Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Siamak Yaghoubi

28 Effectiveness of the New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™) in Comparison with the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™) to Improve Airway Sealing Pressures among Obese and Overweight Patients

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Mohammad Reza Abootorabi, Hamid Kayalha


Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (Cobra PLATM) for patients under general anesthesia and also compare result with the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA). Methods: Seventy three obese and overweight patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either LMA or Cobra PLATM. Time required for intubation, successful intubation attempt, airway sealing pressure, the incidences of complications including blood staining, sore throat and dysphagia were assessed and noted. Results: Thirty six and thirty seven patients were allocated randomly to either LMA or Cobra PLATM, respectively. Most of the patients were male and were in Mallampati Class II airway in both groups. The first attempt and overall insertion success for the Cobra PLATM was significantly more frequent compared to the LMA (p<0.05). Tube insertion was more successful (Cobra PLATM, 94%; LMA™, 77%; P = 0.027) with the Cobra PLATM. The insertion times were similar with the Cobra PLATM and LMA™ (Cobra PLATM, 29.94±16.35s; LMA™, 27.00±7.88s). The airway sealing pressure in the Cobra PLATM (24.80±0.90 H2O) was significantly more than LMA™ (19.13 ±0.58 H2O, p<0.001). Sore throat was more frequent in the LMA™ groups that did not reach statistical significance (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.33). Incidences of blood staining on airway tube were seen for both groups that was higher in the Cobra PLATM group (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.02). Incidence of dysphagia was not different between the two groups. Conclusion: The CobraPLA™ was found to be safe and low complications, better airway sealing and high rate of the first insertion success for suing in obese and overweight patients. The study recommended using the CobraPLA™ as a rescue device in an emergency situation among obese and overweight patients.

Keywords: CobraPLA™, flexible laryngeal mask airway, obese patients, perilaryngeal airway

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27 Comparison of the Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Morphine, Paracetamol, and Ketorolac in Patient-Controlled Analgesia in the Patients Undergoing Open Cholecystectomy

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Vahideh Rashtchi, Marzieh Khezri, Hamid Kayalha, Monadi Hamidfar


Background and objectives: Effective postoperative pain management in abdominal surgeries, which are painful procedures, plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications and increasing patient’s satisfaction. There are many techniques for pain control, one of which is Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of morphine, paracetamol and ketorolac in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method. Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 330 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients ( three equal groups, n=110) who were scheduled for elective open cholecystectomy in Shahid Rjaee hospital of Qazvin, Iran from August 2013 until September 2015. All patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA (Total Intra Venous Anesthesia) technique. The control group received morphine with maximum dose of 0.02mg/kg/h, the paracetamol group received paracetamol with maximum dose of 1mg/kg/h, and the ketorolac group received ketorolac with maximum daily dose of 60mg using IV-PCA method. The parameters of pain, nausea, hemodynamic variables (BP and HR), pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation, patient’s satisfaction and pain score were measured every two hours for 8 hours following operation in all groups. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic data between the three groups. there was a statistically significant difference with regard to the mean pain score at all times between morphine and paracetamol, morphine and ketorolac, and paracetamol and ketorolac groups (P<0.001). Results indicated a reduction with time in the mean level of postoperative pain in all three groups. At all times the mean level of pain in ketorolac group was less than that in the other two groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study ketorolac is more effective than morphine and paracetamol in postoperative pain control in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method.

Keywords: analgesia, cholecystectomy, ketorolac, morphine, paracetamol

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26 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan


Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

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25 Assessments of Internal Erosion in a Landfill Due to Changes in the Groundwater Level

Authors: Siamak Feizi, Gunvor Baardvik


Soil erosion has special consequences for landfills that are more serious than those found at conventional construction sites. Different potential heads between two sides of a landfill and the subsequent movement of water through pores within the soil body could trigger the soil erosion and construction instability. Such a condition was encountered in a landfill project in the southern part of Norway. To check the risk of internal erosion due to changes in the groundwater level (because of seasonal flooding in the river), a series of numerical simulations by means of Geo-Seep software was conducted. Output of this study provides a total picture of the landfill stability, possibilities of erosions, and necessary measures to prevent or reduce the risk for the landfill operator.

Keywords: erosion, seepage, landfill, stability

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24 Value of Mergers

Authors: Reza Yaghoubi, Stuart Locke, Jenny Gibb


This study investigates sources of value in mergers and acquisitions. While much emphasis is put on operating synergies from acquisitions the evidence provided in this study shows that the difference between the WACCs of the combined firm and the merging firms may have a significant role on the value effect of mergers. These findings suggest that changes in the capital structure of the combined firm, compared to capital structures of the acquirer and the target, play a key role in determining the value of an acquisition. Moreover, findings of this study suggest that reducing the cost of capital of the combined firm, compared to the merging firms, is value creating even in the absence of operating synergies. Furthermore, this study shows that the component of value associated with the difference between the WACCs of the combined firm and the acquirer is mainly determined by leverage of the acquiring firm and the method of payment. While cash payment is value creating, high leverage of the acquirer prior to an acquisition can destroy value by raising the cost of capital of the firm. This is especially important to managers when they are planning an acquisition.

Keywords: acquisitions, mergers, synergy, value, WACC

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23 Proposing an Index for Determining Key Knowledge Management Processes in Decision Making Units Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method

Authors: Sadegh Abedi, Ali Yaghoubi, Hamidreza Mashatzadegan


This paper proposes an approach to identify key processes required by an organization in the field of knowledge management and aligning them with organizational objectives. For this purpose, first, organization’s most important non-financial objectives which are impacted by knowledge management processes are identified and then, using a quality house, are linked with knowledge management processes which are regarded as technical elements. Using this method, processes that are in need of improvement and more attention are prioritized based on their significance. This means that if a process has more influence on organization’s objectives and is in a dire situation comparing to others, is prioritized for choice and improvement. In this research process dominance is considered to be an influential element in process ranking (in addition to communication matrix). This is the reason for utilizing DEA techniques for prioritizing processes in quality house. Results of implementing the method in Khuzestan steel company represents this method’s capability of identifying key processes that require improvements in organization’s knowledge management system.

Keywords: knowledge management, organizational performance, fuzzy data, envelopment analysis

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22 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani


Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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21 Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan


This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.

Keywords: alkaline activation, curing time, fly ash, geopolymer, slag

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20 A Numerical Study on the Connection of an SC Wall to an RC Foundation

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma


There are a large number of methods to connect SC walls to RC foundations. An experimental study of the cyclic nonlinear behavior of SC walls in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo used a connection detail involving the post-tensioning of a steel baseplate to the SC wall to a RC foundation. This type of connection introduces flexibility that influenced substantially the global response of the SC walls. The assumption of a rigid base, which would be commonly made by practitioners, would lead to a substantial overestimation of initial stiffness. This paper presents an analytical approach to characterize the rotational flexibility and to predict the initial stiffness of flexure-critical SC wall piers with baseplate connection. The good agreement between the analytical and test results confirmed the utility of the proposed method for calculating the initial stiffness of an SC wall with baseplate connection.

Keywords: steel-plate composite shear wall, flexure-critical wall, cyclic loading, analytical model

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19 Impact of Climate Change on Water Level and Properties of Gorgan Bay in the Southern Caspian Sea

Authors: Siamak Jamshidi


The Caspian Sea is the Earth's largest inland body of water. One of the most important issues related to the sea is water level changes. For measuring and recording Caspian Sea water level, there are at least three gauges and radar equipment in Anzali, Nowshahr and Amirabad Ports along the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea. It seems that evaporation, hotter surface air temperature, and in general climate change is the main reasons for its water level fluctuations. Gorgan Bay in the eastern part of the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea is one of the areas under the effect of water level fluctuation. Based on the results of field measurements near the Gorgan Bay mouth temperature ranged between 24°C–28°C and salinity was about 13.5 PSU in midsummer while temperature changed between 10-11.5°C and salinity mostly was 15-16.5 PSU in mid-winter. The decrease of Caspian Sea water level and rivers outflow are the two most important factors for the increase in water salinity of the Gorgan Bay. Results of field observations showed that, due to atmospheric factors, climate changes and decreasing of precipitation over the southern basin of the Caspian Sea during last decades, the water level of bay was reduced around 0.5 m.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, Gorgan Bay, water level fluctuation, climate changes

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18 Using New Machine Algorithms to Classify Iranian Musical Instruments According to Temporal, Spectral and Coefficient Features

Authors: Ronak Khosravi, Mahmood Abbasi Layegh, Siamak Haghipour, Avin Esmaili


In this paper, a study on classification of musical woodwind instruments using a small set of features selected from a broad range of extracted ones by the sequential forward selection method was carried out. Firstly, we extract 42 features for each record in the music database of 402 sound files belonging to five different groups of Flutes (end blown and internal duct), Single –reed, Double –reed (exposed and capped), Triple reed and Quadruple reed. Then, the sequential forward selection method is adopted to choose the best feature set in order to achieve very high classification accuracy. Two different classification techniques of support vector machines and relevance vector machines have been tested out and an accuracy of up to 96% can be achieved by using 21 time, frequency and coefficient features and relevance vector machine with the Gaussian kernel function.

Keywords: coefficient features, relevance vector machines, spectral features, support vector machines, temporal features

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17 Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing Blocking Function in Distance Relay

Authors: Farzad Razavi, Behrooz Taheri, Mohammad Parpaei, Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi, Siamak Zarei


As one of the major problems in protecting large-dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting the requirements, protection relays need different tests during development, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps. This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown that the different fault types during power swing cause different time for unblocking distance relay.

Keywords: power swing, distance relay, power system protection, relay test, transient in power system

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16 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Siamak Ghorbani, Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin


Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration

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15 Peltier Air Conditioning System for Preventing Ambient Heating: An Alternative to Gas Air Conditioners

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi


After discovering and using Freon as refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners, researchers have been working hard to minimize massive environmental damage caused by this type of systems, including ozone depletion, heat production, and urban warming. However, there is a growing concern for global warming and climate change and its impacts on climates. Although gas air conditioners can provide comfort in short term, there are long-term consequences and effects, including global warming, polar ice melting, sea level rising, rising sea surface temperatures, reduction in seasonal precipitation, tropical storms, and drought. In this theoretical and practical study, Peltier electronic chip was used with no gas in the structure and operation. In fact, cooling and heating are based on bipolar electronics. With an innovative method, Peltier air conditioners provide cooling in warm seasons and heating in cold seasons in buildings. Such a system prevents ambient warming. The problem of air circulation between high buildings in large cities and draught will be considerably resolved through the use of the silent fan in the system. In addition, the system is designed and developed in accordance with international standards such as LEED and Energy Star.

Keywords: energy, Building cooling and heating, peltier, leed, energy star

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14 Bacterial Flora of the Anopheles Fluviatilis S. L. in an Endemic Malaria Area in Southeastern Iran for Candidate Paraterasgenesis Strains

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Jalal Mohammadi Soleimani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Sara Hajikhani, Roonak Bakhtiari, Morteza Akbari, Siamak Hydarzadeh


Malaria is an infectious disease and considered most important health problems in the southeast of Iran. Iran is elimination malaria phase and new tool need to vector control. Paraterasgenesis is a new way to cut of life cycle of the malaria parasite. In this study, the microflora of the surface and gut of various stages of Anopheles fluviatilis James as one of the important malaria vector was studied using biochemical and molecular techniques during 2013-2014. Twelve bacteria species were found including; Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Citrobacter braakii، Citrobacter freundii، Aeromonas hydrophila، Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia fonticola، Enterobacter sakazakii and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The species of Alcaligenes faecalis, Providencia vermicola and Enterobacter hormaechei were identified in various stages of the vector and confirmed by biochemical and molecular techniques. We found Providencia rettgeri proper candidate for paratransgenesis.

Keywords: Anopheles fluviatilis, bacteria, malaria, Paraterasgenesis, Southern Iran

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13 Seismic Response of Large-Scale Rectangular Steel-Plate Concrete Composite Shear Walls

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma


An experimental program on steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo. Four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and faceplate slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure-critical. This paper presents the damage to SC walls at different drift ratios, the cyclic force-displacement relationships, energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping ratios, the strain and stress fields in the steel faceplates and the contribution of the steel faceplates to the total shear load, the variation of vertical strain in the steel faceplates along the length of the wall, near the base, at different drift ratios, the contributions of shear, flexure, and base rotation to the total lateral displacement, the displacement ductility of the SC walls, and the cyclic secant stiffness of the four SC walls.

Keywords: steel-plate composite shear wall, safety-related nuclear structure, flexure-critical wall, cyclic loading

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12 Behavioral Assessment of the Role of Brain 5-HT4 Receptors on the Memory and Cognitive Performance in a Rat Model of Alzheimer Disease

Authors: Siamak Shahidi, Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Sara Soleimani-Asl, Alireza Komaki


Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory and cognitive performance. Recently, an involvement of the serotonergic system and their receptors are suspected in the AD progression. In the present behavioral study, the effects of BIMU (selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist) on cognition and memory in the rat model of AD was investigated. Material and Methods: The animal model of the AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (Icv) injection of amyloid beta (Aβ) in adult male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into experimental groups included control, sham, Aβ, Aβ +BIMU groups. The treatment substances were icv injected (1 μg/μL) for thirty consecutive days. Then, novel object recognition (NOR) and passive avoidance learning (PAL) tests were applied to investigate memory and cognitive performance. Results: Aβ decrease the discrimination index of NOR test. Also, it increases the time spent in the dark compartment during PAL test, as compared with sham and control groups. In addition, compared to Aβ groups, BIMU significantly increased the discrimination index of NOR test and decreased the time spent in the dark compartment of PAL test. Conclusion: These findings suggest that 5-HT4 receptor activation prevents progression of memory and cognitive impairment in a rat model of AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, cognition, memory, serotonin receptors

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11 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian


Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

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10 Efficient Use of Power Light-Emitting Diode Chips in the Main Lighting System and in Generating Heat in Intelligent Buildings

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi


Among common electronic parts which have been invented and have made a great revolution in the lighting system through the world, certainly LEDs have no rival. These small parts with their very low power consumption, very dazzling and powerful light and small size and with their extremely high lifetime- compared to incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lamp (CFLs) have undoubtedly revolutionized the lighting industry of the world. Based on conducted studies and experiments, in addition to their acceptable light and low power consumption -compared to incandescent bulbs and CFLs-, they have very low and in some cases zero environmental pollution and negative effects on human beings. Because of their longevity, in the case of using high-quality circuits and proper and consistent use of LEDs in conventional and intelligent buildings, there will be no need to replace the burnout lamps, for a long time (10 years). In this study which was conducted on 10-watt power LEDs with suitable heatsink/cooling, considerable amount of heat was generated during lighting after 5 minutes and 45 seconds. The temperature rose to above 99 degrees Celsius and this amount of heat can raise the water temperature to 60 degrees Celsius and more. Based on conducted experiments, this can provide the heat required for bathing, washing, radiators (in cold seasons) easily and only by imposing very low cost and it will be a big step in the optimization of energy consumption in the future.

Keywords: energy, light, water, optimization of power LED

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9 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi


Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact

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8 A Review of Kinematics and Joint Load Forces in Total Knee Replacements Influencing Surgical Outcomes

Authors: Samira K. Al-Nasser, Siamak Noroozi, Roya Haratian, Adrian Harvey


A total knee replacement (TKR) is a surgical procedure necessary when there is severe pain and/or loss of function in the knee. Surgeons balance the load in the knee and the surrounding soft tissue by feeling the tension at different ranges of motion. This method can be unreliable and lead to early failure of the joint. The ideal kinematics and load distribution have been debated significantly based on previous biomechanical studies surrounding both TKRs and normal knees. Intraoperative sensors like VERASENSE and eLibra have provided a method for the quantification of the load indicating a balanced knee. A review of the literature written about intraoperative sensors and tension/stability of the knee was done. Studies currently debate the quantification of the load in medial and lateral compartments specifically. However, most research reported that following a TKR the medial compartment was loaded more heavily than the lateral compartment. In several cases, these results were shown to increase the success of the surgery because they mimic the normal kinematics of the knee. In conclusion, most research agrees that an intercompartmental load differential of between 10 and 20 pounds, where the medial load was higher than the lateral, and an absolute load of less than 70 pounds was ideal. However, further intraoperative sensor development could help improve the accuracy and understanding of the load distribution on the surgical outcomes in a TKR. A reduction in early revision surgeries for TKRs would provide an improved quality of life for patients and reduce the economic burden placed on both the National Health Service (NHS) and the patient.

Keywords: intraoperative sensors, joint load forces, kinematics, load balancing, and total knee replacement

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7 Psychological Nano-Therapy: A New Method in Family Therapy

Authors: Siamak Samani, Nadereh Sohrabi


Psychological nano-therapy is a new method based on systems theory. According to the theory, systems with severe dysfunctions are resistant to changes. Psychological nano-therapy helps the therapists to break this ice. Two key concepts in psychological nano-therapy are nano-functions and nano-behaviors. The most important step in psychological nano-therapy in family therapy is selecting the most effective nano-function and nano-behavior. The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of psychological nano-therapy for family therapy. One group pre-test-post-test design (quasi-experimental Design) was applied for research. The sample consisted of ten families with severe marital conflict. The important character of these families was resistance for participating in family therapy. In this study, sending respectful (nano-function) text massages (nano-behavior) with cell phone were applied as a treatment. Cohesion/respect sub scale from self-report family processes scale and family readiness for therapy scale were used to assess all family members in pre-test and post-test. In this study, one of family members was asked to send a respectful text massage to other family members every day for a week. The content of the text massages were selected and checked by therapist. To compare the scores of families in pre-test and post-test paired sample t-test was used. The results of the test showed significant differences in both cohesion/respect score and family readiness for therapy between per-test and post-test. The results revealed that these families have found a better atmosphere for participation in a complete family therapy program. Indeed, this study showed that psychological nano-therapy is an effective method to make family readiness for therapy.

Keywords: family therapy, family conflicts, nano-therapy, family readiness

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6 Effective Factors on Self-Care in Women with Osteoporosis: A Study with Content Analysis Approach

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi, Siamak Derakhshan, Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Nematshahrbabaki


Background: Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, is an important health care issue. Not only the cost of disease is high but also is one of the causes of disability and mortality and effect on quality of life. Although self-care is effective on disease, s control and treatment but still effective factors on self-care of patient, s viewpoint have not been survey. The aim of this study was to explore effective factors on self-care in women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: This study was done by conventional content analysis approach in year 2014. Through purposeful sampling 15 women referred to bone mass densitometry centers participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were: Women older than 50 years old with osteoporosis, final diagnosis of osteoporosis for over six –month period, T-score index below -2.5 (lower back or hip), drug use by patients with a physician’s prescription, ability in speaking and attending to participate in the study. Data was collected by face to face and group semi-structure deep interviews and analyzed via content analysis method. To support of rigor of data, criteria credibility, confirmability and transferability were used. Results: during data analysis five categories developed: “hope and disability in the face of illness”, “mutual roles of physician”, “role of family” and “administrative centers and organizations”. To perform self-care behaviors, the participations of this study emphasized on pay attention to their own healthy, regarding patients' rights by physician, pay attention to women's health by men, and the role of media especially radio and television. Conclusion: the finding of the study showed that women’s responsibility with osteoporosis for their health is not a factor but it is multifactorial. Increasing life expectancy in patients, attention to patients needs by physician, increasing health promotion programs in the media and enhancing role of family may provide conditions and infrastructure to empowerment women in doing self-care behavior.

Keywords: women, osteoporosis, self-care, content analysis

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5 Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, Siamak Zohari, Lena H. M. Renström, Désirée S. Jansson, Faruk Otman, Karin Ullman, Claudia Baule


Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.

Keywords: IBV, avian infectious bronchitis, structural genes, genotypes, genetic diversity

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4 Evaluation of Rheological Properties, Anisotropic Shrinkage, and Heterogeneous Densification of Ceramic Materials during Liquid Phase Sintering by Numerical-Experimental Procedure

Authors: Hamed Yaghoubi, Esmaeil Salahi, Fateme Taati


The effective shear and bulk viscosity, as well as dynamic viscosity, describe the rheological properties of the ceramic body during the liquid phase sintering process. The rheological parameters depend on the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of the material such as relative density, temperature, grain size, and diffusion coefficient and activation energy. The main goal of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the response of an incompressible viscose ceramic material during liquid phase sintering process such as stress-strain relations, sintering and hydrostatic stress, the prediction of anisotropic shrinkage and heterogeneous densification as a function of sintering time by including the simultaneous influence of gravity field, and frictional force. After raw materials analysis, the standard hard porcelain mixture as a ceramic body was designed and prepared. Three different experimental configurations were designed including midpoint deflection, sinter bending, and free sintering samples. The numerical method for the ceramic specimens during the liquid phase sintering process are implemented in the CREEP user subroutine code in ABAQUS. The numerical-experimental procedure shows the anisotropic behavior, the complete difference in spatial displacement through three directions, the incompressibility for ceramic samples during the sintering process. The anisotropic shrinkage factor has been proposed to investigate the shrinkage anisotropy. It has been shown that the shrinkage along the normal axis of casting sample is about 1.5 times larger than that of casting direction, the gravitational force in pyroplastic deformation intensifies the shrinkage anisotropy more than the free sintering sample. The lowest and greatest equivalent creep strain occurs at the intermediate zone and around the central line of the midpoint distorted sample, respectively. In the sinter bending test sample, the equivalent creep strain approaches to the maximum near the contact area with refractory support. The inhomogeneity in Von-Misses, pressure, and principal stress intensifies the relative density non-uniformity in all samples, except in free sintering one. The symmetrical distribution of stress around the center of free sintering sample, cause to hinder the pyroplastic deformations. Densification results confirmed that the effective bulk viscosity was well-defined with relative density values. The stress analysis confirmed that the sintering stress is more than the hydrostatic stress from start to end of sintering time so, from both theoretically and experimentally point of view, the sintering process occurs completely.

Keywords: anisotropic shrinkage, ceramic material, liquid phase sintering process, rheological properties, numerical-experimental procedure

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3 Broadband Optical Plasmonic Antennas Using Fano Resonance Effects

Authors: Siamak Dawazdah Emami, Amin Khodaei, Harith Bin Ahmad, Hairul A. Adbul-Rashid


The Fano resonance effect on plasmonic nanoparticle materials results in such materials possessing a number of unique optical properties, and the potential applicability for sensing, nonlinear devices and slow-light devices. A Fano resonance is a consequence of coherent interference between superradiant and subradiant hybridized plasmon modes. Incident light on subradiant modes will initiate excitation that results in superradiant modes, and these superradient modes possess zero or finite dipole moments alongside a comparable negligible coupling with light. This research work details the derivation of an electrodynamics coupling model for the interaction of dipolar transitions and radiation via plasmonic nanoclusters such as quadrimers, pentamers and heptamers. The directivity calculation is analyzed in order to qualify the redirection of emission. The geometry of a configured array of nanostructures strongly influenced the transmission and reflection properties, which subsequently resulted in the directivity of each antenna being related to the nanosphere size and gap distances between the nanospheres in each model’s structure. A well-separated configuration of nanospheres resulted in the structure behaving similarly to monomers, with spectra peaks of a broad superradiant mode being centered within the vicinity of 560 nm wavelength. Reducing the distance between ring nanospheres in pentamers and heptamers to 20~60 nm caused the coupling factor and charge distributions to increase and invoke a subradiant mode centered within the vicinity of 690 nm. Increasing the outside ring’s nanosphere distance from the centered nanospheres caused the coupling factor to decrease, with the coupling factor being inversely proportional to cubic of the distance between nanospheres. This phenomenon led to a dramatic decrease of the superradiant mode at a 200 nm distance between the central nanosphere and outer rings. Effects from a superradiant mode vanished beyond a 240 nm distance between central and outer ring nanospheres.

Keywords: fano resonance, optical antenna, plasmonic, nano-clusters

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2 Nonlinear Response of Tall Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings under Wind Loads

Authors: Mahtab Abdollahi Sarvi, Siamak Epackachi, Ali Imanpour


Reinforced concrete shear walls are commonly used as the lateral load-resisting system of mid- to high-rise office or residential buildings around the world. Design of such systems is often governed by wind rather than seismic effects, in particular in low-to-moderate seismic regions. The current design philosophy as per the majority of building codes under wind loads require elastic response of lateral load-resisting systems including reinforced concrete shear walls when subjected to the rare design wind load, resulting in significantly large wall sections needed to meet strength requirements and drift limits. The latter can highly influence the design in upper stories due to stringent drift limits specified by building codes, leading to substantial added costs to the construction of the wall. However, such walls may offer limited to moderate over-strength and ductility due to their large reserve capacity provided that they are designed and detailed to appropriately develop such over-strength and ductility under extreme wind loads. This would significantly contribute to reducing construction time and costs, while maintaining structural integrity under gravity and frequently-occurring and less frequent wind events. This paper aims to investigate the over-strength and ductility capacity of several imaginary office buildings located in Edmonton, Canada with a glance at earthquake design philosophy. Selected models are 10- to 25-story buildings with three types of reinforced concrete shear wall configurations including rectangular, barbell, and flanged. The buildings are designed according to National Building Code of Canada. Then fiber-based numerical models of the walls are developed in Perform 3D and by conducting nonlinear static (pushover) analysis, lateral nonlinear behavior of the walls are evaluated. Ductility and over-strength of the structures are obtained based on the results of the pushover analyses. The results confirmed moderate nonlinear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls under extreme wind loads. This is while lateral displacements of the walls pass the serviceability limit states defined in Pre standard for Performance-Based Wind Design (ASCE). The results indicate that we can benefit the limited nonlinear response observed in the reinforced concrete shear walls to economize the design of such systems under wind loads.

Keywords: concrete shear wall, high-rise buildings, nonlinear static analysis, response modification factor, wind load

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1 Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic and Static Magnetic Fields on Musculoskeletal Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Approach

Authors: Mohammad Javaherian, Siamak Bashardoust Tajali, Monavvar Hadizadeh


Objective: This systematic review study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic (PEMF) and Static Magnetic Fields (SMG) on pain relief and functional improvement in patients with musculoskeletal Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched by two researchers independently to identify the published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic, static magnetic, and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields. The identified databases for systematic search were Ovid Medline®, Ovid Cochrane RCTs and Reviews, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and EMBASE from 1968 to February 2016. The relevant keywords were selected by Mesh. After initial search and finding relevant manuscripts, all references in selected studies were searched to identify second hand possible manuscripts. The published RCTs in English would be included to the study if they reported changes on pain and/or functional disability following application of magnetic fields on chronic musculoskeletal low back pain. All studies with surgical patients, patients with pelvic pain, and combination of other treatment techniques such as acupuncture or diathermy were excluded. The identified studies were critically appraised and the data were extracted independently by two raters (M.J and S.B.T). Probable disagreements were resolved through discussion between raters. Results: In total, 1505 abstracts were found following the initial electronic search. The abstracts were reviewed to identify potentially relevant manuscripts. Seventeen possibly appropriate studies were retrieved in full-text of which 48 were excluded after reviewing their full-texts. Ten selected articles were categorized into three subgroups: PEMF (6 articles), SMF (3 articles), and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields (tNMF) (1 article). Since one study evaluated tNMF, we had to exclude it. In the PEMF group, one study of acute LBP did not show significant positive results and the majority of the other five studies on Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) indicated its efficacy on pain relief and functional improvement, but one study with the lowest sessions (6 sessions during 2 weeks) did not report a significant difference between treatment and control groups. In the SMF subgroup, two articles reported near significant pain reduction without any functional improvement although more studies are needed. Conclusion: The PEMFs with a strength of 5 to 150 G or 0.1 to 0.3 G and a frequency of 5 to 64 Hz or sweep 7 to 7KHz can be considered as an effective modality in pain relief and functional improvement in patients with chronic low back pain, but there is not enough evidence to confirm their effectiveness in acute low back pain. To achieve the appropriate effectiveness, it is suggested to perform this treatment modality 20 minutes per day for at least 9 sessions. SMFs have not been reported to be substantially effective in decreasing pain or improving the function in chronic low back pain. More studies are necessary to achieve more reliable results.

Keywords: pulsed electromagnetic field, static magnetic field, magnetotherapy, low back pain

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