female and @ 0.3 ml/kg body weight to male of both ovaprim and ovatide, while a single dose @ 0.9 ml/kg body weight to female and @ 0.3 ml/kg body weight to male of gonopro-FH. The doses are standardized after a series of trial and error experiment performed. The fecundity of the fish was 3500 eggs/ kg body weight. The final hatching percentage achieved was 60%. The survival rate of hatchling was 50% up to fry stage. The use of synthetic hormone and positive response of the fish to the hormone will go in long way for production of quality seed of the fish which in turn help in culture of the species as the fish can be a very good candidate species for the culture in the state. This study will also help in the ranching of the fish in the natural habitat leading to conservation of the species. However, the study should be continued further for the large scale production of seeds.

Keywords: chocolate mahseer, induced breeding, pituitary extract, synthetic hormone

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8 Defining Processes of Gender Restructuring: The Case of Displaced Tribal Communities of North East India

Authors: Bitopi Dutta

Abstract:

Development Induced Displacement (DID) of subaltern groups has been an issue of intense debate in India. This research will do a gender analysis of displacement induced by the mining projects in tribal indigenous societies of North East India, centering on the primary research question which is 'How does DID reorder gendered relationship in tribal matrilineal societies?' This paper will not focus primarily on the impacts of the displacement induced by coal mining on indigenous tribal women in the North East India; it will rather study 'what' are the processes that lead to these transformations and 'how' do they operate. In doing so, the paper will locate the cracks in traditional social systems that the discourse of displacement manipulates for its own benefit. DID in this sense will not only be understood as only physical displacement, but also as social and cultural displacement. The study will cover one matrilineal tribe in the state of Meghalaya in the North East India affected by several coal mining projects in the last 30 years. In-depth unstructured interviews used to collect life narratives will be the primary mode of data collection because the indigenous culture of the tribes in Meghalaya, including the matrilineal tribes, is based on oral history where knowledge and experiences produced under a tradition of oral history exist in a continuum. This is unlike modern societies which produce knowledge in a compartmentalized system. An interview guide designed around specific themes will be used rather than specific questions to ensure the flow of narratives from the interviewee. In addition to this, a number of focus groups will be held. The data collected through the life narrative will be supplemented and contextualized through documentary research using government data, and local media sources of the region.

Keywords: displacement, gender-relations, matriliny, mining

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7 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam

Abstract:

Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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6 Geochemical Evolution of Microgranular Enclaves Hosted in Cambro-Ordovician Kyrdem Granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, Northeast India

Authors: K. Mohon Singh

Abstract:

Cambro-Ordovician (512.5 ± 8.7 Ma) felsic magmatism in the Kyrdem region of Meghalaya plateau, herewith referred to as Kyrdem granitoids (KG), intrudes the low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments and Precambrian Basement Gneissic complex forming an oval-shaped plutonic body with longer axis almost trending N-S. Thermal aureole is poorly developed or covered under the alluvium. KG exhibit very coarse grained porphyritic texture with abundant K-feldspar megacrysts (up to 9cm long) and subordinate amount of amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, and quartz. The size of K-feldspar megacrysts increases from margin (Dwarksuid) to the interior (Kyrdem) of the KG pluton. Late felsic pulses as fine grained granite, leucocratic (aplite), and pegmatite veins intrude the KG at several places. Grey and pink varieties of KG can be recognized, but pink colour of KG is the result of post-magmatic fluids, which have not affected the magnetic properties of KG. Modal composition of KG corresponds to quartz monzonite, monzogranite, and granodiorite. KG has been geochemically characterized as metaluminous (I-type) to peraluminous (S-type) granitoids. The KG is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton and is located at the proximity of Tyrsad-Barapani lineament. The KG contains country rock xenoliths (amphibolite, gneiss, schist, etc.) which are mostly confined to the margin of the pluton, and microgranular enclaves (ME) are hosted in the porphyritic variety of KG. Microgranular Enclaves (ME) in Kyrdem Granitoids are fine- to medium grained, mesocratic to melanocratic, phenocryst bearing or phenocryst-free, rounded to ellipsoidal showing typical magmatic textures. Mafic-felsic phenocrysts in ME are partially corroded and dissolved because of their involvement in magma-mixing event, and thus represent xenocrysts. Sharp to diffused contacts of ME with host Kyrdem Granitoids, fine grained nature and presence of acicular apatite in ME suggest comingling and undercooling of coeval, semi-solidified ME magma within partly crystalline felsic host magma. Geochemical features recognize the nature of ME (molar A/CNK=0.76-1.42) and KG (molar A/CNK =0.41-1.75) similar to hybrid-type formed by mixing of mantle-derived mafic and crustal-derived felsic magmas. Major and trace including rare earth elements variations of ME suggest the involvement of combined processes such as magma mixing, mingling and crystallization differentiation in the evolution of ME but KG variations appear primarily controlled by fractionation of plagioclase, hornblende biotite, and accessory phases. Most ME are partially to nearly re-equilibrate chemically with felsic host KG during magma mixing and mingling processes.

Keywords: geochemistry, Kyrdem Granitoids, microgranular enclaves, Northeast India

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5 A Study on the Factors Effecting Store Format Selection between SBOand MBOs for Sportswear and Sports Accessories in the Fashion Capital of India-Shillong, Tier III Indian City

Authors: Arnab Banerjee, Deep Sagar Verma

Abstract:

Tier 3 cities of India is home to one of the fastest growing socio-economic powers in the world and hence is the focus of a lot of business activity as it is almost a blue ocean giving the first mover a huge strategic advantage. Among the various sectors, the retailing is perhaps one of the most promising sectors. The study caries out 129 successfully structured mall-intercept interviews in the town of Shillong, Meghalaya in an attempt to understand the SBO and MBO shoppers. Demographic variables itself does not show any store format preference although discounts do attract the lower income group more while clear difference is observed among genders when it comes to importance of ambience, and it is more pronounced for SBO patrons. SBO patrons are more focused while MBO patrons are more into leisure shopping. Price is the most important predictor of satisfaction especially for MBO shoppers. The market shows three basic segments i.e experiential, relationship and value shoppers.

Keywords: demographic variables, degree of importance, degree of satisfaction, SBO and MBO

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4 An Investigation of Trends and Variability of Rainfall in Shillong City

Authors: Kamal Kumar Tanti, Nayan Moni Saikia, Markynti Swer

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and analyse the trends and variability of rainfall in Shillong and its nearby areas, located in Meghalaya hills of North-East India; which is geographically a neighbouring area to the wettest places of the Earth, i.e., Cherrapunji and Mawsynram. The analysis of variability and trends to annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall was carried out, using the data collected from the IMD station at Shillong; thereby attempting to highlight whether rainfall in Shillong area has been increasing or decreasing over the years. Rainfall variability coefficient is utilized to compare the current rainfall trend of the area with its past rainfall trends. The present study also aims to analyse the frequency of occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the region. These studies will help us to establish a correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study area.

Keywords: trends and variability of rainfall, annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall, rainfall variability coefficient, extreme rainfall events, climate change, Shillong, Cherrapunji, Mawsynram

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3 Quantitative Assessment of Different Formulations of Antimalarials in Sentinel Sites of India

Authors: Taruna Katyal Arora, Geeta Kumari, Hari Shankar, Neelima Mishra

Abstract:

Substandard and counterfeit antimalarials is a major problem in malaria endemic areas. The availability of counterfeit/ substandard medicines is not only decreasing the efficacy in patients, but it is also one of the contributing factors for developing antimalarial drug resistance. Owing to this, a pilot study was conducted to survey quality of drugs collected from different malaria endemic areas of India. Artesunate+Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP), Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), Chloroquine (CQ) tablets were randomly picked from public health facilities in selected states of India. The quality of antimalarial drugs from these areas was assessed by using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab test kit. This includes physical/visual inspection and disintegration test. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out for semi-quantitative assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients. A total of 45 brands, out of which 21 were for CQ, 14 for AL and 10 for AS+SP were tested from Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Mizoram, Meghalaya and Gujrat states. One out of 45 samples showed variable disintegration and retension factor. The variable disintegration and retention factor which would have been due to substandard quality or other factors including storage. However, HPLC analysis confirms standard active pharmaceutical ingredient, but may be due to humid temperature and moisture in storage may account for the observed result.

Keywords: antimalarial medicines, counterfeit, substandard, TLC

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2 Land Degradation Vulnerability Modeling: A Study on Selected Micro Watersheds of West Khasi Hills Meghalaya, India

Authors: Amritee Bora, B. S Mipun

Abstract:

Land degradation is often used to describe the land environmental phenomena that reduce land’s original productivity both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study of land degradation vulnerability primarily deals with “Environmentally Sensitive Areas” (ESA) and the amount of topsoil loss due to erosion. In many studies, it is observed that the assessment of the existing status of land degradation is used to represent the vulnerability. Moreover, it is also noticed that in most studies, the primary emphasis of land degradation vulnerability is to assess its sensitivity to soil erosion only. However, the concept of land degradation vulnerability can have different objectives depending upon the perspective of the study. It shows the extent to which changes upon land use land cover can imprint their effect on the land. In other words, it represents the susceptibility of a piece of land to degrade its productive quality permanently or for the long run. It is also important to mention that the vulnerability of land degradation is not a single factor outcome. It is a probability assessment to evaluate the status of land degradation, needs to consider both biophysical and human induce parameters. To avoid the complexity of the previous models in this regard, the present study has emphasized on to generate a simplified model to assess the land degradation vulnerability in terms of its current human population pressure, land use practices, and existing biophysical conditions. It is a “Mixed-Method” termed as land degradation vulnerability index (LDVi). It is originally inspired by the MEDALUS model (Mediterranean Desertification and Land use), 1999, and Farazadeh’s 2007 revised version of it. It has followed the guidelines of Space Application Center, Ahmadabad/Indian Space Research Organization for land degradation vulnerability. The model integrates climatic index (Ci), vegetation covers index (Vi), erosion index (Ei), Land utilization value index (Li), population pressure index (Pi), and cover management index (CMi) by giving equal weightage to each parameter. The final result shows that the very high vulnerable zone primarily indicates three (3) prominent circumstances; land under continuous population pressure, high concentration of human settlement, and high amount of topsoil loss due to surface runoff within the study sites. As all the parameters of the model are amalgamated with equal weightage further with the help of regression analysis, the LDVi model also provides a strong grasp upon each parameter and how far they are competent to trigger the process of land degradation.

Keywords: population pressure, land utilization, land degradation vulnerability, soil erosion

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1 A Static and Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Sonapur

Authors: Rupam Saikia, Ashim Kanti Dey

Abstract:

Sonapur is an intense hilly region on the border of Assam and Meghalaya lying in North-East India and is very near to a seismic fault named as Dauki besides which makes the region seismically active. Besides, these recently two earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and 6.9 have struck North-East India in January and April 2016. Also, the slope concerned for this study is adjacent to NH 44 which for a long time has been a sole important connecting link to the states of Manipur and Mizoram along with some parts of Assam and so has been a cause of considerable loss to life and property since past decades as there has been several recorded incidents of landslide, road-blocks, etc. mostly during the rainy season which comes into news. Based on this issue this paper reports a static and dynamic slope stability analysis of Sonapur which has been carried out in MIDAS GTS NX. The slope being highly unreachable due to terrain and thick vegetation in-situ test was not feasible considering the current scope available so disturbed soil sample was collected from the site for the determination of strength parameters. The strength parameters were so determined for varying relative density with further variation in water content. The slopes were analyzed considering plane strain condition for three slope heights of 5 m, 10 m and 20 m which were then further categorized based on slope angles 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 considering the possible extent of steepness. Initially static analysis under dry state was performed then considering the worst case that can develop during rainy season the slopes were analyzed for fully saturated condition along with partial degree of saturation with an increase in the waterfront. Furthermore, dynamic analysis was performed considering the El-Centro Earthquake which had a magnitude of 6.7 and peak ground acceleration of 0.3569g at 2.14 sec for the slope which were found to be safe during static analysis under both dry and fully saturated condition. Some of the conclusions were slopes with inclination above 40 onwards were found to be highly vulnerable for slopes of height 10 m and above even under dry static condition. Maximum horizontal displacement showed an exponential increase with an increase in inclination from 30 to 70. The vulnerability of the slopes was seen to be further increased during rainy season as even slopes of minimal steepness of 30 for height 20 m was seen to be on the verge of failure. Also, during dynamic analysis slopes safe during static analysis were found to be highly vulnerable. Lastly, as a part of the study a comparative study on Strength Reduction Method (SRM) versus Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) was also carried out and some of the advantages and disadvantages were figured out.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, factor of safety, slope stability, strength reduction method

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