Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Belgica Vasquez

12 Stereological and Morphometric Evaluation of Wound Healing Burns Treated with Ulmo Honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) Unsupplemented and Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

Authors: Carolina Schencke, Cristian Sandoval, Belgica Vasquez, Mariano Del Sol


Introduction: In a burn injury, the successful repair requires not only the participation of various cells, such as granulocytes and fibroblasts, but also of collagen, which plays a crucial role as a structural and regulatory molecule of scar tissue. Since honey and ascorbic acid have presented a great therapeutic potential to cellular and structural level, experimental studies have proposed its combination in the treatment of wounds. Aim: To evaluate stereological and morphometric parameters of healing wounds, caused by burns, treated with honey Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) unsupplemented, comparing its effect with Ulmo honey supplemented with ascorbic acid. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used, of both sexes, average weight 450 g from the Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Morfológicos y Quirúrgicos (CEMyQ) at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The animals were divided at random into three groups: positive control (C+), honey only (H) and supplemented honey (SH) and were fed on pellets supplemented with ascorbic acid and water ad libitum, under ambient conditions controlled for temperature, ambient noise and a cycle of 12h light–darkness. The protocol for the experiment was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The parameters measured were number density per area (NA), volume density (VV), and surface density (SV) of fibroblast; NA and VV of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and, evaluation of the content of collagen fibers in the scar dermis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis and its respective Post hoc tests. Results: The ANOVA analysis for NA, VV and SV of fibroblasts, NA and VV of PMN, and evaluation of collagen content, type I and III, showed that at least one group differs from other (P≤ 0.001). There were differences (P= 0.000) in NA of fibroblast between the groups [C+= 3599.560 mm-2 (SD= 764.461), H= 3355.336 mm-2 (SD= 699.443) and SH= 4253.025 mm-2 (SD= 1041.751)]. The VV and SV of fibroblast increased (P= 0.000) in the SH group [20.400% (SD= 5.897) and 100.876 mm2/mm3 (SD= 29.431), respectively], compared to the C+ [16.324% (SD= 7.719) and 81.676 mm2/mm3 (SD= 28.884), respectively). The mean values of NA and VV of PMN were higher (P= 0.000) in the H [756.875 mm-2 (SD= 516.489) and 2.686% (SD= 2.380), respectively) group. Regarding to the evaluation of the content of collagen fibers, type I and III, the one-way analysis of ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). The content of collagen fibers type I was higher in C+ (1988.292 μm2; SD= 1312.379), while the content of collagen fibers type III was higher in SH (1967.163 μm2; SD= 1047.944 μm2) group. Conclusions: The stereological results were correlated with the stage of healing observed for each group. These results suggest that the combination of honey with ascorbic acid potentiate the healing effect, where both participated synergistically.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, morphometry, stereology, Ulmo honey

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11 Proactive Pure Handoff Model with SAW-TOPSIS Selection and Time Series Predict

Authors: Cesar Hernández, Ingrid Páez, Harold Vásquez


This paper approach cognitive radio technic and applied pure proactive handoff Model to decrease interference between PU and SU and comparing it with reactive handoff model. Through the study and analysis of multivariate models SAW and TOPSIS join to 3 dynamic prediction techniques AR, MA ,and ARMA. To evaluate the best model is taken four metrics: number failed handoff, number handoff, number predictions, and number interference. The result presented the advantages using this type of pure proactive models to predict changes in the PU according to the selected channel and reduce interference. The model showed better performance was TOPSIS-MA, although TOPSIS-AR had a higher predictive ability this was not reflected in the interference reduction.

Keywords: Wireless Networks, Decision Making, cognitive radio, Time series, spectrum handoff

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10 Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products

Authors: J. Franco Macías, E. Montes Alba, A. López Vásquez


The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Poultry Industry, Photodegradation, TiO2, advanced oxidation process

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9 Indoor Emissions Produced by Kerosene Heating, Determining Its Formation Potential of Secondary Particulate Matter and Transport

Authors: J. M. Muñoz, Y. Vasquez, P. Oyola, M. Rubio


All emissions of contaminants inside of homes, offices, school and another enclosure closer that affect the health of those who inhabit or use them are cataloged how indoor pollution. The importance of this study is because individuals spend most of their time in indoors ambient. The main indoor pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOₓ), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Combustion heaters are an important source of pollution indoors. It will be measured: NOₓ, SO₂, CO, PM₂,₅ y PM₁₀ continuous and discreet form at indoor and outdoor of two households with different heating energy; kerosene and electricity (control home) respectively, in addition to environmental parameters such as temperature. With the values obtained in the 'control home' it will be possible estimate the contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and later the contribution generated by kerosene heating. Transporting the emissions from burning kerosene to a photochemical chamber coupled to a continuous and discreet measuring system of contaminants it will be evaluated the oxidation of the emissions and formation of secondary particulate matter. It will be expected watch a contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and the kerosene emissions present a high potential of formation secondary particulate matter.

Keywords: Heating, indoor pollution, kerosene, secondary particulate matter

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8 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Peerasak Paoprasert


The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: Flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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7 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Maria Theresa G. De Leon


This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: MicroElectroMechanical Systems, Finite Element Method, Multiphysics Analysis, surface roughness, deep reactive ion etching, vibrational energy harvester

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6 Collaborative Platform for Learning Basic Programming (Algorinfo)

Authors: Edgar Mauricio Ruiz Osuna, Claudia Yaneth Herrera Bolivar, Sandra Liliana Gomez Vasquez


The increasing needs of professionals with skills in software development in industry are incremental, therefore, the relevance of an educational process in line with the strengthening of these competencies, are part of the responsibilities of universities with careers related to the area of Informatics and Systems. In this sense, it is important to consider that in the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan for the development of the Electronics, Information Technologies and Communications (2013) sectors, it is established as a weakness in the SWOT Analysis of the Software sector and Services, Deficiencies in training and professional training. Accordingly, UNIMINUTO's Computer Technology Program has addressed the analysis of students' performance in software development, identifying various problems such as dropout in programming subjects, academic averages, as well as deficiencies in strategies and competencies developed in the area of programming. As a result of this analysis, it was determined to design a collaborative learning platform in basic programming using heat maps as a tool to support didactic feedback. The pilot phase allows to evaluate in a programming course the ALGORINFO platform as a didactic resource, through an interactive and collaborative environment where students can develop basic programming practices and in turn, are fed back through the analysis of time patterns and difficulties frequent in certain segments or program cycles, by means of heat maps. The result allows the teacher to have tools to reinforce and advise critical points generated on the map, so that students and graduates improve their skills as software developers.

Keywords: Learning, Programming, Feedback, collaborative platform, heat maps

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5 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez


Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Reduction, Oxidation, methyl orange, black sand mineral

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4 Linear Stability Analysis of a Regularized Two-Fluid Model for Unstable Gas-Liquid Flows in Long Hilly Terrain Pipelines

Authors: David Alejandro Lazo-vasquez, Jorge Luis Balino


In the petroleum industry, multiphase flow occurs when oil, gas, and water are transported in the same pipe through large pipeline systems. The flow can take different patterns depending on parameters like fluid velocities, pipe diameter, pipe inclination, and fluid properties. Mainly, intermittent flow is produced by the natural propagation of short and long waves, according to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Stability Theory. To model stratified flow and the onset of intermittent flow, it is crucial to have knowledge of short and long waves behavior. The two-fluid model, frequently employed for characterizing multiphase systems, becomes ill-posed for high liquid and gas velocities and large inclination angles, for short waves can develop infinite growth rates. We are interested in focusing attention on long-wave instability, which leads to the production of roll waves that may grow and result in the transition from stratified flow to intermittent flow. In this study, global and local linear stability analyses for dynamic and kinematic stability criteria predict the regions of stability of the flow for different pipe inclinations and fluid velocities in regularized and non-regularized systems, concurrently. It was possible to distinguish when: wave growth rates are absolutely bounded (stable stratified smooth flow), waves have finite growth rates (unstable stratified wavy flow), and when the equation system becomes elliptic and hyperbolization is needed. In order to bound short wave growth rates and regularize the equation system, we incorporated some lower and higher-order terms like interfacial drag and surface tension, respectively.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, linear stability analysis, onset of slugging, two-fluid model regularization

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3 Harmonizing Spatial Plans: A Methodology to Integrate Sustainable Mobility and Energy Plans to Promote Resilient City Planning

Authors: B. Sanchez, D. Zambrana-Vasquez, J. Fresner, C. Krenn, F. Morea, L. Mercatelli


Local administrations are facing established targets on sustainable development from different disciplines at the heart of different city departments. Nevertheless, some of these targets, such as CO2 reduction, relate to two or more disciplines, as it is the case of sustainable mobility and energy plans (SUMP & SECAP/SEAP). This opens up the possibility to efficiently cooperate among different city departments and to create and develop harmonized spatial plans by using available resources and together achieving more ambitious goals in cities. The steps of the harmonization processes developed result in the identification of areas to achieve common strategic objectives. Harmonization, in other words, helps different departments in local authorities to work together and optimize the use or resources by sharing the same vision, involving key stakeholders, and promoting common data assessment to better optimize the resources. A methodology to promote resilient city planning via the harmonization of sustainable mobility and energy plans is presented in this paper. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a representative city engaged in an innovation process in efficient spatial planning is used as a case study. The harmonization process of sustainable mobility and energy plans covers identifying matching targets between different fields, developing different spatial plans with dual benefit and common indicators guaranteeing the continuous improvement of the harmonized plans. The proposed methodology supports local administrations in consistent spatial planning, considering both energy efficiency and sustainable mobility. Thus, municipalities can use their human and economic resources efficiently. This guarantees an efficient upgrade of land use plans integrating energy and mobility aspects in order to achieve sustainability targets, as well as to improve the wellbeing of its citizens.

Keywords: integrated multi-sector planning, spatial plans harmonization, sustainable energy and climate action plan, sustainable urban mobility plan

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2 Pollution Associated with Combustion in Stove to Firewood (Eucalyptus) and Pellet (Radiate Pine): Effect of UVA Irradiation

Authors: Y. Vasquez, P. Oyola, M. Rubio, F. Reyes, J. Muñoz, E. Lissi


In several cities in Chile, there is significant urban pollution, particularly in Santiago and in cities in the south where biomass is used as fuel in heating and cooking in a large proportion of homes. This has generated interest in knowing what factors can be modulated to control the level of pollution. In this project was conditioned and set up a photochemical chamber (14m3) equipped with gas monitors e.g. CO, NOX, O3, others and PM monitors e.g. dustrack, DMPS, Harvard impactors, etc. This volume could be exposed to UVA lamps, producing a spectrum similar to that generated by the sun. In this chamber, PM and gas emissions associated with biomass burning were studied in the presence and absence of radiation. From the comparative analysis of wood stove (eucalyptus globulus) and pellet (radiata pine), it can be concluded that, in the first approximation, 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene, levoglucosan, water soluble potassium and CO present characteristics of the tracers. However, some of them show properties that interfere with this possibility. For example, levoglucosan is decomposed by radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene are emitted and formed under radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene has a vapor pressure that involves a partition involving the gas phase and particulate matter. From this analysis, it can be concluded that K+ is compound that meets the properties known to be tracer. The PM2.5 emission measured in the automatic pellet stove that was used in this thesis project was two orders of magnitude smaller than that registered by the manual wood stove. This has led to encouraging the use of pellet stoves in indoor heating, particularly in south-central Chile. However, it should be considered, while the use of pellet is not without problems, due to pellet stove generate high concentrations of Nitro-HAP's (secondary organic contaminants). In particular, 4-nitropyrene, compound of high toxicity, also primary and secondary particulate matter, associated with pellet burning produce a decrease in the size distribution of the PM, which leads to a depth penetration of the particles and their toxic components in the respiratory system.

Keywords: Particulate Matter, biomass burning, photochemical chamber, tracers

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1 Effects of Concomitant Use of Metformin and Powdered Moringa Oleifera Leaves on Glucose Tolerance in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Emielex M. Aguilar, Kristen Angela G. Cruz, Czarina Joie L. Rivera, Francis Dave C. Tan, Gavino Ivan N. Tanodra, Dianne Katrina G. Usana, Mary Grace T. Valentin, Nico Albert S. Vasquez, Edwin Monico C. Wee


The risk of diabetes mellitus is increasing in the Philippines, with Metformin and Insulin as drugs commonly used for its management. The use of herbal medicines has grown increasingly, especially among the elderly population. Moringa oleifera or malunggay is one of the most common plants in the country, and several studies have shown the plant to exhibit a hypoglycemic property with its flavonoid content. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of concomitant use of Metformin and powdered M. oleifera leaves (PMOL) on blood glucose levels. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally distributed into four groups. Fasting blood glucose levels of the rats were measured prior to experimentation. The following treatments were administered to the four groups, respectively: glucose only 2 g/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + Metformin 100 mg/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg; and glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg and Metformin 100 mg/kg. Blood glucose levels were determined on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hour post-treatment and compared between groups. Statistical analysis showed that the type of intervention did not show significance in the reduction of blood glucose levels when compared with the other groups (p=0.378), while the effect of time exhibited significance (p=0.000). The interaction between the type of intervention and time of blood glucose measurement was shown to be significant (p=0.024). Within each group, the control and PMOL-treated groups showed significant reduction in blood glucose levels over time with p-values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively, while the Metformin-treated and the combination groups had p-values of 0.062 and 0.093, respectively, which are not significant. The descriptive data also showed that the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the Metformin and PMOL combination treatment group was lower than the PMOL-treated group alone, while the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the combination group was higher than the Metformin-treated group alone. Based on the results obtained, the combination of Metformin and PMOL did not significantly lower the blood glucose levels of the rats as compared to the other groups. However, the concomitant use of Metformin and PMOL may affect each other’s blood glucose lowering activity. Additionally, prolonged time of exposure and delay in the first blood glucose measurement after treatment could exhibit a significant effect in the blood glucose levels. Further studies are recommended regarding the effects of the concomitant use of the two agents on blood glucose levels.

Keywords: metformin, Moringa oleifera, blood glucose levels, concomitant use

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