Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1350

Search results for: intestinal morphology

1350 The Effects of Arginine, Glutamine and Threonine Supplementation in the Starting Phase on Subsequent Performance of Male Broile

Authors: Jalal Fazli Amiri, Mohammad Hossein Shahir, Mohammad Hossein Nemati, Afshin Heidarinia

Abstract:

The current study was performed to investigate the effects of arginine, threonine, and glutamine supplementation in excess of requirements in the starter period (17 days) on performance, intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers. Four hundred and sixteen male day-old chicks were assigned in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement to a completely randomized design with four replicates (13 birds per replicate ). Treatments were: a control group that received the basal diet, basal diet plus 1% glutamine, basal diet plus 0.2% threonine, basal diet plus 0.75 % arginine, and combination of these three amino acids (glutamine+arginine, glutamine+threonine, arginine+threonine and arginine+ glutamine+threonine). The effect of glutamine supplementation on feed intake was significant in week 4 (p < 0.05), week 6 (p < 0.001), and total feed intake (p < 0.05) and caused declined feed intake. No significant differences of glutamine addition were observed on intestinal morphology (villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width). Threonine supplementation caused increased weight gain in week 2 (p < 0.001) and 3 and a decrease of total feed intake (p < 0.05). Duodenum and jejunum villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width were not affected. The effect of arginine supplementation was the increase of breast percentage (p < 0.05) and a decrease of jejunum villi high (p < 0.05) and Jejunum crypt depth (p < 0.05). Supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine had no significant effects on blood titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza. Overall, it seems that the supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine in excess of requirements in the starter period had no effect on performance in subsequent periods and intestinal morphology.

Keywords: intestinal morphology, immunity, broiler chickens, glutamine, arginine, threonine

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1349 Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Flora of the Intestinal Microbiota of Rattus norvegicus an Algerian Firm West

Authors: Karima Ould Yerou, B. Meddah, A. Tir Touil

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The intestinal flora also called the intestinal microbiota, consists of different bacteria and other microorganisms which occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract organs components. These intestinal bacteria are present in their millions and help the functioning of the body in particular allowing aid to degradation of certain molecules into absorbable substrates. They also protect against invasion of the gut by other pathogenic bacteria, that is to say which may be responsible for disease. Factors like stress, antibiotics and diet can affect the balance of intestinal flora and in case of imbalance, digestive disorders type bloating, diarrhea or vomiting may occur. Rattus norvegicus of bad weight of 100 kg, an Algerian firm West are scarified and isolation of their ileum and colon respectively two Bactrian strains Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus are then purified and identified.

Keywords: intestinal flora, Rattus norvegicus, Escherichia coli, lactobacillus, West Algerian farm

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1348 Histochemistry of Intestinal Enzymes of Juvenile Dourado Salminus brasiliensis Fed Bovine Colostrum

Authors: Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, Thaline Maira P. Cruz, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto

Abstract:

Enzyme activity was evaluated in the intestine of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. The intestinal enzymes acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP, respectively), non-specific esterase (NSE), lipase (LIP), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were studied using histochemistry in four intestinal segments (S1, S2, S3 and posterior intestine). Weak proteolitic activity was observed in all intestinal segments for DAP IV and LAP. The activity of NSE and LIP was also weak in all intestines, except for the moderate activity of NSE in the S2 of 20% LBC group after 30 days and in the S1 of 0% LBC group after 60 days. The ACP was detected only in the S2 and S3 of the 10% LBC group after 30 days. Moderate and strong staining was observed in the first three intestinal segments for ALP and weak activity in the posterior intestine. The activity of DAP IV, LAP and ALP were also present in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. In the present results, bovine colostrum feeding did not cause alterations in activity of intestinal enzymes.

Keywords: carnivorous fish, enterocyte, intestinal epithelium, teleost

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1347 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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1346 Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite among Patients Attending Two Medical Centers in Jos

Authors: G. I. Ozumba, V. A. Pam, V. A. Adejoh, S. A. Odey

Abstract:

Intestinal parasitic infections are the most common parasitic infections of the man commonly resulting in morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Two hundred (200) patients from two medical centers were randomly examined for intestinal parasites using normal saline wet mount and formol-ether concentration methods. One hundred patients each were examined from Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH) and Vom Christian Hospital (VCH) respectively. Of the 100 patients examined at PSSH, (22.0%) tested positive for intestinal parasites, while only (6.0%) was reported for VCH. Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were significantly (P value=0.0002726) the most prevalent intestinal parasites in PSSH with (31.8%) respectively. Balantidium coli and Entamoeba histolytica were the least prevalent at (4.5%) respectively. Hookworm (50.0%) was significantly (P<0.0001) the most prevalent intestinal parasite in VCH, followed by A. lumbricoides (33.3%), while Taenia spp. (16.7%) was the least. Female subjects 12(54.5%) were more infected than their male 10(45.4%) counterparts in PSSH. The difference (P value=0.3633) in the infection between female and male subjects at PSSH was not significant. Female subjects were significantly (P value=0.0008586) more infected 4(66.7%) than male subjects 2(33.3%) at VCH. The prevalence of intestinal parasite in relation to age in PSSH shows a significantly (P-value = 0.02573) high level among age group 11-20years 9(36.0%). On the contrary, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites among age groups 31-40 years 2(9.1%) at VCH was not significant (P value=0.1595). The result in relation to a water source in patients attending PSSH shows that the boreholes sources (66.7%) had a significantly (P<0.0001) high prevalence of intestinal parasites, while the least prevalence was observed in tap source (7.9%). Results from VCH shows that streams/rivers (16.7%) revealed high prevalence, while the tap source was least parasitized (10.0%). There was no significant difference (P value=0.436) in the prevalence of parasites in relation to the water source at VCH. This prevalence is directly related to the sanitary condition, socio-economic status, educational level, the age and hygienic habits of the patients. Thus, necessary sanitary policies, awareness, screening and de-worming exercises and occasional check of intestinal parasites are recommended.

Keywords: intestinal parasites, Jos, patients, prevalence

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1345 Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Vijay R. Patil, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, K. R. Mahadik

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.

Keywords: andrographolide, Andrographis paniculata, in vitro, stability, gastric, Intestinal HPLC-PDA

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1344 Intestinal Parasites Detected by Fecal Examination in Cats in the Konya Province, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici

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The cat is one of the potential hosts for parasitic zoonoses, such as Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia sp. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in household cats in Konya, Turkey. In this study, a total of 100 stool samples with different ages and sex were used as a material. They were examined for infections with endoparasites by the use of native, Fulleborn flotation and Benedek sedimentation methods in University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 15%. A total of 6 parasite species was recorded: Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%). The most common intestinal parasites in cats were Giardia sp (6%) and Toxocara cati (4%). Younger cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p < 0.05). Giardia sp and Toxocara cati were detected significantly more often in younger than 1 year of age (p < 0.05). In fecal examination, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma sp. Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris sp were found in cats in Turkey. In this study, based on microscopic and macroscopic fecal examinations, Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (%2), Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%) was detected in cats. In conclusion, zoonotic intestinal parasites in household cats such as Giardia sp and Toxocara cati should be considered more seriously and it is necessary to take precautions against these infections. Cats should be routinely checked by faecal examination for endoparasite infections.

Keywords: cat, intestinal parasites, faecal, Turkey

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1343 Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Southwest Algeria to Treat Gastro-Intestinal Ailments

Authors: Karima Sekkoum Abdelkrim Cheriti, Leila Feguigui

Abstract:

Algeria has a large plant biodiversity accounting more than 4125 species (123 Families) and is endowed with resources of medicinal plants growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to semi-arid and Saharan. On the other hand, the ethnopharmacology investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and finding bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants. In continuation of our works in Saharan ethpharmacopeae and phytochemistry of Saharan medicinal plants, we focus our attention on the importance of local ethnopharmacology especially to treat gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria (El Baydh, Naama and Bechar region) as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development. Our present investigation deals with an ethnopharmacological study on medicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria. The study presents the uses of plants in local traditional herbal medicines, determines the homogeneity of informant traditional knowledge and the preferred medicinal plants used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are the most locally used families and medicines were prepared in the form of powder or infusion and used orally. Aerial parts were the most frequently used plant part. Thus, the results can be used as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development especially for the preferred plant species used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, gastro-intestinal, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic species

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1342 Morphology Optimization and Photophysics Study in Air-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Soumitra Satapathi, Anubhav Raghav

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Perovskite solar cell technology has passed through a phase of unprecedented growth in the efficiency scale from 3.8% to above 22% within a half decade. This technology has drawn tremendous research interest. It has been observed that performances of perovskite based solar cells are extremely dependent on the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite layer. It has also been observed that device lifetime depends on the perovskite morphology; devices with larger perovskite grains degrade slowly than those of the smaller ones. Various methods of perovskite growth have been applied to achieve the most appropriate morphology necessary for high efficient solar cells. The recent progress in morphology optimization by various methods emphasizing on grain sizes, stoichiometry, and ambient compatibility as well as photophysics study in air-processed perovskite solar cells will be discussed.

Keywords: perovskite solar cells, morphology optimization, photophysics study, air-processed solar cells

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1341 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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1340 The Impact of Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury upon the Biological Function of Mesenteric Lymph

Authors: Beth Taylor, Kojima Mituaki, Atsushi Senda, Koji Morishita, Yasuhiro Otomo

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Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury drives systemic inflammation and organ failure following trauma/haemorrhagic shock (T/HS), through the release of pro-inflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML). However, changes in the biological function of ML are not fully understood, and therefore, a specific model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury is required to obtain ML for the study of its biological function upon inflammatory cells. ML obtained from a model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury was used to assess biological function upon inflammatory cells and investigate changes in the biological function of individual ML components. An additional model was used to determine the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) upon biological function. Rat ML was obtained by mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulation before and after occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMAO). ML was incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes and lymphocytes, and the biological function of these cells was assessed. ML was then separated into supernatant, exosome and micro-vesicle components, and biological activity was compared in monocytes. A model with an additional VNS phase was developed, in which the right cervical vagal nerve was exposed and stimulated, and ML collected for comparison of biological function with the conventional model. The biological function of ML was altered by intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, increasing PMN activation, monocyte activation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased monocyte activation was only induced by the exosome component of ML, with no significant changes induced by the supernatant or micro-vesicle components. VNS partially attenuated monocyte activation, but no attenuation of PMN activation was observed. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury induces changes in the biological function of ML upon both innate and adaptive inflammatory cells, supporting the role of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in driving systemic inflammation following T/HS. The exosome component of ML appears to be critical to the transport of pro-inflammatory mediators in ML. VNS partially attenuates changes in innate inflammatory cell biological activity observed, presenting possibilities for future novel treatment development in multiple organ failure patients.

Keywords: exosomes, inflammation, intestinal ischaemia, mesenteric lymph, vagal stimulation

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1339 Colorectal Resection in Endometriosis: A Study on Conservative Vascular Approach

Authors: A. Zecchin, E. Vallicella, I. Alberi, A. Dalle Carbonare, A. Festi, F. Galeone, S. Garzon, R. Raffaelli, P. Pomini, M. Franchi

Abstract:

Introduction: Severe endometriosis is a multiorgan disease, that involves bowel in 31% of cases. Disabling symptoms and deep infiltration can lead to bowel obstruction: surgical bowel treatment may be needed. In these cases, colorectal segment resection is usually performed by inferior mesenteric artery ligature, as radically as for oncological surgery. This study was made on surgery based on intestinal vascular axis’ preservation. It was assessed postoperative complications risks (mainly rate of dehiscence of intestinal anastomoses), and results were compared with the ones found in literature about classical colorectal resection. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study based on 62 patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the bowel, which undergo segmental resection with intestinal vascular axis preservation, between 2013 and 2016. It was assessed complications related to the intervention both during hospitalization and 30-60 days after resection. Particular attention was paid to the presence of anastomotic dehiscence. 52 patients were finally telephonically interviewed in order to investigate the presence or absence of intestinal constipation. Results and Conclusion: Segmental intestinal resection performed in this study ensured a more conservative vascular approach, with lower rate of anastomotic dehiscence (1.6%) compared to classical literature data (10.0% to 11.4% ). No complications were observed regarding spontaneous recovery of intestinal motility and bladder emptying. Constipation in some patients, even after years of intervention, is not assessable in the absence of a preoperative constipation state assessment.

Keywords: anastomotic dehiscence, deep infiltrating endometriosis, colorectal resection, vascular axis preservation

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1338 Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters

Authors: Victor U. Odoemelam, Ihemdirim C. Unamba-Opara, Martins C. Anyanwuocha

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Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P<0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P<0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P<0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P<0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.

Keywords: antibiotics, body weight, feed additives, intestinal morphology, phytogenics

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1337 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni

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In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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1336 A Gastro-Intestinal Model for a Rational Design of in vitro Systems to Study Drugs Bioavailability

Authors: Pompa Marcello, Mauro Capocelli, Vincenzo Piemonte

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This work focuses on a mathematical model able to describe the gastro-intestinal physiology and providing a rational tool for the design of an artificial gastro-intestinal system. This latter is mainly devoted to analyse the absorption and bioavailability of drugs and nutrients through in vitro tests in order to overcome (or, at least, to partially replace) in vivo trials. The provided model realizes a conjunction ring (with extended prediction capability) between in vivo tests and mechanical-laboratory models emulating the human body. On this basis, no empirical equations controlling the gastric emptying are implemented in this model as frequent in the cited literature and all the sub-unit and the related system of equations are physiologically based. More in detail, the model structure consists of six compartments (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and blood) interconnected through pipes and valves. Paracetamol, Ketoprofen, Irbesartan and Ketoconazole are considered and analysed in this work as reference drugs. The mathematical model has been validated against in vivo literature data. Results obtained show a very good model reliability and highlight the possibility to realize tailored simulations for different couples patient-drug, including food adsorption dynamics.

Keywords: gastro-intestinal model, drugs bioavailability, paracetamol, ketoprofen

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1335 Effect of Dual-Oligo Saccharide on Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rat Model

Authors: So Hyun Ahn, Geu Rim Seo, Byungsoo Shin, Kwang-Won Yu, Hyung Joo Suh, Sung Hee Han

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We investigated the effects of GOS, lactulose and DuOligo in loperamide-induced constipation rat model. Dual-Oligo saccharide (DuOligo) was composed with galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) and lactulose. GOS is an important dietary prebiotics that affects intestinal microbiota and barrier functions to have beneficial effect and lactulose is used as a laxative to treat constipation. To study the DuOligo, after adaptation period of four weeks of Spraque-Dawley rats, loperamide (5 mg/kg, twice per day) was injected to induce constipation for 1 week. DuOligo increased the fecal pellet amount, fecal weight, and water content of feces in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. DuOligo groups tended to produce more total fatty acid than that of observed for the control group. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and area of intestinal mucosa increased after treatment with DuOligo in loperamide-induced rats. These results showed that oral administration of DuOligo significantly modulated intestinal peristalsis.

Keywords: constipation, DuOligo, GOS, lactulose

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1334 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

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Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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1333 Effect Mechanisms of Aromatic Plants: Effects on Intestinal Health and Broiler Feeding

Authors: Ozlem Durna Aydin, Gultekin Yildiz

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Antibiotics are microbial metabolites with low molecular weight produced by fungi and algae, inhibiting the development of other microorganisms even in low growth. Antibiotics have been used as growth factors in animal feeds for many years. They prohibited; because of increased residue problem and increased resistance to antibiotics in bacteria due to prolonged use. Aromatic plants and extracts have attracted the attention of scientists nowadays due to positive reasons such as confidence of the community to the products those are coming from nature, desire to consume, and no residue problems. Plant extracts are obtained from aromatic plants, and they come forward with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. It has been stated that intestinal histomorphology and microbiosis are positively affected by the use of plant extract in feeds. In the present day, aromatic plants and extracts are a remarkable research field with intriguing unknowns in the field of animal nutrition, and they continue to exist in the journal in vitro and in vivo studies.

Keywords: aromatic plant, broilers, extract mechanism of action, intestinal health

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1332 Oat βeta Glucan Attenuates the Development of Atherosclerosis and Improves the Intestinal Barrier Function by Reducing Bacterial Endotoxin Translocation in APOE-/- MICE

Authors: Dalal Alghawas, Jetty Lee, Kaisa Poutanen, Hani El-Nezami

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Oat β-glucan a water soluble non starch linear polysaccharide has been approved as a cholesterol lowering agent by various food safety administrations and is commonly used to reduce the risk of heart disease. The molecular weight of oat β-glucan can vary depending on the extraction and fractionation methods. It is not clear whether the molecular weight has a significant impact at reducing the acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate three different oat β-glucan fractionations on the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. With special focus on plaque stability and the intestinal barrier function. To test this, ApoE-/- female mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with oat bran, high molecular weight (HMW) oat β-glucan fractionate and low molecular weight (LMW) oat β-glucan fractionate for 16 weeks. Atherosclerosis risk markers were measured in the plasma, heart and aortic tree. Plaque size was measured in the aortic root and aortic tree. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin, protein levels were assessed from the aortic tree to determine plaque stability at 16 weeks. The expression of p22phox at the aortic root was evaluated to study the NADPH oxidase complex involved in nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular elasticity. The tight junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin from western blot analyses were analysed as an intestinal barrier function test. Plasma LPS, intestinal D-lactate levels and hepatic FMO gene expression were carried out to confirm whether the compromised intestinal barrier lead to endotoxemia. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective than the LMW β-glucan diet group at reducing the plaque size and showed marked improvements in plaque stability. The intestinal barrier was compromised for all the experimental groups however the endotoxemia levels were higher in the LMW β-glucan diet group. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective at attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. Reasons for this could be due to the LMW oat β-glucan diet group’s low viscosity in the gut and the inability to block the reabsorption of cholesterol. Furthermore the low viscosity may allow more bacterial endotoxin translocation through the impaired intestinal barrier. In future food technologists should carefully consider how to incorporate LMW oat β-glucan as a health promoting food.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, beta glucan, endotoxemia, intestinal barrier function

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1331 Polysaccharide-Based Oral Delivery Systems for Site Specific Delivery in Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Authors: Kaarunya Sampathkumar, Say Chye Joachim Loo

Abstract:

Oral delivery is regarded as the facile method for the administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug carriers. In an initiative towards sustainable nanotechnology, an oral nano-delivery system has been developed that is made entirely of food-based materials and can also act as a site-specific delivery device depending on the stimulus encountered in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The delivery system has been fabricated from food grade polysaccharide materials like chitosan and starch through electrospraying technique without the use of any organic solvents. A nutraceutical extracted from an Indian medicinal plant, has been loaded into the nano carrier to test its efficacy in encapsulation and stimuli based release of the active ingredient. The release kinetics of the nutraceutical from the carrier was evaluated in simulated gastric, intestinal and colonic fluid and was found to be triggered both by the enzymes and the pH in each part of the intestinal tract depending on the polysaccharide being used. The toxicity of the nanoparticles on the intestinal epithelial cells was tested and found to be relatively safe for up to 24 hours at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL with cellular uptake also being observed. The developed nano carrier thus serves as a promising delivery vehicle for targeted delivery to different parts of the GIT with the inherent conditions of the GIT itself acting as the stimulus. In addition, being fabricated from food grade materials, the carrier could be potentially used for the targeted delivery of nutrients through functional foods.

Keywords: bioavailability, chitosan, delivery systems, encapsulation

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1330 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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1329 Pathological Observations of Intestinal Coccidiosis in Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Abhilasha Dadhich, Manisha Mathur, Sanjay Kumar, Hemant Dadhich

Abstract:

The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an important animal component of the fragile desert eco-system of India. Apart from others, impaired milk and meat production decrease in performance and even death are some of the major consequences of parasitic disease like coccidiosis in camel. Coccidiosis which is an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or isospora spp. Post-Mortem examinations of 5 carcasses of dromedary of different age groups aged from 2 to 5 years were conducted. The history indicated that the camels were suffering from diarrhoea, dysentery, pyrexia, inappetence, weight loss, and emaciation. Post mortem examinations showed macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the small intestine, particularly in jejunum and ileum regions. The mucosae were congested, and haemorrhagic on which there were numerous whitish-grey nodular foci were observed. The affected intestinal tissue specimens were preserved in 10% formal saline and processed mechanically for paraffin embedding by acetone and benzene technique. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin method of staining for histopathological examinations. Histologically, typical lesions such as congestion and haemorrhages were present. The intestinal villi were oedematous; mucosa degenerated and desquamated, along with infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages. Crypts of lieberkuhn were obliterated due to presence of schizonts in lamina propria. Older camels served as the source of spread of coccidial infection and were also predisposed to secondary infections.

Keywords: camel, coccidiosis, Eimeria, histopathology

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1328 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind

Abstract:

Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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1327 Variation in the Morphology of Soft Palate

Authors: Hema Lattupalli

Abstract:

Introduction: The palate forms a partition between the oral cavity and nasal cavity. The palate is made up of two parts hard palate and soft palate. The Hard palate forms the anterior part of the palate, the soft palate forms a movable muscular fold covered by mucous membrane that is suspended from the posterior border of a hard palate. Aim and Objectives: Soft palate morphological variations have a great paucity in the literature. It’s also believed that the soft palate has no such important anatomical variations. There is a variable presentation of the soft palate morphology in the lateral cephalograms. The aim of this study is to identify the velar morphology. Materials and Methods: 100 normal subjects between the age group of 20 – 35 were taken for the study. Method: Lateral Cephalogram (radiologic study). Results: Different shapes of the soft palate were observed in the lateral cephalograms. The morphology of soft palate was classified into six types 1.Leaf like (50 cases) most common type, 2.Straight line (20 cases), 3.S shaped (4 cases) very rare, 4.Butt like (10 cases), 5. Rat tail (6 cases), 6. Hook shaped (10 cases). Conclusion: This classification helps us to understand the better diversity of the velar morphology in mid-sagittal plane. These findings help us to understand the etiology of OSAS.

Keywords: soft palate, cephalometric radiographs, morphology, cleft palate, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

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1326 Microorganism and Laurus nobilis from Mascara - Algeria

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

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Laurusnobilis is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people as a source of spice and for medicinal purposes. The essential oil of this plant is the subject of this work in a physicochemical and microbiological study. The extraction of the essential oil was carried by steam distillation and the highest yield (1.5%) was determined in May. The organoleptic and physico-chemical characters are consistent with those obtained in the literature with some differences that can be attributed to certain factors. Evaluation of antibacterial activity showed a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with an MIC of 2,5 mg.ml-1, and other bacteria of the intestinal flora of Wistar rats: E. coli and Lactobacillus sp. have a high potential for resistance with MICs respectively equal to 10 and 20 mg.ml-1.

Keywords: laurus nobilis, essential oil, physicochemical character, MIC, intestinal flora, antibacterial activity

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1325 Isolation of Different Brachyspira spp. from Laying Hens in North-East of Iran

Authors: Ahdieh Alijani, Mina Zarrabi, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar

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Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by spiral-shaped Gram-negative Brachyspira spp. in poultry and is known as a cause of diarrhea, low egg production and increased the occurrence of dirty eggs in layer hens. In this study the presence of some Brachyspira spp. was investigated in laying hens. A total of 100 cloacal swab samples were individually collected from 20 laying hen flocks showing fecal egg staining in northeastern Iran. By culture and morphologic examination, 41 samples (41%) from 20 flocks were positive but by using genus–specific PCR only 37 (37%) samples were confirmed as Brachyspira spp. Using species-specific primers, single colonization was identified in 18 samples associated with B. pilosicoli (48.6%) while single colonization with B. intermedia was found in only two samples (5.4%). Simultaneous colonization by B. intermedia and B. murdochii was detected in 3 samples (8.1%). B. pilosicoli was the most prevalent species in concurrent colonization in 11 cases (29.7%). Finally, co-colonization by B. intermedia and B. innocens was identified in 3 samples (8.1%). The results of this study show the colonization of different species of Brachyspira with the dominance of B. pilosicoli in layer hens. In simultaneous colonization with pathogenic and non-pathogenic species the symptoms of intestinal spirochetosis were reduced, suggesting a competitive role in preventing and reducing the colonization of pathogenic species.

Keywords: intestinal spirochetosis, Brachyspira, laying hen, PCR

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1324 Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease in a Child: Atypical Axillary Involvement

Authors: A. Al Yousef, A. Toulon, L. Petit, S. Fraitag, F. Ruemmele, S. Hadj-Rabia, C. Bodemer

Abstract:

Cutaneous Crohn’s disease (CCD) refers to an extremely rare granulomatous inflammation of the skin that is non-contiguous to the bowel tract. These cutaneous lesions can occur prior to, concurrent with, or after the gastrointestinal manifestations. In adults, CCD most frequently occurs in the setting of well-documented intestinal disease. Only 20% of cases occur prior to its development. Review of CCD in children, reveals that 86% of cases (24 of 28) occurring in patients without a known diagnosis of intestinal Crohn’s disease. Overall, the genitalia was the most commonly involved location, representing 21 of the 28 cases with 16 vulvar and 5 penile/scrotal lesions.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease, cutaneous manifestations, children, atypical axillary involvement

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1323 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana

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The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

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1322 Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds

Authors: Mohammad Khodaei, Mahmood Meratien, Alireza Valanezhad, Serdar Pazarlioglu, Serdar Salman, Ikuya Watanabe

Abstract:

Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.

Keywords: Spacer, Titanium Scaffold, Pore Morphology, Space Holder Technique

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1321 Design and Synthesis of Novel Benzamides as Non-Ulcerogenic Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Khadse Saurabh, Talele Gokul, Surana Sanjay

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In an endeavor to find a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, a series of novel benzamides (ab1-ab16) were synthesized by utilizing some arylideneoxazolones (az1-az4) having 2-acetyloxyphenyl substitution on their second position. Structures of these synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Among the tested benzamide compounds 3ab1, 3ab2, 3ab11, and 3ab16 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity with lessened propensity to cause gastro-intestinal hypermotility and ulceration when compared with standard Indomethacin. Virtual screening was performed by docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of COX-2 receptor to predict if these compounds have analogous binding mode to the COX-2 inhibitor.

Keywords: benzamides, anti-inflammatory, gastro-intestinal hypermotility, ulcerogenic activity, docking

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