Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Marzieh Khezri

31 Comparison of the Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Morphine, Paracetamol, and Ketorolac in Patient-Controlled Analgesia in the Patients Undergoing Open Cholecystectomy

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Vahideh Rashtchi, Marzieh Khezri, Hamid Kayalha, Monadi Hamidfar

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Effective postoperative pain management in abdominal surgeries, which are painful procedures, plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications and increasing patient’s satisfaction. There are many techniques for pain control, one of which is Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of morphine, paracetamol and ketorolac in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method. Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 330 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients ( three equal groups, n=110) who were scheduled for elective open cholecystectomy in Shahid Rjaee hospital of Qazvin, Iran from August 2013 until September 2015. All patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA (Total Intra Venous Anesthesia) technique. The control group received morphine with maximum dose of 0.02mg/kg/h, the paracetamol group received paracetamol with maximum dose of 1mg/kg/h, and the ketorolac group received ketorolac with maximum daily dose of 60mg using IV-PCA method. The parameters of pain, nausea, hemodynamic variables (BP and HR), pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation, patient’s satisfaction and pain score were measured every two hours for 8 hours following operation in all groups. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic data between the three groups. there was a statistically significant difference with regard to the mean pain score at all times between morphine and paracetamol, morphine and ketorolac, and paracetamol and ketorolac groups (P<0.001). Results indicated a reduction with time in the mean level of postoperative pain in all three groups. At all times the mean level of pain in ketorolac group was less than that in the other two groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study ketorolac is more effective than morphine and paracetamol in postoperative pain control in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method.

Keywords: analgesia, cholecystectomy, ketorolac, morphine, paracetamol

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30 Poly Urea-Formaldehyde for Preconcentration and Determination of Cadmium Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Samira Tajik, Mohamad Hadi Dehghani, Mostafa Khezri, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cd (II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cd(II) was 5.5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Cd (II) were 76.3 mg g−1. A Cd (II) removal of 55% was obtained. The profile of Cd (II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cd (II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, cadmium ion, environmental sample, determination

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29 Geomechanical Numerical Modeling of Well Wall in Drilling with Finite Difference Method

Authors: Marzieh Zarei

Abstract:

Well instability is one of the most fundamental challenges faced by the oil and gas industry. Well wall stability analysis is a gap to be filled in the oil industry. The collection of static data such as well logging leads to the construction of a geomechanical numerical model, which will help in assessing the probable risks in future drilling. In this paper, geomechanical model was designed, and mechanical properties of the rock was determined at all points of the model. It was found the safe mud window was determined and the minimum and maximum mud pressures were determined in the ranges of 70-60 MPa and 110-100 MPa, respectively.

Keywords: geomechanics, numerical model, well stability, in-situ stress, underbalanced drilling

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28 The Relationship between Top Management Replacement and Risk, Sale and Cash Volatilities with Respect to Unqualified Audit Opinion

Authors: Mehdi Dasineh, Yadollah Tariverdi, Marzieh H. Takhti

Abstract:

This paper investigated the relationship between top management turnover with risk volatility, sale volatility and fluctuations in the company's cash depending on the unqualified audit report in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). In this study, we examined 104 firms over the period 2009-2014 which were selected from (TSE). There was 624 observed year-company data in this research. Hypotheses of this research have been evaluated by using regression tests for example F-statistical and Durbin-Watson. Based on our sample we found significant relationship between top management replacement and risk volatility, sale Volatility and cash volatility with tendency unqualified audit opinion.

Keywords: top management replacement, risk volatility, sale volatility, cash volatility, unqualified audit opinion

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27 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: metaphor therapy, depression, female, students

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26 Characterization of Antioxidant-Antimicrobial Microcapsules Containing Carum Copticum Essential Oil and Their Effect on the Sensory Quality of Yoghurt

Authors: Maryam Rahimi, Maryam Moslehishad, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini

Abstract:

In this study, preparation of spray dried Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO)-loaded microcapsules by maltodextrin and its blending with two other natural biodegradable polymers, gum Arabic (GA) or modified starch (MS) were investigated. Addition of these polymers to maltodextrin resulted in the encasement of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The highest EE (78.22±0.34%) and total phenolic (TP) content (83.86±1.72 mg GAE/100g) was related to MD-MS microcapsules. CCEO-loaded microcapsules showed spherical surface, good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, sensory tests confirmed the possible application of CCEO-loaded microcapsules as natural food additives.

Keywords: carum copticum, essential oil, encapsulation, spray drying, sensory evaluation, antioxidants

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25 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet

Abstract:

Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

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24 The Effect of Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium Blossom Essential Oil on Premenstrual Syndrome in University Students: A Clinical Trial Study

Authors: Neda Jamalimoghadam, Naval Heydari, Maliheh Abootalebi, Maryam Kasraeian, M. Emamghoreishi , Akbarzadeh Marzieh

Abstract:

Background: The aim was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial was controlled on 62 students from March 2016 to February 2017. The intervention with 0.5% of C. Aurantium blossom essential oil and control was inhalation of odorless sweet almond oil in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The screening questionnaire (PSST) for PMSwas filled out before and also one and two months after the intervention. Results: Mean score of overall symptoms of PMS between the Bitter orange and control groups In the first (p < 0.003) and second months (p < 0.001) of the intervention was significant. Besides, decreased the mean score of psychological symptoms in the intervention group (p < 0.001), but on physical symptoms and social function were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium blossom improved the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Keywords: aromatherapy, Citrus Aurantium, premenstrual syndrome, oil, students

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23 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama in the Reduction of Social Anxiety Disorder among Male Adolescents

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Zahra Hadadi, Marzieh Rezabeigi, Nader Monirpoor

Abstract:

This study has been performed with the goal of investigating the effectiveness of psychodrama in the reduction of social anxiety among the male adolescents in Kermanshah. 210 adolescents (13-14 year-olds) from four junior high schools in Kermanshah filled Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA) (Masia-Warner, Klien & Liebowitz, 2003). 30 of the adolescents who obtained the highest scores in LSAS-CA scale were chosen as the sample and were randomly assigned as experimental group (15 people) and control group (15 people). The experimental group participated in two-hour sessions of psychodrama twice a week for 6 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The findings of this study showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of social anxiety among the adolescents in experimental group in comparison to that of the control group. Also a three-month follow-up confirmed the stability of the results. Adolescents’ interactions in the psychodrama group, talking about their problems to the group, and achieving appropriate solutions by themselves are the useful factors of this intervention.

Keywords: psychodrama, social anxiety disorder, adolescents, male adolescents

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22 Rejuvenation of Premature Ovarian Failure with Stem Cells/IVA Technique

Authors: Elham Vojoudi, Marzieh Mehrafza, Ahmad Hosseini, Azadeh Raofi, Maryam Najafi

Abstract:

Premature ovarian failure (POF) has become one of the main causes of infertility in women of childbearing age and the incidence of this disorder is increasing year by year. In these patients, poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropins reflects a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) that gives place to few follicles despite aggressive stimulation. Up to now, egg donation is the only way to resolve infertility problems in POF patients. Therefore, some novel aspects such as activating (Akt signaling pathway) and inhibiting (Hippo-signaling) elements have been identified as IVA procedure that promotes primordial follicle activation. In this study, we used the newly developed technique (combination of in vitro activation of dormant follicles (IVA) and stem cell therapy) to promote ovarian follicle growth much more efficiently than the natural, in vivo process for women with POF. Transplantation of Warton Jelly-MSCs to the ovaries of POF patients rescued overall ovarian function. Participants (10 patients) were followed up monthly for a period of six months by hormonal (AMH, FSH, LH and E2), clinical (resuming menstruation), and US (folliculometry) outcomes after a laparoscopic operation. In summary, IVA/WJ-MSC transplantation may provide an effective treatment for POF.

Keywords: POF, in vitro activation, stem cell therapy, infertility

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21 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar

Abstract:

Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, thyroid cancer

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20 Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen over Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite Prepared with an Electro Deposition Method

Authors: Marzieh Joda, Narges Fallah, Neda Afsham

Abstract:

Graphite-supported two different of morphology α and β -Ni (OH)₂ electrodes were prepared by electrochemical deposition at appropriate potentials with regard to Ni (II)/Ni (III) redox couple under alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively, for selective oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen in the direct electro-oxidation process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the electrolyte containing NH₃ indicated mediation of electron transfer by Ni (OH)₂ and the electrode surface was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectrometer (RS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of surface characterization indicated the presence of α polymorphs which is the stable phase of Ni (OH)₂ /Graphite. Cyclic voltammograms gave information on the nature of electron transfer between nitrogen species and working electrode and revealed that the potential has depended on both nature ammonia oxidation and that of concentration. The mechanism of selective ammonia conversion to nitrogen and byproducts, namely NO₂- and NO₃- was established by Cyclic voltammograms and current efficiency. The removal efficiency and selective conversion of ammonia (0.1 M KNO₃ + 0.01 M Ni(NO₃)₂, pH 11, 250°C) on Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite was determined based on potential controlled experiments.

Keywords: Electro deposition, Nickel oxide-hydroxide, Nitrogen selectivity, Ammonia oxidation

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19 Effect of Aging Time on CeO2 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Synthesized via Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Navid Zanganeh, Hafez Balavi, Farbod Sharif, Mahla Zabet, Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh

Abstract:

Cerium oxide (CeO2) also known as cerium dioxide or ceria is a pale yellow-white powder with various applications in the industry from wood coating to cosmetics, filtration, fuel cell electrolytes, gas sensors, hybrid solar cells and catalysts. In this research, attempts were made to synthesize and characterization of CeO2 nano-particles via sol-gel method. In addition, the effect of aging time on the size of particles was investigated. For this purpose, the aging times adjusted 48, 56, 64, and 72 min. The obtained particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). As a result, XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CeO2 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images illustrated the nano-particles with cluster shape, spherical and a nano-size range which was in agreement with XRD results. The finest particles (7.3 nm) was obtained at the optimum condition which was aging time of 48 min, calcination temperature at 400 ⁰C, and cerium concentration of 0.004 mol. Average specific surface area of the particles at optimum condition was measured by BET analysis and recorded as 47.57 m2/g.

Keywords: aging time, CeO2 nanoparticles, size distribution, sol-gel

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18 Enhancing a Recidivism Prediction Tool with Machine Learning: Effectiveness and Algorithmic Fairness

Authors: Marzieh Karimihaghighi, Carlos Castillo

Abstract:

This work studies how Machine Learning (ML) may be used to increase the effectiveness of a criminal recidivism risk assessment tool, RisCanvi. The two key dimensions of this analysis are predictive accuracy and algorithmic fairness. ML-based prediction models obtained in this study are more accurate at predicting criminal recidivism than the manually-created formula used in RisCanvi, achieving an AUC of 0.76 and 0.73 in predicting violent and general recidivism respectively. However, the improvements are small, and it is noticed that algorithmic discrimination can easily be introduced between groups such as national vs foreigner, or young vs old. It is described how effectiveness and algorithmic fairness objectives can be balanced, applying a method in which a single error disparity in terms of generalized false positive rate is minimized, while calibration is maintained across groups. Obtained results show that this bias mitigation procedure can substantially reduce generalized false positive rate disparities across multiple groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that ML-based criminal recidivism risk prediction should not be introduced without applying algorithmic bias mitigation procedures.

Keywords: algorithmic fairness, criminal risk assessment, equalized odds, recidivism

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17 Methaheuristic Bat Algorithm in Training of Feed-Forward Neural Network for Stock Price Prediction

Authors: Marjan Golmaryami, Marzieh Behzadi

Abstract:

Recent developments in stock exchange highlight the need for an efficient and accurate method that helps stockholders make better decision. Since stock markets have lots of fluctuations during the time and different effective parameters, it is difficult to make good decisions. The purpose of this study is to employ artificial neural network (ANN) which can deal with time series data and nonlinear relation among variables to forecast next day stock price. Unlike other evolutionary algorithms which were utilized in stock exchange prediction, we trained our proposed neural network with metaheuristic bat algorithm, with fast and powerful convergence and applied it in stock price prediction for the first time. In order to prove the performance of the proposed method, this research selected a 7 year dataset from Parsian Bank stocks and after imposing data preprocessing, used 3 types of ANN (back propagation-ANN, particle swarm optimization-ANN and bat-ANN) to predict the closed price of stocks. Afterwards, this study engaged MATLAB to simulate 3 types of ANN, with the scoring target of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The results may be adapted to other companies stocks too.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), bat algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), stock exchange

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16 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: biopolymer, microencapsulation, spray-drying, walnut green husk

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15 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee

Abstract:

Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrow

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14 Investigation of the Effect of Teaching Thinking and Research Lesson by Cooperative and Traditional Methods on Creativity of Sixth Grade Students

Authors: Faroogh Khakzad, Marzieh Dehghani, Elahe Hejazi

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effect of teaching a Thinking and Research lesson by cooperative and traditional methods on the creativity of sixth-grade students in Piranshahr province. The statistical society includes all the sixth-grade students of Piranshahr province. The sample of this studytable was selected by available sampling from among male elementary schools of Piranshahr. They were randomly assigned into two groups of cooperative teaching method and traditional teaching method. The design of the study is quasi-experimental with a control group. In this study, to assess students’ creativity, Abedi’s creativity questionnaire was used. Based on Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the reliability of the factor flow was 0.74, innovation was 0.61, flexibility was 0.63, and expansion was 0.68. To analyze the data, t-test, univariate and multivariate covariance analysis were used for evaluation of the difference of means and the pretest and posttest scores. The findings of the research showed that cooperative teaching method does not significantly increase creativity (p > 0.05). Moreover, cooperative teaching method was found to have significant effect on flow factor (p < 0.05), but in innovation and expansion factors no significant effect was observed (p < 0.05).

Keywords: cooperative teaching method, traditional teaching method, creativity, flow, innovation, flexibility, expansion, thinking and research lesson

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13 The Impact of Leadership Style and Managers Decision Making on Organizational Resulting in Ship Manufacturing Company

Authors: ZeinolAbedin Rahmani, Marzieh Evazi Borazjani, Nooshin Salehi

Abstract:

Organizations are increasingly facing changes and developments scientific, technological, social, cultural changes among these organizations those ones are reckoned successful and effective that in addition to coordinating the development of modern society can forecast future changes and be able to accommodate these changes in order to create favorable developments to build a better future. But we can change that with the changes that occur in the organization of the program it will distinguish. Today's organizations need leaders that change and grow them have to survive. In fact, without transformational managers and leaders, it is certainly difficult to create changes in organizations. Both private and public organizations need to increase knowledge and awareness of the cause widespread changes in the structure, culture and practice for the viability and sustainability of life and growth and development. By now, different signs have determined different causes for a suitable function of employees. However, the important thing is that the commitment of the employees to their organization has always been very important. Since the decrease of organization commitment causes the high rate of absenteeism, turnover intentions, and even to reduce the impact of health staff. and these factors prevent organizations from achieving its goals. If organizations want to retain staff, the organization must find a way to be happy and continue their work with commitment, motivation, and willingness. So here is the need for strong leaders, analysts, creative and transformational upper ranks more than ever is felt. The aim of this study is to revise history, the leadership style of managers shipbuilding company by using the MLQ model.

Keywords: leadership style, managers, organizational, manufacturing company, sustainability of life

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12 Newborn Hearing Screening: Experience from a Center in South part of Iran

Authors: Marzieh Amiri, Zahra Iranpour Mobarakeh, Fatemeh Mehrbakhsh, Mehran Amiri

Abstract:

Introduction: Early diagnosis and intervention of congenital hearing loss is necessary to minimize the adverse effects of hearing loss. The aim of the present study was to report the results of newborn hearing screening in a centerin the south part of Iran, Fasa. Material and methods: In this study, the data related to 6,144 newbornsduring September 2018 up to September2021, was analyzed. Hearing screening was performed using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) tests. Results: From all 6144 newborns,3752 and 2392referred to the center from urban and rural part of Fasa, respectively. There were 2958 female and 3186 male in this study. Of 6144 newborns, 6098 ones passed the screening tests, and 46 neonates were referred to a diagnostic audiology clinic. Finally, nine neonates were diagnosed with congenital hearing loss (seven with sensorineural hearing loss and two with conductive hearing loss). The severity of all the hearing impaired neonates was moderate and above. The most important risk factors were family history of hearing loss, low gestational age, NICU hospitalization, and hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that the prevalence of hearing loss was 1.46 per 1000 infants. Boosting public knowledge by providing families with proper education appears to be helpful in preventing the negative effects of delayed implementation of health screening programs.

Keywords: newborn hearing screening, hearing loss, risk factor, prevalence

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11 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Marzieh Sayyad, Mohsen Salesi

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, metabolic syndrome, overweight sedentary female, resistance exercise

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10 On the Significance of Preparing a Professional Literature Review in EFL Context

Authors: Fahimeh Marefat, Marzieh Marefat

Abstract:

The present research is inspired by the comment that “A substantive, thorough, sophisticated literature review is a precondition for doing substantive, thorough, sophisticated research”. This study is a report on an action research to solve my problem of preparing students to write a Literature Review (LR) that is more than mere cut and paste. More specifically, this study was initiated to discover whether there is an impact of equipping students with tools to write LR on the quality of research and on their view on LR significance. The participants were twenty-four Iranian TEFLers at Allameh Tabataba’i University. they were taking their advanced writing course with the lead researcher. We met once a week for 90 minutes for five weeks followed by individual consultations. Working through a process approach, and implementing tasks, the lead researcher ran workshops implementing different controlled assignments and subsequent activities to lead students to practice appropriate source use on multiple drafts: From choosing the topic, finding sources, forming questions, preparing quotation, paraphrase, and summary note cards, to outlining and most importantly introducing them the tools to evaluate prior research and offer their own take of it and finally synthesizing and incorporating the notes into the body of the LR section of their papers. The LR scoring rubric was implemented and a note was emailed to the students asking about their views. It was indicated that awareness raising and detailed explicit instruction improved the LR quality compared to their previous projects. Interestingly enough, they acknowledged how LR shaped all stages of their research, a further support for the notion of “being scholars before researchers”. The key to success is mastery over the literature which translates into extensive reading and critically appraising it.

Keywords: controlled tasks, critical evaluation, review of literature, writing synthesis

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9 Bio-Inspired Design Approach Analysis: A Case Study of Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava

Authors: Marzieh Imani

Abstract:

Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava have reputation for designing bio-inspired creative and technical buildings. Even though they have followed different independent approaches towards design, the source of bio-inspiration seems to be common. Taking a closer look at their projects reveals that Calatrava has been influenced by Gaudi in terms of interpreting nature and applying natural principles into the design process. This research firstly discusses the dialogue between Biomimicry and architecture. This review also explores human/nature discourse during the history by focusing on how nature revealed itself to the fine arts. This is explained by introducing naturalism and romantic style in architecture as the outcome of designers’ inclination towards nature. Reviewing the literature, theoretical background and practical illustration of nature have been included. The most dominant practical aspects of imitating nature are form and function. Nature has been reflected in architectural science resulted in shaping different architectural styles such as organic, green, sustainable, bionic, and biomorphic. By defining a set of common aspects of Gaudi and Calatrava‘s design approach and by considering biomimetic design categories (organism, ecosystem, and behaviour as the main division and form, function, process, material, and construction as subdivisions), Gaudi’s and Calatrava’s project have been analysed. This analysis explores if their design approaches are equivalent or different. Based on this analysis, Gaudi’s architecture can be recognised as biomorphic while Calatrava’s projects are literally biomimetic. Referring to these architects, this review suggests a new set of principles by which a bio-inspired project can be determined either biomorphic or biomimetic.

Keywords: biomimicry, Calatrava, Gaudi, nature

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8 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh

Abstract:

Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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7 Combined Effect of Roughness and Suction on Heat Transfer in a Laminar Channel Flow

Authors: Marzieh Khezerloo, Lyazid Djenidi

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Owing to wide range of the micro-device applications, the problems of mixing at small scales is of significant interest. Also, because most of the processes produce heat, it is needed to develop and implement strategies for heat removal in these devices. There are many studies which focus on the effect of roughness or suction on heat transfer performance, separately, although it would be useful to take advantage of these two methods to improve heat transfer performance. Unfortunately, there is a gap in this area. The present numerical study is carried to investigate the combined effects of roughness and wall suction on heat transfer performance of a laminar channel flow; suction is applied on the top and back faces of the roughness element, respectively. The study is carried out for different Reynolds numbers, different suction rates, and various locations of suction area on the roughness. The flow is assumed two dimensional, incompressible, laminar, and steady state. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are solved using ANSYS-Fluent 18.2 software. The present results are tested against previous theoretical results. The results show that by adding suction, the local Nusselt number is enhanced in the channel. In addition, it is shown that by applying suction on the bottom section of the roughness back face, one can reduce the thickness of thermal boundary layer, which leads to an increase in local Nusselt number. This indicates that suction is an effective means for improving the heat transfer rate (suction by controls the thickness of thermal boundary layer). It is also shown that the size and intensity of vortical motion behind the roughness element, decreased with an increasing suction rate, which leads to higher local Nusselt number. So, it can be concluded that by using suction, strategically located on the roughness element, one can control both the recirculation region and the heat transfer rate. Further results will be presented at the conference for coefficient of drag and the effect of adding more roughness elements.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar flow, numerical simulation, roughness, suction

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6 Simulation of Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Fate in Narrow Grass Hedges

Authors: Marzieh Khedmati, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt

Abstract:

Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) are used for controlling the volume of runoff and decreasing contaminant concentrations in runoff before entering water bodies. Many studies have investigated the role of VFS in sediment and nutrient removal, but little is known about their efficiency for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD) was used to simulate the efficiency of VFS in this regard. Several studies demonstrated the ability of VFSMOD to predict reductions in runoff volume and sediment concentration moving through the filters. The objectives of this study were to calibrate the VFSMOD with experimental data and assess the efficiency of the model in simulating the filter behavior in removing ARGs (ermB) and tylosin. The experimental data were obtained from a prior study conducted at the University of Nebraska (UNL) Rogers Memorial Farm. Three treatment factors were tested in the experiments, including manure amendment, narrow grass hedges and rainfall events. Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) was defined as the filter efficiency and the related experimental and model values were compared to each other. The VFS Model generally agreed with the experimental results and as a result, the model was used for predicting filter efficiencies when the runoff data are not available. Narrow Grass Hedges (NGH) were shown to be effective in reducing tylosin and ARGs concentration. The simulation showed that the filter efficiency in removing ARGs is different for different soil types and filter lengths. There is an optimum length for the filter strip that produces minimum runoff volume. Based on the model results increasing the length of the filter by 1-meter leads to higher efficiency but widening beyond that decreases the efficiency. The VFSMOD, which was proved to work well in estimation of VFS trapping efficiency, showed confirming results for ARG removal.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance genes, emerging contaminants, narrow grass hedges, vegetative filter strips, vegetative filter strip modeling system

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5 Energy Loss Reduction in Oil Refineries through Flare Gas Recovery Approaches

Authors: Majid Amidpour, Parisa Karimi, Marzieh Joda

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For the last few years, release of burned undesirable by-products has become a challenging issue in oil industries. Flaring, as one of the main sources of air contamination, involves detrimental and long-lasting effects on human health and is considered a substantial reason for energy losses worldwide. This research involves studying the implications of two main flare gas recovery methods at three oil refineries, all in Iran as the case I, case II, and case III in which the production capacities are increasing respectively. In the proposed methods, flare gases are converted into more valuable products, before combustion by the flare networks. The first approach involves collecting, compressing and converting the flare gas to smokeless fuel which can be used in the fuel gas system of the refineries. The other scenario includes utilizing the flare gas as a feed into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) production unit already established in the refineries. The processes of these scenarios are simulated, and the capital investment is calculated for each procedure. The cumulative profits of the scenarios are evaluated using Net Present Value method. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis based on total propane and butane mole fraction is carried out to make a rational comparison for LPG production approach, and the results are illustrated for different mole fractions of propane and butane. As the mole fraction of propane and butane contained in LPG differs in summer and winter seasons, the results corresponding to LPG scenario are demonstrated for each season. The results of the simulations show that cumulative profit in fuel gas production scenario and LPG production rate increase with the capacity of the refineries. Moreover, the investment return time in LPG production method experiences a decline, followed by a rising trend with an increase in C3 and C4 content. The minimum value of time return occurs at propane and butane sum concentration values of 0.7, 0.6, and 0.7 in case I, II, and III, respectively. Based on comparison of the time of investment return and cumulative profit, fuel gas production is the superior scenario for three case studies.

Keywords: flare gas reduction, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel gas, net present value method, sensitivity analysis

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4 Communication Skills Training in Continuing Nursing Education: Enabling Nurses to Improve Competency and Performance in Communication

Authors: Marzieh Moattari Mitra Abbasi, Masoud Mousavinasab, Poorahmad

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Background: Nurses in their daily practice need to communicate with patients and their families as well as health professional team members. Effective communication contributes to patients’ satisfaction which is a fundamental outcome of nursing practice. There are some evidences in support of patients' dissatisfaction with nurses’ performance in communication process. Therefore improving nurses’ communication skills is a necessity for nursing scholars and nursing administrators. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 2-days workshop on nurses’ competencies and performances in communication in a central hospital located in the sought of Iran. Materials and Method: This is a randomized controlled trial which comprised of a convenient sample of 70 eligible nurses, working in a central hospital. They were randomly divided into 2 experimental and control groups. Nurses’ competencies was measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their performance was measured by asking eligible patients hospitalized in the nurses work setting during a one month period to evaluate nurses' communication skills before and 2 months after intervention. The experimental group participated in a 2 day workshop on communication skills. Content included in this workshop were: the importance of communication (verbal and non verbal), basic communication skills such as initiating the communication, active listening and questioning technique. Other subjects were patient teaching, problem solving, and decision making, cross cultural communication and breaking bad news. Appropriate teaching strategies such as brief didactic sessions, small group discussion and reflection were applied to enhance participants learning. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Result: A significant between group differences was found in nurses’ communication skills competencies and performances in the posttest. The mean scores of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in the total score of OSCE as well as all stations of OSCE (p<0.003). Overall posttest mean scores of patient satisfaction with nurse's communication skills and all of its four dimensions significantly differed between the two groups of the study (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that the education of nurses in communication skills, improves their competencies and performances. Measurement of Nurses’ communication skills as a central component of efficient nurse patient relationship by valid and reliable methods of evaluation is recommended. Also it is necessary to integrate teaching of communication skills in continuing nursing education programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201204042621N11

Keywords: communication skills, simulation, performance, competency, objective structure, clinical evaluation

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3 Transition Dynamic Analysis of the Urban Disparity in Iran “Case Study: Iran Provinces Center”

Authors: Marzieh Ahmadi, Ruhullah Alikhan Gorgani

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The usual methods of measuring regional inequalities can not reflect the internal changes of the country in terms of their displacement in different development groups, and the indicators of inequalities are not effective in demonstrating the dynamics of the distribution of inequality. For this purpose, this paper examines the dynamics of the urban inertial transport in the country during the period of 2006-2016 using the CIRD multidimensional index and stochastic kernel density method. it firstly selects 25 indicators in five dimensions including macroeconomic conditions, science and innovation, environmental sustainability, human capital and public facilities, and two-stage Principal Component Analysis methodology are developed to create a composite index of inequality. Then, in the second stage, using a nonparametric analytical approach to internal distribution dynamics and a stochastic kernel density method, the convergence hypothesis of the CIRD index of the Iranian provinces center is tested, and then, based on the ergodic density, long-run equilibrium is shown. Also, at this stage, for the purpose of adopting accurate regional policies, the distribution dynamics and process of convergence or divergence of the Iranian provinces for each of the five. According to the results of the first Stage, in 2006 & 2016, the highest level of development is related to Tehran and zahedan is at the lowest level of development. The results show that the central cities of the country are at the highest level of development due to the effects of Tehran's knowledge spillover and the country's lower cities are at the lowest level of development. The main reason for this may be the lack of access to markets in the border provinces. Based on the results of the second stage, which examines the dynamics of regional inequality transmission in the country during 2006-2016, the first year (2006) is not multifaceted and according to the kernel density graph, the CIRD index of about 70% of the cities. The value is between -1.1 and -0.1. The rest of the sequence on the right is distributed at a level higher than -0.1. In the kernel distribution, a convergence process is observed and the graph points to a single peak. Tends to be a small peak at about 3 but the main peak at about-0.6. According to the chart in the final year (2016), the multidimensional pattern remains and there is no mobility in the lower level groups, but at the higher level, the CIRD index accounts for about 45% of the provinces at about -0.4 Take it. That this year clearly faces the twin density pattern, which indicates that the cities tend to be closely related to each other in terms of development, so that the cities are low in terms of development. Also, according to the distribution dynamics results, the provinces of Iran follow the single-density density pattern in 2006 and the double-peak density pattern in 2016 at low and moderate inequality index levels and also in the development index. The country diverges during the years 2006 to 2016.

Keywords: Urban Disparity, CIRD Index, Convergence, Distribution Dynamics, Random Kernel Density

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2 Ahmad Sabzi Balkhkanloo, Motahareh Sadat Hashemi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Authors: Elyria Kemp, Kelly Cowart, My Bui

Abstract:

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, an estimated 31.9% of adolescents have had an anxiety disorder. Several environmental factors may help to contribute to high levels of anxiety and depression in young people (i.e., Generation Z, Millennials). However, as young people negotiate life on social media, they may begin to evaluate themselves using excessively high standards and adopt self-perfectionism tendencies. Broadly defined, self-perfectionism involves very critical evaluations of the self. Perfectionism may also come from others and may manifest as socially prescribed perfectionism, and young adults are reporting higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism than previous generations. This rising perfectionism is also associated with anxiety, greater physiological reactivity, and a sense of social disconnection. However, theories from psychology suggest that improvement in emotion regulation can contribute to enhanced psychological and emotional well-being. Emotion regulation refers to the ways people manage how and when they experience and express their emotions. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are common emotion regulation strategies. Cognitive reappraisal involves changing the meaning of a stimulus that involves construing a potentially emotion-eliciting situation in a way that changes its emotional impact. By contrast, expressive suppression involves inhibiting the behavioral expression of emotion. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of social marketing initiatives which promote emotion regulation strategies to help young adults regulate their emotions. In Study 1 a single factor (emotional regulation strategy: a cognitive reappraisal, expressive, control) between-subjects design was conducted using an online, non-student consumer panel (n=96). Sixty-eight percent of participants were male, and 32% were female. Study participants belonged to the Millennial and Gen Z cohort, ranging in age from 22 to 35 (M=27). Participants were first told to spend at least three minutes writing about a public speaking appearance which made them anxious. The purpose of this exercise was to induce anxiety. Next, participants viewed one of three advertisements (randomly assigned) which promoted an emotion regulation strategy—cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, or an advertisement non-emotional in nature. After being exposed to one of the ads, participants responded to a measure composed of two items to access their emotional state and the efficacy of the messages in fostering emotion management. Findings indicated that individuals in the cognitive reappraisal condition (M=3.91) exhibited the most positive feelings and more effective emotion regulation than the expressive suppression (M=3.39) and control conditions (M=3.72, F(1,92) = 3.3, p<.05). Results from this research can be used by institutions (e.g., schools) in taking a leadership role in attacking anxiety and other mental health issues. Social stigmas regarding mental health can be removed and a more proactive stance can be taken in promoting healthy coping behaviors and strategies to manage negative emotions.

Keywords: emotion regulation, anxiety, social marketing, generation z

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