Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5013

Search results for: numerical rating score

5013 Validation of Global Ratings in Clinical Performance Assessment

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the reliability of clinical performance assessments, having been emphasized by ability-based education, and professors overall assessment methods. We addressed the following problems: First, we try to find out whether there is a difference in what we consider to be the main variables affecting the clinical performance test according to the evaluator’s working period and the number of evaluation experience. Second, we examined the relationship among the global rating score (G), analytic global rating score (Gc), and the sum of the analytical checklists (C). What are the main factors affecting clinical performance assessments in relation to the numbers of times the evaluator had administered evaluations and the length of their working period service? What is the relationship between overall assessment score and analytic checklist score? How does analytic global rating with 6 components in OSCE and 4 components in sub-domains (Gc) CPX: aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude overall assessment score and task-specific analytic checklist score sum (C) affect the professor’s overall global rating assessment score (G)? We studied 75 professors who attended a 2016 Bugyeoung Consortium clinical skills performances test evaluating third and fourth year medical students at the Pusan National University Medical school in South Korea (39 prof. in OSCE, 36 prof. in CPX; all consented to participate in our study). Each evaluator used 3 forms; a task-specific analytic checklist, subsequent analytic global rating scale with sub-6 domains, and overall global scale. After the evaluation, the professors responded to the questionnaire on the important factors of clinical performance assessment. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 21.0. Their understanding of overall assessment was analyzed by dividing the subjects into groups based on experiences. As a result, they considered ‘precision’ most important in overall OSCE assessment, and ‘precise accuracy physical examination’, ‘systemic approaches to taking patient history’, and ‘diagnostic skill capability’ in overall CPX assessment. For OSCE, there was no clear difference of opinion about the main factors, but there was for CPX. Analytic global rating scale score, overall rating scale score, and analytic checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. According to the regression analysis results, task-specific checklist score sum had the greatest effect on overall global rating. professors regarded task-specific analytic checklist total score sum as best reflecting overall OSCE test score, followed by aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude on a subsequent analytic global rating scale. For CPX, subsequent analytic global rating scale score, overall global rating scale score, and task-specific checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. These findings support explanations for validity of professors’ global rating in clinical performance assessment.

Keywords: global rating, clinical performance assessment, medical education, analytic checklist

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5012 The Effect of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Disclosure on Firms’ Credit Rating and Capital Structure

Authors: Heba Abdelmotaal

Abstract:

This paper explores the impact of the extent of a company's environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure on credit rating and capital structure. The analysis is based on a sample of 202 firms from the 350 FTSE firms over the period of 2008-2013. ESG disclosure score is measured using Proprietary Bloomberg score based on the extent of a company's Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosure. The credit rating is measured by The QuiScore, which is a measure of the likelihood that a company will become bankrupt in the twelve months following the date of calculation. The Capital Structure is measured by long term debt ratio. Two hypotheses are test using panel data regression. The results suggested that the higher degree of ESG disclosure leads to better credit rating. There is significant negative relationship between ESG disclosure and the long term debit percentage. The paper includes implications for the transparency which is resulting of the ESG disclosure could support the Monitoring Function. The monitoring role of disclosure is the increasing in the transparency of the credit rating agencies, also it could affect on managers’ actions. This study provides empirical evidence on the material of ESG disclosure on credit ratings changes and the firms’ capital decision making.

Keywords: capital structure, credit rating agencies, ESG disclosure, panel data regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
5011 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Mani Mofidi, Neda Valizadeh, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani

Abstract:

Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: numerical rating score, opioid, pain, emergency department

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
5010 Corporate Governance and Share Prices: Firm Level Review in Turkey

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Ahmet Diken, Erkan Kara

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance rating and stock prices of 26 Turkish firms listed in Turkish stock exchange (Borsa Istanbul) by using panel data analysis over five-year period. The paper also investigates the stock performance of firms with governance rating with regards to the market portfolio (i.e. BIST 100 Index) both prior and after governance scoring began. The empirical results show that there is no relation between corporate governance rating and stock prices when using panel data for annual variation in both rating score and stock prices. Further analysis indicates surprising results that while the selected firms outperform the market significantly prior to rating, the same performance does not continue afterwards.

Keywords: corporate governance, stock price, performance, panel data analysis

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5009 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan

Abstract:

A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
5008 Single Item Presenteeism Question Reliability and Validity of Persian Version in Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi

Abstract:

Purpose: Our study aimed to validate single item presenteeism question (SIPQ) into the Persian language for patients with low back pain. Background information: low back pain is a common health problem, and it is one of the most prevalent disorder in working people. There are the different subjective way to evaluate the effect of back pain on work productivity that one of them is by implementing single item presenteeism question. This question has not been validated into the Persian language. Method: Patients were asked to answer SIPQ and pain from 0 to 10 according to numerical rating scale (NRS). The functional rating index was administrated to evaluate construct validity. For test-retest reliability, almost 50 patients re-completed the Persian SIPQ. The construct validity of SIPQ was assessed by analyzing Spearman rank correlation between this question and the Persian version of Functional rating index questionnaire. To analyze test-retest reliability, we assessed intraclass correlation coefficient (agreement) (ICC agreement) (two-way random effects model, single measure). Results: The SIPQ score of two groups of patients (84 males, 16 females, mean age ±SD: 33.85±11.16 years, range: 19-67 years) and healthy subjects (48 male, 2 female ones, mean age ±SD: 24.24 ±8.07 years) was statistically significant. (Mann-Whitney U =198.00, P<.001). The Spearman correlation of data showed that there is a significant correlation between Persian SIPQ score and Persian FRI band (r= .559, P<.001). The ICC was .62. So, the analysis indicated good, test-retest reliability. Conclusion: This study showed that Persian version of SIPQ is reliable and valid when applied to back pain patients.

Keywords: cross cultural adaptation, economic burden, low back pain, Persian language, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
5007 Level of Gross Motor Development and Age Equivalents of Children 9 Years

Authors: Masri Baharom

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
5006 Level Of Gross Motor Development And Age Equivalents Of 9-Year-Old Children

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Masri Baharom

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
5005 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel

Abstract:

In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5004 E-Hailing Taxi Industry Management Mode Innovation Based on the Credit Evaluation

Authors: Yuan-lin Liu, Ye Li, Tian Xia

Abstract:

There are some shortcomings in Chinese existing taxi management modes. This paper suggests to establish the third-party comprehensive information management platform and put forward an evaluation model based on credit. Four indicators are used to evaluate the drivers’ credit, they are passengers’ evaluation score, driving behavior evaluation, drivers’ average bad record number, and personal credit score. A weighted clustering method is used to achieve credit level evaluation for taxi drivers. The management of taxi industry is based on the credit level, while the grade of the drivers is accorded to their credit rating. Credit rating determines the cost, income levels, the market access, useful period of license and the level of wage and bonus, as well as violation fine. These methods can make the credit evaluation effective. In conclusion, more credit data will help to set up a more accurate and detailed classification standard library.

Keywords: credit, mobile internet, e-hailing taxi, management mode, weighted cluster

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
5003 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri

Abstract:

This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: biology, perceived difficulty, post-secondary, study habits

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5002 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor

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5001 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems

Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour

Abstract:

Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.

Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating tools

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5000 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula

Abstract:

A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis

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4999 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, analytical method, DEM, SGR

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
4998 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue

Abstract:

Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

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4997 Investigating The Effect Of Convection On The Rating Of Buried Cables Using The Finite Element Method

Authors: Sandy J. M. Balla, Jerry J. Walker, Isaac K. Kyere

Abstract:

The heat transfer coefficient at the soil–air interface is important in calculating underground cable ampacity when convection occurs. Calculating the heat transfer coefficient accurately is complex because of the temperature variations at the earth's surface. This paper presents the effect of convection heat flow across the ground surface on the rating of three single-core, 132kV, XLPE cables buried underground. The Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical analysis technique used to determine the cable rating of buried cables under installation conditions that are difficult to support when using the analytical method. This study demonstrates the use of FEM to investigate the effect of convection on the rating ofburied cables in flat formation using QuickField finite element simulation software. As a result, developing a model to simulate this type of situation necessitates important considerations such as the following boundary conditions: burial depth, soil thermal resistivity, and soil temperature, which play an important role in the simulation's accuracy and reliability. The results show that when the ground surface is taken as a convection interface, the conductor temperature rises and may exceed the maximum permissible temperature when rated current flows. This is because the ground surface acts as a convection interface between the soil and the air (fluid). This result correlates and is compared with the rating obtained using the IEC60287 analytical method, which is based on the condition that the ground surface is an isotherm.

Keywords: finite element method, convection, buried cables, steady-state rating

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4996 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone

Abstract:

Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: mobile applications, SUS, star rating, usability

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4995 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer

Abstract:

Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

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4994 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score, birth order, siblings, Young Lives Study, India

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4993 Development of a Novel Score for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Hossam Darwesh

Abstract:

Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of VEGF and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: VEGF was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-VEGF score)=1.26 (numerical constant) + 0.05 ×AFP (U L-1)+0.038 × VEGF(ng ml-1)+0.004× INR –1.02 × Albumin (g l-1)–0.002 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-VEGF score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 4.4 (ie less than 4.4 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-VEGF score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, tumor markers

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4992 Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing

Authors: Mohammed S. Assiri

Abstract:

In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.

Keywords: analytic scoring, rating scales, writing assessment, writing constructs, writing performance

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4991 Diagnostic Performance of Tumor Associated Trypsin Inhibitor in Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Aml M. El-Sharkawy, Hossam M. Darwesh

Abstract:

Abstract— Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between tumor associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of TATI and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: TATI was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-TATI score) = 3.1 (numerical constant) + 0.09 ×AFP (U L-1) + 0.067 × TATI (ng ml-1) + 0.16 × INR – 1.17 × Albumin (g l-1) – 0.032 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-TATI score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 6.5 (ie less than 6.5 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-TATI score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, TATI

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4990 The Impact of the Enron Scandal on the Reputation of Corporate Social Responsibility Rating Agencies

Authors: Jaballah Jamil

Abstract:

KLD (Peter Kinder, Steve Lydenberg and Amy Domini) research & analytics is an independent intermediary of social performance information that adopts an investor-pay model. KLD rating agency does not have an explicit monitoring on the rated firm which suggests that KLD ratings may not include private informations. Moreover, the incapacity of KLD to predict accurately the extra-financial rating of Enron casts doubt on the reliability of KLD ratings. Therefore, we first investigate whether KLD ratings affect investors' perception by studying the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances. Second, we study the impact of the Enron scandal on investors' perception of KLD rating changes by comparing the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances before and after the failure of Enron. We propose an empirical study that relates a number of equally-weighted portfolios returns, excess stock returns and book-to-market ratio to different dimensions of KLD social responsibility ratings. We first find that over the last two decades KLD rating changes influence significantly and negatively stock returns and book-to-market ratio of rated firms. This finding suggests that a raise in corporate social responsibility rating lowers the firm's risk. Second, to assess the Enron scandal's effect on the perception of KLD ratings, we compare the effect of KLD rating changes before and after the Enron scandal. We find that after the Enron scandal this significant effect disappears. This finding supports the view that the Enron scandal annihilates the KLD's effect on Socially Responsible Investors. Therefore, our findings may question results of recent studies that use KLD ratings as a proxy for Corporate Social Responsibility behavior.

Keywords: KLD social rating agency, investors' perception, investment decision, financial performance

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4989 Developing a Risk Rating Tool for Shopping Centres

Authors: Prandesha Govender, Chris Cloete

Abstract:

Purpose: The objective of the paper is to develop a tool for the evaluation of the financial risk of a shopping center. Methodology: Important factors that indicate the success of a shopping center were identified from the available literature. Weights were allocated to these factors and a risk rating was calculated for 505 shopping centers in the largest province in South Africa by taking the factor scores, factor weights, and category weights into account. The ratings for ten randomly selected shopping centers were correlated with consumer feedback and standardized against the ECAI (External Credit Assessment Institutions) data for the same centers. The ratings were also mapped to corporates with the same risk rating to provide a better intuitive assessment of the meaning of the inherent risk of each center. Results: The proposed risk tool shows a strong linear correlation with consumer views and can be compared to expert opinions, such as that of fund managers and REITs. Interpretation of the tool was also illustrated by correlating the risk rating of selected shopping centers to the risk rating of reputable and established entities. Conclusions: The proposed Shopping Centre Risk Tool, used in conjunction with financial inputs from the relevant center, should prove useful to an investor when the desirability of investment in or expansion, renovation, or purchase of a shopping center is being considered.

Keywords: risk, shopping centres, risk modelling, investment, rating tool, rating scale

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4988 Geological and Geotechnical Investigation of a Landslide Prone Slope Along Koraput- Rayagada Railway Track Odisha, India: A Case Study

Authors: S. P. Pradhan, Amulya Ratna Roul

Abstract:

A number of landslides are occurring during the rainy season along Rayagada-Koraput Railway track for past three years. The track was constructed about 20 years ago. However, the protection measures are not able to control the recurring slope failures now. It leads to a loss to Indian Railway and its passengers ultimately leading to wastage of time and money. The slopes along Rayagada-Koraput track include both rock and soil slopes. The rock types include mainly Khondalite and Charnockite whereas soil slopes are mainly composed of laterite ranging from less weathered to highly weathered laterite. The field studies were carried out in one of the critical slope. Field study was followed by the kinematic analysis to assess the type of failure. Slake Durability test, Uniaxial Compression test, specific gravity test and triaxial test were done on rock samples to calculate and assess properties such as weathering index, unconfined compressive strength, density, cohesion, and friction angle. Following all the laboratory tests, rock mass rating was calculated. Further, from Kinematic analysis and Rock Mass Ratingbasic, Slope Mass Rating was proposed for each slope. The properties obtained were used to do the slope stability simulations using finite element method based modelling. After all the results, suitable protection measures, to prevent the loss due to slope failure, were suggested using the relation between Slope Mass Rating and protection measures.

Keywords: landslides, slope stability, rock mass rating, slope mass rating, numerical simulation

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4987 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain

Abstract:

The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

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4986 Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation: Comparing the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale/Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, Numerical Verbal Rating Scale, Categorization Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

Authors: Roya Yumul, Chse, Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra

Abstract:

Background: Preoperative anxiety has been shown to be caused by the fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting, given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item extensive questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgment, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparative analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceeds VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%), or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusions: Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: preoperative anxiety, visual facial anxiety scale, numerical verbal anxiety scale, state-trait anxiety inventory

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4985 Comparison of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale to the Categorization Scale, the Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation

Authors: Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, Roya Yumul, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra

Abstract:

Background:It is crucial to detect the patient’s existing anxiety to assist patients in perioperative setting which isto be cause by fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Yumul Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgement, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparison analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceed VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%) or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusion:Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: numerical verbal anxiety scale, preoperative anxiety, state-trait anxiety inventory, visual facial anxiety scale

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4984 Partnering With Key Stakeholders for Successful Implementation of Inhaled Analgesia for Specific Emergency Department Presentations

Authors: Sarah Hazelwood, Janice Hay

Abstract:

Methoxyflurane is an inhaled analgesic administered via a disposable inhaler, which has been used in Australia for 40 years for the management of pain in children & adults. However, there is a lack of data for methoxyflurane as a frontline analgesic medication within the emergency department (ED). This study will investigate the usefulness of methoxyflurane in a private inner-city ED. The study concluded that the inclusion of all key stakeholders in the prescribing, administering & use of this new process led to comprehensive uptake & vastly positive outcomes for consumer & health professionals. Method: A 12-week prospective pilot study was completed utilizing patients presenting to the ED in pain (numeric pain rating score > 4) that fit the requirement of methoxyflurane use (as outlined in the Australian Prescriber information package). Nurses completed a formatted spreadsheet for each interaction where methoxyflurane was used. Patient demographics, day, time, initial numeric pain score, analgesic response time, the reason for use, staff concern (free text), & patient feedback (free text), & discharge time was documented. When clinical concern was raised, the researcher retrieved & reviewed patient notes. Results: 140 methoxyflurane inhalers were used. 60% of patients were 31 years of age & over (n=82) with 16% aged 70+. The gender split; 51% male: 49% female. Trauma-related pain (57%) saw the highest use of administration, with the evening hours (1500-2259) seeing the greatest numbers used (39%). Tuesday, Thursday & Sunday shared the highest daily use throughout the study. A minimum numerical pain score of 4/10 (n=13, 9%), with the ranges of 5 - 7/10 (moderate pain) being given by almost 50% of patients. Only 3 instances of pain scores increased post use of methoxyflurane (all other entries showed pain score < initial rating). Patients & staff noted obvious analgesic response within 3 minutes (n= 96, 81%, of administration). Nurses documented a change in patient vital signs for 4 of the 15 patient-related concerns; the remaining concerns were due to “gagging” on the taste, or “having a coughing episode”; one patient tried to leave the department before the procedure was attended (very euphoric state). Upon review of the staff concerns – no adverse events occurred & return to therapeutic vitals occurred within 10 minutes. Length of stay for patients was compared with similar presentations (such as dislocated shoulder or ankle fracture) & saw an average 40-minute decrease in time to discharge. Methoxyflurane treatment was rated “positively” by > 80% of patients – with remaining feedback related to mild & transient concerns. Staff similarly noted a positive response to methoxyflurane as an analgesic & as an added tool for frontline analgesic purposes. Conclusion: Methoxyflurane should be used on suitable patient presentations requiring immediate, short term pain relief. As a highly portable, non-narcotic avenue to treat pain this study showed obvious therapeutic benefit, positive feedback, & a shorter length of stay in the ED. By partnering with key stake holders, this study determined methoxyflurane use decreased work load, decreased wait time to analgesia, and increased patient satisfaction.

Keywords: analgesia, benefits, emergency, methoxyflurane

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