Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2612

Search results for: internal migration

2612 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

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2611 Political Economy of Internal Dispalcement, Migration and Human Security in Zimbabwe: 1800 to Present Day

Authors: Chupicai Manuel

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to examine the political economy and history of internal displacement, migration and human security in Zimbabwe from 1800 to present day. The article gives a timeline of major internal displacement, migration trends that took place in Zimbabwe before colonialism, through the colonial period up to the present day and examines the human security context of such periods. In view of the above, a political economy analysis will be employed to examine the different factors that promoted internal displacement and human movements from 1800 to the present day and explore the architecture of human security in Zimbabwe. The ultimate goal of this literature review is to provide a longitudinal analysis of internal displacement, migration and human security regimes that existed in Zimbabwe with the view of promoting social cohesion and nation building.

Keywords: human security, internal displacement, migration, political economy

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2610 The Internal Migration in Jiangxi Province, China after the Migrating Decision

Authors: Gourida Siham

Abstract:

Chinese society has witnessed a continuing trend of nationwide rural to urban migration since the 1970's. Before that age, under restricted hukou systems, peasants were kept still and fixed in the farm land. The year 1978 and later years saw the control of migration in China was relaxed gradually, freeing peasants to start their own businesses and reach out to work also in urban areas. Since then the “floating population” (migrants without local hukou) took great momentum and drew great attention from both the media and academia. The scale of such internal migration is enormous –the floating population has reached to a number of 79 million in 2000, and as of 2010, the number of migrant workers from rural China amounts to over 221 million and according to the annual survey results projections by National Bureau of Statistics; the total migrant workers in china in 2012 amounted to 262.61 million, which refers to an increase of 9.83 million compared with the previous year with increase percentage by 3.9%. Using China’s Jiangxi Province as a case, this paper examines patterns of internal migration as a response of emigrations in the context of high emigration communities. Our findings suggest that emigration of individuals initially deterred both inter-provincial and intra- provincial migration of other family members, and yet, overtime they had an increasing propensity to migrate internally at both scales.

Keywords: internal migration, jiangxi, nanchang, remittances

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2609 Inferring Human Mobility in India Using Machine Learning

Authors: Asra Yousuf, Ajaykumar Tannirkulum

Abstract:

Inferring rural-urban migration trends can help design effective policies that promote better urban planning and rural development. In this paper, we describe how machine learning algorithms can be applied to predict internal migration decisions of people. We consider data collected from household surveys in Tamil Nadu to train our model. To measure the performance of the model, we use data on past migration from National Sample Survey Organisation of India. The factors for training the model include socioeconomic characteristic of each individual like age, gender, place of residence, outstanding loans, strength of the household, etc. and his past migration history. We perform a comparative analysis of the performance of a number of machine learning algorithm to determine their prediction accuracy. Our results show that machine learning algorithms provide a stronger prediction accuracy as compared to statistical models. Our goal through this research is to propose the use of data science techniques in understanding human decisions and behaviour in developing countries.

Keywords: development, migration, internal migration, machine learning, prediction

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2608 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: gender, internal migration, patriarchy, urbanization

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2607 Social Inclusion of Rural Elderly Left Behind by Internal Labor Migration: A Case Study in a Chinese Rural Village in Anhui Province

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

Since the famous opening up and reform strategy of China, lots of migrants have flowed from rural areas to urban areas. In this paper, the author investigates the rural elderly left behind, which are defined aged people left alone at home while their adult children have to migrant outside. This phenomenon is a quite general and serious social problem that cannot be ignored, accompanied by the process of urbanization and regional transferring of rural labor. The Chinese internal migration not only exerts great influence to China’s economy and urbanization but also obviously reduces the labor and care to rural aged people. Contrary to assumptions in some migration and aging studies, which show the inevitable negative effects of migration upon the old age care, the author highlights unique features in their daily strategies of house holding to integrate into society with the analysis of the conception of social inclusion. Through life history interviews with elderly left behind in one rural village, this article sheds light on three different factors of social inclusion, namely, economic inclusion, social identity and political inclusion and shows its necessaries to fully understand the status of the social wellbeing of rural elderly left behind.

Keywords: labor migration, elderly left behind, social inclusion, rural China

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2606 Acculturation and Urban Related Identity of Turk and Kurd Internal Migrants

Authors: Melek Göregenli, Pelin Karakuş

Abstract:

This present study explored the acculturation strategies and urban related identity of Turk and Kurd internal migrants from different regions of Turkey who resettled in three big cities in the west. Besides we aimed at a comparative analysis of acculturation strategies and urban-related identity of voluntary and internally displaced Kurd migrants. Particularly we explored the role of migration type, satisfaction with migration decision, urban-related identity and several socio demographic variables as predictors of Kurds’ integration strategy preference. The sample consisted of 412 adult participants from Izmir (64 females, 86 males); Ankara (76 females, 75 males); and Istanbul (43 females, 64 males and four unreported). In terms of acculturation strategies, assimilation was found to be the most preferred acculturation attitude among Turks whereas separation was found to be most endorsed acculturation attitude among Kurds. The migrants in Izmir were found to prefer assimilation whereas the migrants in Ankara prefer separation. Concerning urban-related identity mean scores, Turks reported higher urban-related identity scores than Kurds. Furthermore the internal migrants in Izmir were found to score higher in urban-related identity than the migrants living in Istanbul and Ankara. The results of the regression analysis revealed that gender, length of residence and migration type were the significant predictors of integration preference of Kurds. Thus, whereas gender and migration type had significant negative associations; length of residence had positive significant associations with Kurds integration preference. Compared to female Kurds, male Kurds were found to be more integrated. Furthermore, voluntary Kurd migrants were more favour of integration than internally displaced Kurds. The findings supported the significant associations between acculturation strategies and urban-related identity with either group.

Keywords: acculturation, forced migration, internal displacement, internal migration, Turkey, urban-related identity

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2605 Member States 'Perception of Threat' to Migration Crises as a Determinant Factor of Change in Cooperation: A Comparison between the Yugoslav Migration Crisis and the Syrian Refugees' Crisis

Authors: Diego Caballero Vélez

Abstract:

In 1997 the Schengen Convention was incorporated in the mainstream of EU law by the Amsterdam Treaty. It came into effect in 1999 with the abolition of internal border controls in the EU, a milestone in the European integration project. In the meantime, due to the Yugoslav wars, nearly 700,000 asylum applications were filed in the European countries provoking a major refugee crisis. During this period, the opening of Eastern Europe fostered more cooperation and policy-making at the EU level in migration issues. Currently, a similar migratory crisis is taking place in Europe. The Syrian war has caused the most massive influx of immigrants in Europe since World War II. Nevertheless, the EU is adopting different migration policies from those implemented during the Yugoslav migration crisis. The current crisis has not led to a common European position but national responses have been offered on migration policies and responsibility for border security and asylum-seekers. A lot of factors can explain this change from a cooperation scenario to a no cooperation one, such as the economic crisis, but this research is focused on the premise that 'threat perception' lies at the core of some states grand strategies towards migration and it also influences in multilateral or unilateral responses. Migration rests at the nexus of three dimensions of security, including geopolitical interests, material production, and internal security. According to some scholars, migration policy is an 'integral instrument' of state grand strategy in that context. Political integration at the EU might be altered with the emergence of existential threats. In other words, some areas of the European cooperation can be transformed when a 'critical juncture' occurs, for instance a migration crisis. In that instance, Member states could see migration as a matter of threat that modifies their national interests and willingness to embrace international cooperation. This research will focus on EU Member states´ perceptions of the 90´s migration crisis and the current one. The goal is to evaluate to what extent the perceptions of threat are one of the main factors for explaining the transition from a cooperation scenario to a no-cooperation one in European asylum and security policies. To analyze threat perception in both migration crisis, some relevant Member states are treated as cases of study and a comparative analysis is carried out based on public opinion polls, public and policy discourse in migration, voting practices and deconstruction of the migration policies themselves both at EU level and a national one.

Keywords: cooperation, migration crisis, national responses, threat perception

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2604 Review of the World Migration Report 2020, with a Focus on Migration Due to Climate Change

Authors: Sincy Wilson

Abstract:

This article focuses on the data scattered throughout the 2020 Report on migration for a variety of reasons. Despite the fact that climate migrants are no longer recognized on an international or national level, their situation remains unchanged, and many countries have already encountered the problem of people entering their country without permission. With the information presented in the paper, researchers are focusing on climate-induced displacement rather than conflict-related migration. The author finishes by stating that there is no time to waste in recognizing climate migrants.

Keywords: climate refugees, climatological factors, migration, slow-onset migration

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2603 The Influence of Migration on Migrants' Culture: A Study on Egyptian Nubians' Migration to Investigate Culture Changes

Authors: Tarek Hassan, Sanaa Abouras

Abstract:

Some factors such as interaction of migration process, cultural identity have an impact in a way that may lead to cultural disinheritance. Even if migrants' culture would not be lost, it may be affected by the new society culture. Therefore, it is anticipated that migration of an ethnic group would impact the culture of that group. Nubians; an ethnic group originated in South Egypt, have experienced migration that took place in the sixties of the past century. Nubians were forced to leave their origin land and relocate to Kom Ombo; an Egyptian town to the north of Aswan. The effect of migration on national culture, social homogeneity or the interest of social contact influences the attitudes of natives towards migration. Hence, it is very important for societies to help migrants to adapt to the new culture and at the same time not to impede migrants' effort to maintain their own culture. This study aims to investigate the effect of internal migration on the culture of Egyptian Nubians in order to predict if Nubian can maintain their own culture after the migration. Research question: what is the cultural influence of Nubians' migration from Egyptian Nubia to their new destinations? The researchers' hypothesis: there is mutual influence between the two cultures of Nubians and non-Nubians in Egypt. Results supported researchers' hypothesis as they observed that the Nubians managed to reserve balance between the maintenance of their own culture and the adoption of some cultural features of the community of their new destination(s). Also, the study examined why Nubians adhere to their culture although they left their land forever. Questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data from 80 informants; 40 Nubians and 40 non-Nubians in Kom-Ombo and the two cities of Cairo and Alexandria. Results suggested that there is obvious mutual cultural impact between Nubians and non-Nubians. The findings of this study would trigger the researchers to conduct further research on minorities for the deeper understanding of the impact of/on the culture of minorities.

Keywords: culture change, culture influence, culture maintenance, minority migration

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2602 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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2601 Relocating Migration for Higher Education: Analytical Account of Students' Perspective

Authors: Sumit Kumar

Abstract:

The present study aims to identify the factors responsible for the internal migration of students other than push & pull factors; associated with the source region and destination region, respectively, as classified in classical geography. But in this classification of factors responsible for the migration of students, an agency of individual and the family he/she belongs to, have not been recognized which has later become the centre of the argument for describing and analyzing migration in New Economic theory of migration and New Economics of labour migration respectively. In this backdrop, the present study aims to understand the agency of an individual and the family members regarding one’s migration for higher education. Therefore, this study draws upon New Economic theory of migration and New Economics of labour migration for identifying the agency of individual or family in the context of migration. Further, migration for higher education consists not only the decision to migrate but also where to migrate (location), which university, which college and which course to pursue, also. In order to understand the role of various individuals at various stage of student migration, present study seeks help from the social networking approach for migration which identifies the individuals who facilitate the process of migration by reducing negative externalities of migration through sharing information and various other sorts of help to the migrant. Furthermore, this study also aims to rank those individuals who have helped migrants at various stages of migration for higher education in taking a decision, along with the factors responsible for their migration on the basis of their perception. In order to fulfill the above mentioned objectives of this study, quantification of qualitative data (perception of respondents) has been done employing through frequency distribution analysis. Qualitative data has been collected at two levels but questionnaire survey was the tool for data collection at both the occasions. Twenty five students who have migrated to other state for the purpose of higher education have been approached for pre-questionnaire survey consisting open-ended questions while one hundred students belonging to the same clientele have been approached for questionnaire survey consisting close-ended questions. This study has identified social pressure, peer group pressure and parental pressure; variables not constituting push & pull factors, very important for students’ migration. They have been even assigned better ranked by the respondents than push factors. Further, self (migrant themselves) have been ranked followed by parents by the respondents when it comes to take various decisions attached with the process of migration. Therefore, it can be said without sounding cynical that there are other factors other than push & pull factors which do facilitate the process of migration for higher education not only at the level to migrate but also at other levels intrinsic to the process of migration for higher education.

Keywords: agency, migration for higher education, perception, push and pull factors

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2600 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

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2599 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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2598 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

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2597 Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia

Authors: Benjamas Penboon, Zachary Zimmer, Aree Jampaklay

Abstract:

Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.

Keywords: migration, left-behind parent, intergenerational relations, support, rural, Cambodia

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2596 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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2595 Literature Review and Evaluation of the Internal Marketing Theory

Authors: Hsiao Hsun Yuan

Abstract:

Internal marketing was proposed in 1970s. The theory of the concept has continually changed over the past forty years. This study discussed the following themes: the definition and implication of internal marketing, the progress of its development, and the evolution of its theoretical model. Moreover, the study systematically organized the strategies of the internal marketing theory adopted on enterprise and how they were put into practice. It also compared the empirical studies focusing on how the existent theories influenced the important variables of internal marketing. The results of this study are expected to serve as references for future exploration of the boundary and studies aiming at how internal marketing is applied to different types of enterprises.

Keywords: corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer

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2594 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

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2593 Human Insecurity and Migration in the Horn of Africa: Causes and Decision Processes

Authors: Belachew Gebrewold

Abstract:

The Horn of Africa is marred by complex and systematic internal and external political, economic and social-cultural causes of conflict that result in internal displacement and migration. This paper engages with them and shows how such a study can help us to understand migration, both in this region and more generally. The conflict has occurred within states, between states, among proxies, between armies. Human insecurities as a result of the state collapse of Somalia, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the whole region, recurrent drought affecting the livelihoods of subsistence farmers as well as nomads, exposure to hunger, environmental degradation, youth unemployment, rapid growth of slums around big cities, and political repression (especially in Eritrea) have been driving various segments of the regional population into regional and international migration. Eritrea has been going through a brutal dictatorship which pushes many Eritreans to flee their country and be exposed to human trafficking, torture, detention, and agony on their way to Europe mainly through Egypt, Libya and Israel. Similarly, Somalia has been devastated since 1991 by unending civil war, state collapse, and radical Islamists. There are some important aspects to highlight in the conflict-migration nexus in the Horn of Africa: first, the main push factor for the Somalis and Eritreans to leave their countries and risk their lives is the physical insecurity they have been facing in their countries. Secondly, as a result of the conflict the economic infrastructure is massively destroyed. Investment is rare; job opportunities are out of sight. Thirdly, in such a grim situation the politically and economically induced decision to migrate is a household decision, not only an individual decision. Based on this third point this research study took place in the Horn of Africa between 2014 and 2016 during different occasions. The main objective of the research was to understanding how the increasing migration is affecting the socio-economic and socio-political environment, and conversely how the socio-economic and socio-political environments are increasing migration decisions; and whether and how these decisions are individual or family decisions. The main finding is the higher the human insecurity, the higher the family decision; the lower the human insecurity, the higher the individual decision. These findings apply not only to the Eritrean, Somali migrants but also to Ethiopian migrants. But the general impacts of migration on sending countries’ human security is quite mixed and complex.

Keywords: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Horn of Africa, insecurity, migration, Somalia

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2592 DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network

Authors: Dalu Zhang, Xiang Jin, Dejiang Zhou, Jianpeng Wang, Haiying Jiang

Abstract:

Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.

Keywords: DAG, downtime, virtual machine migration, XIA

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2591 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

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2590 Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: A Conceptual Equation for Analysis

Authors: Elisha Kyirem

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, climate change is a major global challenge that could threaten the very foundation upon which life on earth is anchored, with its impacts on human mobility attracting the attention of policy makers and researchers. There is an increasing body of literature and case studies suggesting that migration could be a way through which the vulnerable move away from areas exposed to climate extreme events to improve their lives and that of their families. This presents migration as a way through which people voluntarily move to seek opportunities that could help reduce their exposure and avoid danger from climate events. Thus, migration is seen as a proactive adaptation strategy aimed at building resilience and improving livelihoods to enable people to adapt to future changing events. However, there has not been any mathematical equation linking migration and climate change adaptation. Drawing from literature in development studies, this paper develops an equation that seeks to link the relationship between migration and climate change adaptation. The mathematical equation establishes the linkages between migration, resilience, poverty reduction and vulnerability, and these the paper maintains, are the key variables for conceptualizing the migration-climate change adaptation nexus. The paper then tests the validity of the equation using the sustainable livelihood framework and publicly available data on migration and tourism in Ghana.

Keywords: migration, adaptation, climate change, adaptation, poverty reduction

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2589 Anatomical Features of Internal Pudendal Artery

Authors: Adel Yasky, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

The internal pudendal artery is a standard branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. The current study includes 41 cadavers to investigate the origin and branches of the internal pudendal artery and its clinical significances. The internal pudendal artery arose directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 48.3% while it arose indirectly in 48.5%. However, the internal pudendal artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 1.6%. Moreover, it arose internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.6%. Further, the internal pudendal artery supplied the urinary bladder in 17.1%. Also, the internal pudendal artery supplied the rectum 33.5% respectively. It gave uterine and vaginal arteries in 9.4% and 7.8% respectively. Finally, it supplied the sciatic nerve via giving lateral sacral branch in 1.6%. Internists, surgeons and radiologists have to be aware of the variability to decrease iatrogenic injury. Therefore, unnecessary proximal ligation should be avoided at the site of indirect origin of the internal pudendal artery to prevent sciatic neuropathy. Further, intrapelvic bleeding as result of laceration of internal pudendal branches during hysterectomy, prostatectomy or proctectomy should be expected. Therefore, this study increases the awareness of surgeons leading to minimize iatrogenic faults,

Keywords: internal pudendal artery, inferior gluteal artery, superior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, impotence, decreased libido

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2588 Geographic Aspects of Egyptian Illegal Migration to Europe

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Aly Hassanien

Abstract:

This study examines the geographic aspects of Egyptian illegal migration to Europe. It used files of Egyptian government bodies and data obtained from a field study carried out in 2015 on the areas of origin. The study revealed that the phenomenon has passed historically through four phases. Areas of origin are classified geographically into three areas: coastal, river, and interior. The study developed a map for routes of migration which identified the main and secondary routes. The main routes included the Libyan, the Mediterranean and the Arab-Turkish routes. Recently, The Mediterranean route has been the largest and the most dangerous.

Keywords: areas of destination, areas of origin, illegal migration, routes of migration

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2587 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

Abstract:

The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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2586 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

Abstract:

The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: migration, displacement, North-East, India

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2585 Understanding Space, Citizenship and Assimilation in the Context of Migration in North-Eastern Region of India

Authors: Mukunda Upadhyay, Rakesh Mishra, Rajni Singh

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to understand the abstract concept of space, citizenship and migration in the north-eastern region. In the twentieth century, researchers and thinkers related citizenship and migration on national models. The national models of jus sulis and jus sangunis provide scope of space and rights to only those who are either born in the territory or either share the common descent. Space ensures rights and citizenship ensures space and for many migrants, citizenship is the ultimate goal in the host country. Migrants with the intention of settling down in the destination region, begin to adapt and assimilate in their new homes. In many cases, migrants may also retain the culture and values of the place of origin. In such cases the difference in the degree of retention and assimilation may determine the chances of conflict between the host society and migrants. Such conflicts are fueled by political aspirations of few individuals on both the sides. The North-Eastern part of India is a mixed community with many linguistic and religious groups sharing a common Geo-political space. Every community has its own unique history, culture and identity. Since the last half of the nineteenth century, this region has been experiencing both internal migration from other states and immigration from the neighboring countries which has resulted in the interactions of various cultures and ethnicities. With the span of time, migration has taken bitter form with problems concentrated around acquiring rights through space and citizenship. Political tensions resulted by host hostility and migrants resistance has ruined the social order in few areas. In order to resolve these issues in this area proper intervention has to be carried out by the involvement of the National and International community.

Keywords: space, citizenship, assimilation, migration, rights

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2584 The Impacts of Internal Employees on Brand Building: A Case Study of Cell Phone

Authors: Adnan Gohar

Abstract:

This research work aims the importance of internal employees in the making of a brand (cell phone) through customer satisfaction which basically explains the connection of internal employees with external customers. This research is designed to measure the satisfaction level of internal employees which further connects to the product evolution as a brand leaving a brand image in the eye of the external customer. The main focus is that internal employees are as important as external customers for the uplift of the product resulting in the brand. Internal employees are individual organization employees, vendors, departments, and distributors.

Keywords: brand building, customer satisfaction, internal employees, mobile franchise

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2583 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 199