Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: morphine

21 Detection of Heroin and Its Metabolites in Urine Samples: A Chemiluminescence Approach

Authors: Sonu Gandhi, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma, C. Raman Suri


A sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) for heroin and its major metabolites is reported. The method is based on the competitive reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-MAM antibody and free drug in spiked urine samples. A hapten-protein conjugate was synthesized by using acidic derivative of monoacetyl morphine (MAM) coupled to carrier protein BSA and was used as an immunogen for the generation of anti-MAM (monoacetyl morphine) antibody. A high titer of antibody (1:64,0000) was obtained and the relative affinity constant (Kaff) of antibody was 3.1×107 l/mol. Under the optimal conditions, linear range and reactivity for heroin, mono acetyl morphine (MAM), morphine and codeine were 0.08, 0.09, 0.095 and 0.092 ng/mL respectively. The developed chemiluminescence inhibition assay could detect heroin and its metabolites in standard and urine samples up to 0.01 ng/ml.

Keywords: heroin, metabolites, chemiluminescence immunoassay, horse radish peroxidase

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20 Heroin and Opiates Metabolites Tracing by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Yao-Te Yen, Chao-Hsin Cheng, Meng-Shun Huang, Shan-Zong Cyue


'Poppy-seed defense' has been a serious problem all over the world, that is because the opiates metabolites in urine are difficult to distinguish where they come from precisely. In this research, a powerful analytic method has been developed to trace the opiates metabolites in urine by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In order to eliminate the interference of synthesis to heroin or metabolism through human body, opiates metabolites in urine and sized heroin were hydrolyzed to morphine. Morphine is the key compound for tracing between opiates metabolites and seized heroin in this research. By matching δ13C and δ15N values through morphine, it is successful to distinguish the opiates metabolites coming from heroin or medicine. We tested seven heroin abuser’s metabolites and seized heroin in crime sites, the result showed that opiates metabolites coming from seized heroin, the variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are within 0.2 and 2.5‰, respectively. The variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are reasonable with the result of matrix match experiments. Above all, the uncertainty of 'Poppy-seed defense' can be solved easily by this analytic method, it provides the direct evidence for judge to make accurate conviction without hesitation.

Keywords: poppy-seed defense, heroin, opiates metabolites, isotope ratio mass spectrometry

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19 Production of Camel Nanobodies against of Anti-Morphine-3-Glucuronide for the Development of a Biosensor for Detecting Illicit Drug

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Sadegh Hasannia, Hadi Shirzad, Afshin Khara


Morphine is one of the most medicinally important analgesics and narcotics. Structurally, it is classified as an alkaloid because of the presence of nitrogen. Its structure is similar to that of codeine, thebaine, and heroin. An immunoassay to accurately discriminate between these analogous alkaloids would be highly beneficial. A key factor for such an assay is specificity with high sensitivity, which is totally dependent on the antibody employed. However, most antibodies against haptens are polyclonal serum antibodies that exhibit significant cross-reactivities with closely related compounds. The camel-derived single-chain antibody fragments (VHH) are the smallest molecules with antigen-binding capacity, possessing unique properties compared to other conventional antibodies. In this study, a library containing the VHH genes of a camel immunized with with morphine conjugated BSA following phage display technology was generated. By screening the camel-derived variable region of the heavy chain cDNA phage display library with the ability to bind the desired hapten, we obtained some nanobodies that recognize this hapten. Phage display expression of the Nbs from this library and pannings against this hapten resulted in a clear enrichment of four distinct Nb-displaying phages with specificity for morphine that could be a potential target site for the development of new strategies for the development of a biosensor for detecting illicit drug.

Keywords: phage display, nanobody, Morphine-3, glucuronide, ELISA, biosensor

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18 Comparison of the Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Morphine, Paracetamol, and Ketorolac in Patient-Controlled Analgesia in the Patients Undergoing Open Cholecystectomy

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Vahideh Rashtchi, Marzieh Khezri, Hamid Kayalha, Monadi Hamidfar


Background and objectives: Effective postoperative pain management in abdominal surgeries, which are painful procedures, plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications and increasing patient’s satisfaction. There are many techniques for pain control, one of which is Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of morphine, paracetamol and ketorolac in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method. Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 330 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients ( three equal groups, n=110) who were scheduled for elective open cholecystectomy in Shahid Rjaee hospital of Qazvin, Iran from August 2013 until September 2015. All patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA (Total Intra Venous Anesthesia) technique. The control group received morphine with maximum dose of 0.02mg/kg/h, the paracetamol group received paracetamol with maximum dose of 1mg/kg/h, and the ketorolac group received ketorolac with maximum daily dose of 60mg using IV-PCA method. The parameters of pain, nausea, hemodynamic variables (BP and HR), pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation, patient’s satisfaction and pain score were measured every two hours for 8 hours following operation in all groups. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic data between the three groups. there was a statistically significant difference with regard to the mean pain score at all times between morphine and paracetamol, morphine and ketorolac, and paracetamol and ketorolac groups (P<0.001). Results indicated a reduction with time in the mean level of postoperative pain in all three groups. At all times the mean level of pain in ketorolac group was less than that in the other two groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study ketorolac is more effective than morphine and paracetamol in postoperative pain control in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method.

Keywords: analgesia, cholecystectomy, ketorolac, morphine, paracetamol

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17 The Role of Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN) in 99mTc-HIDA with Morphine Provocation Scan for the Investigation of Type III Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD)

Authors: Ibrahim M Hassan, Lorna Que, Michael Rutland


Type I SOD is usually diagnosed by anatomical imaging such as ultrasound, CT and MRCP. However, the types II and III SOD yield negative results despite the presence of significant symptoms. In particular, the type III is difficult to diagnose due to the absence of significant biochemical or anatomical abnormalities. Nuclear Medicine can aid in this diagnostic dilemma by demonstrating functional changes in the bile flow. Low dose Morphine (0.04mg/Kg) stimulates the tone of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) and its usefulness has been shown in diagnosing SOD by causing a delay in bile flow when compared to a non morphine provoked - baseline scan. This work expands on that process by using sublingual GTN at 60 minutes post tracer and morphine injection to relax the SO and induce an improvement in bile outflow, and in some cases show immediate relief of morphine induced abdominal pain. The criteria for positive SOD are as follows: if during the first hour of the morphine provocation showed (1) delayed intrahepatic biliary ducts tracer accumulation; plus (2) delayed appearance but persistent retention of activity in the common bile duct, and (3) delayed bile flow into the duodenum. In addition, patients who required GTN within the first hour to relieve abdominal pain were regarded as highly supportive of the diagnosis. Retrospective analysis of 85 patients (pts) (78F and 6M) referred for suspected SOD (type III) who had been intensively investigated because of recurrent right upper quadrant or abdominal pain post cholecystectomy. 99mTc-HIDA scan with morphine-provocation is performed followed by GTN at 60 minutes post tracer injection and a further thirty minutes of dynamic imaging are acquired. 30 pts were negative. 55 pts were regarded as positive for SOD and 38/55 (60%) of these patients with an abnormal result were further evaluated with a baseline 99mTc-HIDA. As expected, all 38 pts showed better bile flow characteristics than during the morphine provocation. 20/55 (36%) patients were treated by ERCP sphincterotomy and the rest were managed conservatively by medical therapy. In all cases regarded as positive for SOD, the sublingual GTN at 60 minutes showed immediate improvement in bile flow. 11/55(20%) who developed severe post-morphine abdominal pain were relieved by GTN almost instantaneously. We propose that GTN is a useful agent in the diagnosis of SOD when performing 99mTc-HIDA scan and that the satisfactory response to the sublingual GTN could offer additional information in patients who have severe pain at the time the procedure or when presenting to the emergency unit because of biliary pain. And also in determining whether a trial of medical therapy may be used before considering surgery.


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16 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers


The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, morphine, opiorphin

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15 Fabrication of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on New Nanostructured Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole for Selective and Sensitive Determination of Morphine

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Arash Ghoorchian, Maryam Shanesaz, Reza Naderi


Morphine (MO), the most effective painkiller, is considered the reference by which analgesics are assessed. It is very necessary for the biomedical applications to detect and maintain the MO concentrations in the blood and urine with in safe ranges. To date, there are many expensive techniques for detecting MO. Recently, many electrochemical sensors for direct determination of MO were constructed. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is a polymeric material, which has a built-in functionality for the recognition of a particular chemical substance with its complementary cavity.This paper reports a sensor for MO using a combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electropolymerization of MO doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased impregnation has been obtained in the pH=12. Above a pH of 11, MO is in the anionic forms. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate and accumulation time on the voltammetric response of MO was investigated. At the optimum conditions, the concentration of MO was determined using DPV in a linear range of 7.07 × 10−6 to 2.1 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and a detection limit of 13.3 × 10-8 mol L−1, respectively. The effect of common interferences on the current response of MO namely ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is studied. The modified electrode can be used for the determination of MO spiked into urine samples, and excellent recovery results were obtained. The nanostructured polypyrrole films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and furrier transforms infrared (FTIR).

Keywords: morphine detection, sensor, polypyrrole, nanostructure, molecularly imprinted polymer

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14 Effects of Different Types of Perioperative Analgesia on Minimal Residual Disease Development After Colon Cancer Surgery

Authors: Lubomir Vecera, Tomas Gabrhelik, Benjamin Tolmaci, Josef Srovnal, Emil Berta, Petr Prasil, Petr Stourac


Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer. Currently, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of postoperative analgesia on the prognosis of patients undergoing radical colon cancer surgery. Postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery is usually managed in two ways, either with strong opioids (morphine, piritramide) or epidural analgesia. In our prospective study, we evaluated the effect of postoperative analgesia on the presence of circulating tumor cells or minimal residual disease after colon cancer surgery. A total of 60 patients who underwent radical colon cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, two-center study. Patients were randomized into three groups, namely piritramide, morphine and postoperative epidural analgesia. We evaluated the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) mRNA positive circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood before surgery, immediately after surgery, on postoperative day two and one month after surgery. The presence of circulating tumor cells was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the priritramide postoperative analgesia group, the presence of CEA mRNA positive cells was significantly lower on a postoperative day two compared to the other groups (p=0.04). The value of CK-20 mRNA positive cells was the same in all groups on all days. In all groups, both types of circulating tumor cells returned to normal levels one month after surgery. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in all groups. Compared with morphine and epidural analgesia, piritramide significantly reduces the amount of CEA mRNA positive circulating tumor cells after radical colon cancer surgery.

Keywords: cancer progression, colon cancer, minimal residual disease, perioperative analgesia.

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13 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatoryactivities of Camel Thorn in Experimental Animals

Authors: Abdelkader H. El Debani, Huda Gargoum, Awad G. Abdellatif


The aim of this study is to investigate analgesic and the anti-inflammatory effects Camel Thorn Extract (CTE) in rodents. Male albino mice weighing 20-25 gm. were divided into different groups each of 8 mice. The control was given normal saline i. p., the first group was given normal saline i. p. the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, groups received different doses of CTE (330, 660, and 1300 mg/kg) respectively and the 6th group received 5mg/kg of morphine i. p. All groups (except the control group) were given acetic acid 40 min after receiving the different treatment. The number of writhes was recorded 5 min after acetic acid injection for 15 min and the % of inhibition of writhing were calculated. Different groups of rats weighing 180- 220 gm., were divided into three groups each of 5 rats. At the beginning, the volumes of the right and left paw in animals were measured by using of the plethysmometer. The 1st group was given 660 mg /kg i. p. of CTE, the 2nd group received indomethacin (5 mg/kg i. p.). One hour later, edema was induced by sub planter injection of 0.1 ml of 1 % freshly prepared suspension of carrageenan into the right hind paws of the rats. The volume of the injected paws and contra-lateral paws were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours using plethysmometer. The volume of the left paw of the rat was subtracted from the volume of the right paw of the same animal. Our results showed that 330,660 and 1300 mg/kg produced 14, 49 and 84%of inhibition of writhes, indicating that CTE has a strong analgesic activity. Our data also showed that the % of inhibition of edema at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min was 14,51,71,61, and 56% in the animals given camel thorn extract whereas these figures in animals given endomethacin were 14, 24, 54, 52, and 54%. These results indicate that camel thorn has anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities needs further investigations.

Keywords: camel thorn, imdomethacin, morphine, pharmaceutical medicine

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12 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Mani Mofidi, Neda Valizadeh, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani


Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: numerical rating score, opioid, pain, emergency department

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11 Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Authors: O. A. Al-Mashaqbeh, A. M. Ghrair, D. Alsafadi, S. S. Dalahmeh, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Snow


Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits <0.005 µg/l). Moreover, the results indicated that the highest concentration levels detected in collected samples were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine and carbamazepine at concentration of 182.5 µg/L, 28.7 µg/l, 7.47 µg/l, 4.67 µg/l and 1.54 µg/L, respectively. In general, most of compounds concentrations measured in wastewater in Jordan are within the range for wastewater previously reported in India wastewater except caffeine.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, personal care products, wastewater, Jordan

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10 Utilization of Informatics to Transform Clinical Data into a Simplified Reporting System to Examine the Analgesic Prescribing Practices of a Single Urban Hospital’s Emergency Department

Authors: Rubaiat S. Ahmed, Jemer Garrido, Sergey M. Motov


Clinical informatics (CI) enables the transformation of data into a systematic organization that improves the quality of care and the generation of positive health outcomes.Innovative technology through informatics that compiles accurate data on analgesic utilization in the emergency department can enhance pain management in this important clinical setting. We aim to establish a simplified reporting system through CI to examine and assess the analgesic prescribing practices in the EDthrough executing a U.S. federal grant project on opioid reduction initiatives. Queried data points of interest from a level-one trauma ED’s electronic medical records were used to create data sets and develop informational/visual reporting dashboards (on Microsoft Excel and Google Sheets) concerning analgesic usage across several pre-defined parameters and performance metrics using CI. The data was then qualitatively analyzed to evaluate ED analgesic prescribing trends by departmental clinicians and leadership. During a 12-month reporting period (Dec. 1, 2020 – Nov. 30, 2021) for the ongoing project, about 41% of all ED patient visits (N = 91,747) were for pain conditions, of which 81.6% received analgesics in the ED and at discharge (D/C). Of those treated with analgesics, 24.3% received opioids compared to 75.7% receiving opioid alternatives in the ED and at D/C, including non-pharmacological modalities. Demographics showed among patients receiving analgesics, 56.7% were aged between 18-64, 51.8% were male, 51.7% were white, and 66.2% had government funded health insurance. Ninety-one percent of all opioids prescribed were in the ED, with intravenous (IV) morphine, IV fentanyl, and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) tablets accounting for 88.0% of ED dispensed opioids. With 9.3% of all opioids prescribed at D/C, MSIR was dispensed 72.1% of the time. Hydrocodone, oxycodone, and tramadol usage to only 10-15% of the time, and hydromorphone at 0%. Of opioid alternatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were utilized 60.3% of the time, 23.5% with local anesthetics and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks, and 7.9% with acetaminophen as the primary non-opioid drug categories prescribed by ED providers. Non-pharmacological analgesia included virtual reality and other modalities. An average of 18.5 ED opioid orders and 1.9 opioid D/C prescriptions per 102.4 daily ED patient visits was observed for the period. Compared to other specialties within our institution, 2.0% of opioid D/C prescriptions are given by ED providers, compared to the national average of 4.8%. Opioid alternatives accounted for 69.7% and 30.3% usage, versus 90.7% and 9.3% for opioids in the ED and D/C, respectively.There is a pressing need for concise, relevant, and reliable clinical data on analgesic utilization for ED providers and leadership to evaluate prescribing practices and make data-driven decisions. Basic computer software can be used to create effective visual reporting dashboards with indicators that convey relevant and timely information in an easy-to-digest manner. We accurately examined our ED's analgesic prescribing practices using CI through dashboard reporting. Such reporting tools can quickly identify key performance indicators and prioritize data to enhance pain management and promote safe prescribing practices in the emergency setting.

Keywords: clinical informatics, dashboards, emergency department, health informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, opioids, pain management, technology

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9 Technique and Use of Machine Readable Dictionary: In Special Reference to Hindi-Marathi Machine Translation

Authors: Milind Patil


Present paper is a discussion on Hindi-Marathi Morphological Analysis and generating rules for Machine Translation on the basis of Machine Readable Dictionary (MRD). This used Transformative Generative Grammar (TGG) rules to design the MRD. As per TGG rules, the suffix of a particular root word is based on its Tense, Aspect, Modality and Voice. That's why the suffix is very important for the word meanings (or root meanings). The Hindi and Marathi Language both have relation with Indo-Aryan language family. Both have been derived from Sanskrit language and their script is 'Devnagari'. But there are lots of differences in terms of semantics and grammatical level too. In Marathi, there are three genders, but in Hindi only two (Masculine and Feminine), the Natural gender is absent in Hindi. Likewise other grammatical categories also differ in their level of use. For MRD the suffixes (or Morpheme) are of particular root word for GNP (Gender, Number and Person) are based on its natural phenomena. A particular Suffix and Morphine change as per the need of person, number and gender. The design of MRD also based on this format. In first, Person, Number, Gender and Tense are key points than root words and suffix of particular Person, Number Gender (PNG). After that the inferences are drawn on the basis of rules that is (V.stem) (Pre.T/Past.T) (x) + (Aux-Pre.T) (x) → (V.Stem.) + (SP.TM) (X).

Keywords: MRD, TGG, stem, morph, morpheme, suffix, PNG, TAM&V, root

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8 Antiinflammatory and Antinociceptive of Hydro Alcoholic Tanacetum balsamita L. Extract

Authors: S. Nasri, G. H. Amin, A. Azimi


The use of herbs to treat disease is accompanied with the history of human life. This research is aimed to study the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of "Tanacetum balsamita balsamita". In the experimental studies 144 male mice are used. In the inflammatory test, animals were divided into six groups: Control, positive control (receiving Dexamethason at dose of 15mg/kg), and four experimental groups receiving Tanacetum balsamita balsamita hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg. Xylene was used to induce inflammation. Formalin was used to study the nociceptive effects. Animals were divided into six groups: control group, positive control group (receiving morphine) and four experimental groups receiving Tanacetum balsamita balsamita (Tb.) hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg. I.p. injection of drugs or normal saline was performed 30 minutes before test. The data were analyzed by using one way Variance analysis and Tukey post-test. Aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita balsamita hydroalcoholic extract decreased significantly inflammatory at dose of 200mg/kg (P<0/001) and caused a significant decrease and alleviated the nociception in both first and second phases at doses of 200mg/kg (p<0/001) and 100mg/kg (P<0/05). Tanacetum balsamita balsamita extract has the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects which seems to be related with flavonoids especially Quercetin.

Keywords: inflammation, nociception, hydroalcoholic extract, aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita balsamita L.

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7 Intraoperative Inter Pectoral and Sub Serratus Nerve Blocks Reduce Post Operative Opiate Requirements in Breast Augmentation Surgery

Authors: Conor Mccartney, Mark Lee


Background: An essential component in ambulatory breast augmentation surgery is good analgesia. The demographic undergoing this operation is usually fit, low risk with few comorbidities. These patients do not require long-term hospitalization and do not want to spend excessive time in the hospital for financial reasons. Opiate analgesia can have significant side effects such as nausea, vomiting and sedation. Reducing volumes of postoperative opiates allows faster ambulation and discharge from day surgery. We have developed two targeted nerve blocks that can be applied by the operating surgeon in a matter of seconds under direct vision, not requiring imaging. Anecdotally we found that these targeted nerve blocks reduced opiate requirements and allowed accelerated discharge and faster return to normal activities. This was then tested in a prospective randomized, double-blind trial. Methods: 20 patients were randomized into saline (n = 10) or Ropivicaine adrenaline solution (n = 10). The operating surgeon and anesthetist were blinded to the solution. All patients were closely followed up and morphine equivalents were accurately recorded. Follow-up pain scores were recorded using the Overall Benefit of Analgesia pain questionnaire. Findings: The Ropivicaine nerve blocks significantly reduced opiate requirements postoperatively (p<0.05). Pain scores were significantly decreased in the study group (p<0.05). There were no side effects attributable to the nerve blocks. Conclusions: Intraoperative targeted nerve blocks significantly reduce postoperative opiate requirements in breast augmentation surgery. This results in faster recovery and higher patient satisfaction.

Keywords: breast augmentation, nerve block, postoperative recovery, opiate analgesia, inter pectoral block, sub serratus block

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6 Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuromodulation as an Alternative to Opioids in the Evolving Healthcare Crisis

Authors: Adam J. Carinci


Background: The opioid epidemic is the most pressing healthcare crisis of our time. There is increasing recognition that opioids have limited long-term efficacy and are associated with hyperalgesia, addiction, and increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, alternative strategies to combat chronic pain are paramount. We initiated a multicenter retrospective case series to review the efficacy of DRG stimulation in facilitating opioid tapering, opioid discontinuation and as a viable alternative to chronic opioid therapy. Purpose: The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) plays a key role in the development and maintenance of pain. Recent innovations in neuromodulation, specifically, dorsal root ganglion stimulation, offers an effective alternative to opioids in the treatment of chronic pain. This retrospective case series demonstrates preliminary evidence that DRG stimulation facilitates opioid tapering, opioid discontinuation and presents a viable alternative to chronic opioid therapy. Procedure: This small multicenter retrospective case series provides preliminary evidence that DRG stimulation facilitates opioid weaning, opioid tapering and is a viable option to opioid therapy in the treatment of chronic pain. A retrospective analysis was completed. Visual analog scale pain scores and pain medication usage were collected at the baseline visit and after four weeks, 3 months and 6 months of treatment. Ten consecutive patients across two study centers were included. The pain was rated 7.38 at baseline and decreased to 1.50 at the 4-week follow-up, a reduction of 79.5%. All patients significantly decreased their opioid pain medication use with an average > 30% reduction in morphine equivalents and four were able to discontinue their medications entirely. Conclusion: This Retrospective case series demonstrates preliminary evidence that DRG stimulation facilitates opioid tapering, opioid discontinuation and presents a viable alternative to chronic opioid therapy.

Keywords: dorsal root ganglion, neuromodulation, opioid sparing, stimulation

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5 Clinical Use of Opioid Analgesics in China: An Adequacy of Consumption Measure

Authors: Mengjia Zhi, Xingmei Wei, Xiang Gao, Shiyang Liu, Zhiran Huang, Li Yang, Jing Sun


Background: To understand the consumption trend of opioid analgesics and the consumption adequacy of opioid analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in China, as well as the pain control level of China with international perspective. Importance: To author’s best knowledge, this is the first study in China to measure the adequacy of opioid analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain considering disease pattern and with the standardized pain treatment guideline. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out to show the consumption frequency (daily defined doses, DDDs) of opioid analgesics and its trend in China from 2006 to 2016. Adequacy of consumption measure (ACM) was used to measure the number of needed morphine equivalents and the overall adequacy of opioid analgesic treatment of moderate to severe pain in China, and compared with international data. Results: The consumption frequency of opioid analgesics (DDDs) in China increased from 13,200,000 DDDs in 2006 to 44,200,000 DDDs in 2016, and showed an increasing trend. The growth rate was faster at first, especially in 2013, then slowed down, decreased slightly in 2015. The ACM of China increased from 0.0032 in 2006 to 0.0074 in 2016, with an overall trend of growth. The ACM level of China has been always a very poor level during 2006-2016. Conclusion: The consumption of opioid analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in China has always been inadequate. There is a huge gap between China and the international level. There are many reasons behind this problem, which lie in different aspects, including medical staff, patients and the public, health systems and social & cultural aspects. It is necessary to strengthen the training and education of medical staff and the patients, to use mass media to disseminate scientific knowledge of pain management, to encourage communications between doctors and patients, to improve regulatory system for the controlled medicines and the overall health systems, and to balance the regulatory goal for avoidance of abuse, and the social goal of meeting the increasing needs of the people for better life.

Keywords: opioid analgesics, adequate consumption measure, pain control, China

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4 Introduction of a Standardised Proforma to Optimise Post-Operative Analgesia after Caesarean Section

Authors: Prashant Neupane, Sumitra Kafle, Asmi Pandey, Laura Mitchell


Pain following caesarean section can influence recovery, patient satisfaction, breast feeding success and mother-child bonding. Since the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols, mothers are often discharged 24 hours later. We identified concerns within our hospital with mothers tolerating poorly controlled pain in order to achieve earlier discharge and subsequently suffering significant pain at home with inadequate analgesia. Methods: We conducted a prospective audit of analgesic prescribing and post-operative pain scores after caesarean section. Mothers were seen on post-operative day one, their pain score recorded on a verbal analogue score from 0-10, and their prescription chart reviewed. A follow-up phone call was then made on post-operative day 3-7 to enquire about pain scores and analgesia use at home. Following this, a standardized proforma for prescribing after the caesarean section was introduced, including the addition of dihydrocodeine that patients can take home following discharge. There were educational update sessions for anesthetists and midwifes, and then a re-audit was conducted months later. Results: Data was collected from 50 women before and after the introduction of the change. Initial audit showed that there was considerable variation in prescribing, with four women prescribed no regular analgesia at all and inconsistency in the dose of oral morphine prescribed. Women were not given any form of analgesia to take home after discharge and were advised to take regular paracetamol and ibuprofen. However, 31/50 (62%) reported that they needed additional analgesia and eight women (16%) even sought prescription for additional analgesia from elsewhere. After the introduction of the change, prescribing was more consistent with all patients prescribed regular analgesia. 46/50 patients were given dihydrocodeine on discharge. Mean pain scores on post-operative day one improved from 5.16 to 3.9, and at home improved from 6.18 to 2.58. Use of dihydrocodeine at home significantly improved patients reporting of severe pain at home from 24% to zero. Discussion: Lack of strong analgesia out of the hospital and the increased demands on activity levels means that women are frequently in more pain at home after discharge. Introduction of a standardized prescription proforma, including the use of to-take-out dihydrocodeine, was successful in improving patient pain scores and the requirement for additional analgesia, both in hospital and at home.

Keywords: analgesia, caesarean section, post-operative pain, standardised

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3 A Comparison and Discussion of Modern Anaesthetic Techniques in Elective Lower Limb Arthroplasties

Authors: P. T. Collett, M. Kershaw


Introduction: The discussion regarding which method of anesthesia provides better results for lower limb arthroplasty is a continuing debate. Multiple meta-analysis has been performed with no clear consensus. The current recommendation is to use neuraxial anesthesia for lower limb arthroplasty; however, the evidence to support this decision is weak. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) society has recommended, either technique can be used as part of a multimodal anesthetic regimen. A local study was performed to see if the current anesthetic practice correlates with the current recommendations and to evaluate the efficacy of the different techniques utilized. Method: 90 patients who underwent total hip or total knee replacements at Nevill Hall Hospital between February 2019 to July 2019 were reviewed. Data collected included the anesthetic technique, day one opiate use, pain score, and length of stay. The data was collected from anesthetic charts, and the pain team follows up forms. Analysis: The average of patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty was 70. Of those 83% (n=75) received a spinal anaesthetic and 17% (n=15) received a general anaesthetic. For patients undergoing knee replacement under general anesthetic the average day, one pain score was 2.29 and 1.94 if a spinal anesthetic was performed. For hip replacements, the scores were 1.87 and 1.8, respectively. There was no statistical significance between these scores. Day 1 opiate usage was significantly higher in knee replacement patients who were given a general anesthetic (45.7mg IV morphine equivalent) vs. those who were operated on under spinal anesthetic (19.7mg). This difference was not noticeable in hip replacement patients. There was no significant difference in length of stay between the two anesthetic techniques. Discussion: There was no significant difference in the day one pain score between the patients who received a general or spinal anesthetic for either knee or hip replacements. The higher pain scores in the knee replacement group overall are consistent with this being a more painful procedure. This is a small patient population, which means any difference between the two groups is unlikely to be representative of a larger population. The pain scale has 4 points, which means it is difficult to identify a significant difference between pain scores. Conclusion: There is currently little standardization between the different anesthetic approaches utilized in Nevill Hall Hospital. This is likely due to the lack of adherence to a standardized anesthetic regimen. In accordance with ERAS recommends a standard anesthetic protocol is a core component. The results of this study and the guidance from the ERAS society will support the implementation of a new health board wide ERAS protocol.

Keywords: anaesthesia, orthopaedics, intensive care, patient centered decision making, treatment escalation

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2 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Nurses on the Pain Assessment and Management in Level 3 Hospitals in Manila

Authors: Florence Roselle Adalin, Misha Louise Delariarte, Fabbette Laire Lagas, Sarah Emanuelle Mejia, Lika Mizukoshi, Irish Paullen Palomeno, Gibrianne Alistaire Ramos, Danica Pauline Ramos, Josefina Tuazon, Jo Leah Flores


Pain, often a missed and undertreated symptom, affects the quality of life of individuals. Nurses are key players in providing effective pain management to decrease morbidity and mortality of patients in pain. Nurses’ knowledge and attitude on pain greatly affect their ability on assessment and management. The Pain Society of the Philippines recognized the inadequacy and inaccessibility of data on the knowledge, skills, and attitude of nurses on pain management in the country. This study may be the first of its kind in the county, giving it the potential to contribute greatly to nursing education and practice through providing valuable baseline data. Objectives: This study aims to describe the level of knowledge and attitude, and current practices of nurses on pain assessment and management; and determine the relationship of nurses’ knowledge and attitude with years of experience, training on pain management and clinical area of practice. Methodology: A survey research design was employed. Four hospitals were selected through purposive sampling. A total of 235 Medical-Surgical Unit and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses participated in the study. The tool used is a combination of demographic survey, Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), Acute Pain Evidence Based Practice Questionnaire (APEBPQ) with self-report questions on non-pharmacologic pain management. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics, two sample T-tests for clinical areas and training; and Pearson product correlation to identify relationship of level of knowledge and attitude with years of experience. Results and Analysis: The mean knowledge and attitude score of the nurses was 47.14%. Majority answered ‘most of the time’ or ‘all the time’ on 84.12% of practice items on pain assessment, implementation of non-pharmacologic interventions, evaluation and documentation. Three of 19 practice items describing morphine and opioid administration in special populations were only done ‘a little of the time’. Most utilized non-pharmacologic interventions were deep breathing exercises (79.66%), massage therapy (27.54%), and ice therapy (26.69%). There was no significant relationship between knowledge scores and years of clinical experience (p = 0.05, r= -0.09). Moreover, there was not enough evidence to show difference in nurses’ knowledge and attitude scores in relation to presence of training (p = 0.41) or areas (Medical-Surgical or ICU) of clinical practice (p = 0.53). Conclusion and Recommendations: Findings of the study showed that the level of knowledge and attitude of nurses on pain assessment and management is suboptimal; and no relationship between nurses’ knowledge and attitude and years of experience. It is recommended that further studies look into the nursing curriculum on pain education, culture-specific pain management protocols and evidence-based practices in the country.

Keywords: knowledge and attitude, nurses, pain management, practices on pain management

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1 Combining Patients Pain Scores Reports with Functionality Scales in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D. Candido, N. Nick Knezevic


Background: While pain intensity scales remain generally accepted assessment tool, and the numeric pain rating score is highly subjective, we nevertheless rely on them to make a judgment about treatment effects. Misinterpretation of pain can lead practitioners to underestimate or overestimate the patient’s medical condition. The purpose of this study was to analyze how the numeric rating pain scores given by patients with low back pain correlate with their functional activity levels. Methods: We included 100 consecutive patients with radicular low back pain (LBP) after the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Pain scores, numeric rating scale (NRS) responses at rest and in the movement,Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire answers were collected 10 times through 12 months. The ODI questionnaire is targeting a patient’s activities and physical limitations as well as a patient’s ability to manage stationary everyday duties. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS Software version 20. Results: The average duration of LBP was 14±22 months at the beginning of the study. All patients included in the study were between 24 and 78 years old (average 48.85±14); 56% women and 44% men. Differences between ODI and pain scores in the range from -10% to +10% were considered “normal”. Discrepancies in pain scores were graded as mild between -30% and -11% or +11% and +30%; moderate between -50% and -31% and +31% and +50% and severe if differences were more than -50% or +50%. Our data showed that pain scores at rest correlate well with ODI in 65% of patients. In 30% of patients mild discrepancies were present (negative in 21% and positive in 9%), 4% of patients had moderate and 1% severe discrepancies. “Negative discrepancy” means that patients graded their pain scores much higher than their functional ability, and most likely exaggerated their pain. “Positive discrepancy” means that patients graded their pain scores much lower than their functional ability, and most likely underrated their pain. Comparisons between ODI and pain scores during movement showed normal correlation in only 39% of patients. Mild discrepancies were present in 42% (negative in 39% and positive in 3%); moderate in 14% (all negative), and severe in 5% (all negative) of patients. A 58% unknowingly exaggerated their pain during movement. Inconsistencies were equal in male and female patients (p=0.606 and p=0.928).Our results showed that there was a negative correlation between patients’ satisfaction and the degree of reporting pain inconsistency. Furthermore, patients talking opioids showed more discrepancies in reporting pain intensity scores than did patients taking non-opioid analgesics or not taking medications for LBP (p=0.038). There was a highly statistically significant correlation between morphine equivalents doses and the level of discrepancy (p<0.0001). Conclusion: We have put emphasis on the patient education in pain evaluation as a vital step in accurate pain level reporting. We have showed a direct correlation with patients’ satisfaction. Furthermore, we must identify other parameters in defining our patients’ chronic pain conditions, such as functionality scales, quality of life questionnaires, etc., and should move away from an overly simplistic subjective rating scale.

Keywords: pain score, functionality scales, low back pain, lumbar

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