Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Mangala M. Pai

7 Morphological Study of Sesamoid Bones of Thumb in South Indians

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, R. Abisshek Balaji, Apoorva Aggarwal, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: Since the literature is scarce from the South Indian population about the sesamoid bones of the thumb, the present study was undertaken. The objective of the present study was to figure out the muscle of the thumb which contain these sesamoid bones. Methods: The present study included 25 cadaveric thumbs, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory of our institution. Thumbs were studied for the prevalence of sesamoid bones at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The muscle which contain these sesamoid bones were identified. Results: The present study observed that, there were 2 sesamoid bones (92%) at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb each at its medial and lateral aspect. The medial sesamoid bone was found inside the adductor pollicis muscle and lateral one was found either in the flexor pollicis brevis muscle or abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, among the 25 thumbs being studied, 2 thumbs (8%) had solitary sesamoid bone. The interphalangeal joint of the thumb exhibited only one sesamoid bone at the median plane. Conclusion: The morphological data of the present study from the South Indians can be used as a database, which is enlightening to the operating hand surgeon and radiologist.

Keywords: morphology, muscles, sesamoid bones, thumb

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6 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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5 The Nutrient Foramen of the Scaphoid Bone – A Morphological Study

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, P. J. Jiji, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist. The fracture may disrupt the vessels and end up as the avascular necrosis of the bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried scaphoid bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 46 scaphoid bones (26 right sided and 20 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the scaphoid bones. The foramina were observed both proximal and distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. The foramen ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The foramina over the palmar surface ranged between, 2-24 in number. The foramina over the dorsal surface ranged between, 7-36 in number. The foramina proximal to the waist ranged between 2 and 24 in number and distal to the waist ranged between 3 and 39. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the scaphoid bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the proximal scaphoid and non-union of the fracture at the waist of the scaphoid.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient, scaphoid, vascular

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4 Vascular Foramina of the Capitate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: Latha V. Prabhu, B.V. Murlimanju, P.J. Jiji, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The capitate is the largest among the carpal bones. There exists no literature about the vascular foramina of the capitate bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried capitate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 59 capitate bones (25 right sided and 34 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular and articular surfaces. The foramina were observed at the medial, lateral, palmar and dorsal surfaces of the capitate bones. The foramina were ranged from 6 to 23 in each capitate bone. In the medial surface, the foramina ranged from 1 to 6, lateral surface from 0 to 7, the foramina ranged between 0 and 5 in the palmar surface. However most of the foramina were located at the dorsal surface which ranged from 3 to 11. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the capitate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The knowledge about the foramina is also important to the radiologists to prevent the misinterpretation of the findings in the x ray and computed tomogram scan films. The foramina may mimick like erosions and ossicles. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the capitate.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, capitate, morphology, nutrient foramen

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3 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom

Abstract:

Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

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2 Subthalamic Nucleus in Adult Human Cadaveric Brain: A Morphometric Study

Authors: Mangala Kohli, P. A. Athira, Reeha Mahajan

Abstract:

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a biconvex nucleus situated in the diencephalon. The knowledge of the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus is essential for accurate targeting of the nucleus during Deep Brain Stimulation. The present study aims to note the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus in both the cerebral hemispheres which will prove to be of great value to radiologists and neurosurgeons. A cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in the Departments of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals, New Delhi on thirty adult cadaveric brain specimens of unclaimed and donated corpses. The specimens were categorized into 3 age groups: 20-35, 35-50 and above 50 years. All samples were collected after following the standard protocol for ethical clearance. The morphometric study of 60 subthalamic nucleus was thus conducted. Transverse section of the brain was made at a plane 4mm ventral to the plane containing mid commissural point. The dimensions of the subthalamic nucleus were measured bilaterally with the aid of digital Vernier caliper and magnifying glass. In the present study, the mean length and width and AC-PC length of the subthalamic nucleus was recorded on the right and left side in Group A, B and C. On comparison of mean of subthalamic nucleus dimensions between the right and left side in Group C, no statistically significant difference was observed. The length and width of subthalamic nucleus measured in the 3 age groups were compared with each other and the p value calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the dimensions of Group A and B, Group B and C as well as Group A and C. The present study reveals that there is no significant reduction in the size of the nucleus was noted with increasing age. Thus, the values obtained in the present study can be used as a reference for various invasive and non-invasive procedures on subthalamic nucleus.

Keywords: cerebral hemisphere, deep brain stimulation, morphometry, subthalamic nucleus

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1 Hg Anomalies and Soil Temperature Distribution to Delineate Upflow and Outflow Zone in Bittuang Geothermal Prospect Area, south Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Adhitya Mangala, Yobel

Abstract:

Bittuang geothermal prospect area located at Tana Toraja district, South Sulawesi. The geothermal system of the area related to Karua Volcano eruption product. This area has surface manifestation such as fumarole, hot springs, sinter silica and mineral alteration. Those prove that there are hydrothermal activities in the subsurface. However, the project and development of the area have not implemented yet. One of the important elements in geothermal exploration is to determine upflow and outflow zone. This information very useful to identify the target for geothermal wells and development which it is a risky task. The methods used in this research were Mercury (Hg) anomalies in soil, soil and manifestation temperature distribution and fault fracture density from 93 km² research area. Hg anomalies performed to determine the distribution of hydrothermal alteration. Soil and manifestation temperature distribution were conducted to estimate heat distribution. Fault fracture density (FFD) useful to determine fracture intensity and trend from surface observation. Those deliver Hg anomaly map, soil and manifestation temperature map that combined overlayed to fault fracture density map and geological map. Then, the conceptual model made from north – south, and east – west cross section to delineate upflow and outflow zone in this area. The result shows that upflow zone located in northern – northeastern of the research area with the increase of elevation and decrease of Hg anomalies and soil temperature. The outflow zone located in southern - southeastern of the research area which characterized by chloride, chloride - bicarbonate geothermal fluid type, higher soil temperature, and Hg anomalies. The range of soil temperature distribution from 16 – 19 °C in upflow and 19 – 26.5 °C in the outflow. The range of Hg from 0 – 200 ppb in upflow and 200 – 520 ppb in the outflow. Structural control of the area show northwest – southeast trend. The boundary between upflow and outflow zone in 1550 – 1650 m elevation. This research delivers the conceptual model with innovative methods that useful to identify a target for geothermal wells, project, and development in Bittuang geothermal prospect area.

Keywords: Bittuang geothermal prospect area, Hg anomalies, soil temperature, upflow and outflow zone

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