Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Search results for: migrant

167 Literature Review of Female Migrant Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: Dike Ike

Abstract:

Migrants foster innovation and economic development in host nations through their entrepreneurial activities. Female migrant entrepreneurship is gaining more attention from the research community, with several studies being conducted in the field. This paper presents a standalone (scoping) systematic literature review of academic literature related to female migrant entrepreneurship and focuses on their entrepreneurial experiences, strategies, outcomes, resources, and context. For this purpose, 13 articles published in research journals are studied based on their (a) objective, (b) research methods. Based on the review, several gaps in the literature were identified, and suggestions were made to fill the gaps in future research to expand the scientific knowledge on female migrant entrepreneurship.

Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship, systematic literature review, female migrant entrepreneurship outcomes, female migrant entrepreneurship experiences, female migrant entrepreneurship strategies

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166 Economic and Social Well-Being for Migrant Workers: Asian Experiences

Authors: Mohsin Reza, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam, M. Rezaul Islam

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In Asia, economic and social well-being issues are rarely addressed. The major characteristics of the migrant workers in Asian countries are seriously exploited, marginalized, and infrequently looked from human rights perspective. This paper explored the opportunities and shortages of economic and social well-being for the migrant workers in Asia. A Qualitative Interpretative Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was conducted to analyze the contextual socio-economic factors that characterized migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. It is perceived that in most of the recruiting countries, there are lacks of government commitments to the international protocols, conventions and laws that they ratified towards safeguarding migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. Results showed that the migrant workers had lack of job security, poor salary, long working hours, low access to the public services, poor health, poor living and working conditions, lack of legal rights, physical and mental threats. The finding would be important guideline to the governments, policy makers, legal rights practitioners, and human rights organizations.

Keywords: Asia, economic well-being, social well-being, migrant workers, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
165 Critical Reading Achievement of Rural Migrant Children in China: The Roles of Educational Expectation

Authors: Liman Zhao, Jianlong Zhang, Mingman Ren, Chuang Wang, Jian Liu

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Rural migrant children have become a fast-growing population in China as a consequence of the large-scale population flow from rural to urban areas in the context of urbanization. In China, the socioeconomic status of migrant children is relatively low in comparison to non-migrant children. Parents of migrant children often work in occupations with long working hours, high labor intensity, and low pay due to their poor academic qualifications. Most migrant children's parents have not received higher education and have no time to read with their children. The family of migrant children usually does not have a good collection of books either, which leads to these children’s insufficient reading and low reading levels. Moreover, migrant children frequently relocate with their parents, and their needs for knowledge and reading are often neglected by schools, which puts migrant children at risk of academic failure in China. Therefore, the academic achievement of rural migrant children has become a focus of education in China. This study explores the relationship between the educational expectation of rural migrant children and their critical reading competence in general and the moderating effect of the difference between parental educational expectation to their children and the children’s own educational expectation. The responses to a survey from 5113 seventh-grade children in a district of the capital city in China revealed that children who moved to cities in grades 4-6 of primary school performed the best in critical reading, and children who moved to cities after middle school showed the worst performance in critical reading. In addition, parents’ educational expectations of their children and their own educational expectations were both significant predictors of rural migrant children’s reading competence. The higher a child's expectations of a degree and the smaller the gap between parents' expectations of a child's education and the child's own education expectations, the better the child's performance in critical reading.

Keywords: educational expectation, critical reading competence, rural migrant children, moderating effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
164 Migrant Labour in Kerala: A Study on Inter-State Migrant Workers

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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In the recent years, Kerala is witnessing a large inflow of migrants from different parts of the country. Though initially, the migrants were largely from the districts of Tamil Nadu and mostly of seasonal nature, but at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the far-off states like UP, Assam, Bengal, etc. Higher wages for unskilled labour, large opportunities for employment, the reluctance on the part of Kerala workers to do menial and hard physical work, and the shortage of local labour, paradoxically despite the high unemployment rate in the state, led to the massive influx of migrant labourers. This study takes a multi-dimensional overview of migrant labour in Kerala by encompassing factors such as channels of migration, nature of employment contracts entered into and the corresponding wages and benefits obtained by them. The study also analysed the circumstances that led to the large influx of migrants from different states of India. It further makes an attempt to examine the varying dimensions of living and working environment, and also the health conditions of migrants. The study is based on the empirical findings obtained as a result of the primary interviews conducted with migrants in the districts of Palakkad, Malappuram, and Ernakulam. The study concludes by noting that Kerala will inevitably have to depend on migrant labour and is likely to experience heavy in-migration of labour in future, provided that if the existing socioeconomic and demographic situations persist. Since, this is inevitable, the best way before the state is to prepare well in advance to receive and accommodate such migrant labour to lead a comfortable life in a hassle free environment, so that it would definitely play a vital role in further strengthening and sustaining the growth trajectory of not only Kerala’s economy but also the states of origin.

Keywords: Kerala, labour, migration, migrant workers

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163 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

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Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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162 Second Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging: The Case of Hluvukani Village in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

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This is a work in progress project focused on exploring the complexities surrounding the second generation Mozambican migrant youth’s experiences to construct their identity and develop a sense of belonging in post-apartheid, Bushbuckridge in South Africa. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. Bushbuckridge as a destination for Mozambican migrants is crucial to their search for social freedom and space to “belong to.” The action of deliberately seeking freedom is known as an act of agency. Four major objectives govern the paper. The first objective observes how second-generation Mozambican migrant youth living in South Africa negotiate and construct their own identities. Secondly, it explores second-generation Mozambican migrant youth narratives regarding their sense of belonging in South Africa. Thirdly, the study intends to understand how social processes of identity and belonging influence second-generation Mozambican migrant youth experiences and future aspirations in South Africa. The last objective examines how Sen’s Capability approach is relevant in understanding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth identity and belonging in South Africa. This is a single case study informed by data from semi-structured interviews and narratives with youth between the ages of 18 and 34 who are born and raised in South Africa to at least one former Mozambican refugee parent living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Crenshaw’s Intersectionality and Sen’s Capability approaches, this study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how both approaches can be operationalized towards understanding complex experiences and capabilities of the disadvantaged group simultaneously. The subject of second-generation migrants is often under-researched in South African migration; thus, their perspectives have been marginalized in Social Science research.

Keywords: second-generation, Mozambican, migrant, youth, bushbuckridge

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161 Highlighting Strategies Implemented by Migrant Parents to Support Their Child's Educational and Academic Success in the Host Society

Authors: Josee Charette

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The academic and educational success of migrant students is a current issue in education, especially in western societies such in the province of Quebec, in Canada. For people who immigrate with school-age children, the success of the family’s migratory project is often measured by the benefits drawn by children from the educational institutions of their host society. In order to support the academic achievement of their children, migrant parents try to develop practices that derive from their representations of school and related challenges inspired by the socio-cultural context of their country of origin. These findings lead us to the following question: How does strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the representational distance between school of their country of origin and school of their host society support or not the academic and educational success of their child? In the context of a qualitative exploratory approach, we have made interviews in the French , English and Spanish languages with 32 newly immigrated parents and 10 of their children. Parents were invited to complete a network of free associations about «School in Quebec» as a premise for the interview. The objective of this paper is to present strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the distance between their representations of schools in their country of origin and in the host society, and to explore the influence of this management on their child’s academic and educational trajectories. Data analysis led us to develop various types of strategies, such as continuity, adaptation, resources mobilization, compensation and "return to basics" strategies. These strategies seem to be part of a continuum from oppositional-conflict scenario, in which parental strategies act as a risk factor, to conciliator-integrator scenario, in which parental strategies act as a protective factor for migrant students’ academic and educational success. In conclusion, we believe that our research helps in highlighting strategies implemented by migrant parents to support their child’s academic and educational success in the host society and also helps in providing a more efficient support to migrant parents and contributes to develop a wider portrait of migrant students’ academic achievement.

Keywords: academic and educational achievement of immigrant students, family’s migratory project, immigrants parental strategies, representational distance between school of origin and school of host society

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160 Comprehensive Framework for Pandemic-Resilient Cities to Avert Future Migrant Crisis: A Case of Mumbai

Authors: Vasudha Thapa, Kiran Chappa

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There is a pressing need to prepare cities in the developing countries of the global south such as India against the chaos created by COVID 19 pandemic and future disaster risks. This pandemic posed the nation with an unprecedented challenge of dealing with a wave of stranded migrant workers. These workers comprise the most vulnerable section of the society in case of any pandemic or disaster risks. The COVID 19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers in the urban form and the need for capacity-building strategies against future pandemics. This paper highlights the challenges of these migrant workers in the case of Mumbai city in lockdown, post lockdown, and the current uncertain scenarios. The paper deals with a thorough investigation of the existing and the recent policies and strategies taken by the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), state, and central government to assist these migrants in the city during this mayhem of uncertainties. The paper looks further deep into the challenges and opportunities presented in the current scenario through the assessment of existing data and response to policy measures taken by the government organizations. The ULBs are at the forefront in the response to any disaster risk, hence the paper assesses the capacity gaps of the Urban local bodies in mitigating the risks posed by any pandemic-like situation. The study further recommends capacity-building strategies at various levels of governance and uniform policy measures to assist the migrant population of the city.

Keywords: urban resilience, covid 19, migrant population, India, capacity building, governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
159 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia

Authors: Azadeh Davachi

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Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.

Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrants

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158 Identity of Indian Migrants and Muslim Refugee Women in Sydney, Australia

Authors: Sheikh, R. Author, Bhardwaj S. Author, Jr.

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The emphasis of this paper is to investigate the identity shifts experienced within the Indian community and among Muslim refugee women in Sydney. Using Goffman’s paradigm of everyday interactions, attention is paid to how migrants navigate and perform their multiple identities in their daily life. By focusing on narratives of the migrant- migration is understood as processual instead of a one time decision of re-location. The paper aims to highlight how individuals choose and re-adapt their cultural and social practices within the context of Australia. Migrant narratives are rooted in specific socio-cultural settings of one’s own community as well as the nature of migration to a specific country. Differences and similarities will be observed within the Indian community, and among Muslim refugee women in terms of how identity is negotiated, social networks are re-established in Australia. Some attention will also be paid to difficulties that are being faced by migrants-especially in terms of Muslim identity for Refugee women, particularly in terms of assimilation, building on Ghassan Hage’s use of appraisal theory and how a diversity of language and religion is accommodated within the Indian community. By using two diverse groups, it would be able to identify and contrast migrant experiences.

Keywords: identity, migrant, refugee, women, assimilation, narratives

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
157 The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth

Authors: Jessica Ordoñez, Francisco Ochoa, Pascual García

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The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.

Keywords: economic growth, entrepreneur, migration, returned migration

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156 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

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The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.

Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
155 Cultural Self-Efficacy of Child Protection Social Workers in Norway: Barriers and Opportunities in Working with Migrant Families

Authors: Justyna Mroczkowska

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Social worker's ability to provide culturally sensitive assistance in child protection is taken for granted; given limited training opportunities and lack of clear guidance, practitioners report working with migrant families more demanding in comparison to working with native families. In this study, the author developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale to describe the level of cultural capability among Norwegian child protection professionals. The study aimed to determine the main influencing factors to cultural efficacy and examine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived difficulty in working with migrant families. The scale was administered to child protection workers in Norway (N=251), and the reliability of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .904. The confirmatory factor analysis of social work cultural self-efficacy found support for four separate but correlated subscales: Assessment, Communication, Support Request, and Teamwork. Regression analyses found the experience in working with migrant families, training and support from external agencies, and colleague support to be significant predictors of cultural self-efficacy. Self-efficacy in assessment skills and self-efficacy in communication skills were moderately related to the perceived difficulty to work with migrant families. The findings conclude with previous research and highlight the need for both professional development programs and institutional resources to be provided to support the practitioner's preparation for multicultural practice in child protection.

Keywords: child protection, cultural self-efficacy, cultural competency, migration, resources

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154 An AHP Study on The Migrant and Refugee Employees Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Turkey

Authors: Cengiz Akyildiz, Ismail Ekmekci

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In the past 15 years, many people have sought refuge and emigrated to developed countries due to the civil war in Syria, terrorism and turmoil in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, hunger problems in Africa and the purpose of work. Many of these people came to Turkey. By the end of the 2019, in Turkey, regular and irregular migrants, asylum seekers and foreigners under international protection are about 6 million people. The majority of these people are Syrians. Approximately 2 800 000 immigrants and refugees are in the workforce. Migrant workers in our country constitute the largest proportion among all countries in the world according to the local labor force. 2.5 million of these employees, with a high rate of about 90%, work informally and do not have legal records and valid employment contracts as a workforce; They cannot benefit from Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) services. Migrant workers generally receive less wages than local workers, working longer hours and worse conditions; they are often subjected to human rights violations, harassment, human trafficking and violence. Migrant workers face problems such as OHS practices, environmental and occupational exposures, language / cultural barriers, access to health services, and lack of documentation. Therefore, the OHS problems of these employees are becoming an increasingly problematic area. However, there is not enough research, analysis and academic studies in this field. The order of importance should be known for the radical solution of the problems, because of the problems with high severity are also at high risk. In this study, for the first time, a Search Conference was held with the participation of 45 stakeholders to reveal the OHS problems of regular and irregular migrant workers in our country. The problems arising from this workshop were compared with the problems in the literature and the problems in this field were determined and weighted for our country. Later, to determine the significance levels of these problems, AHP study, which is a Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in which 15 experts participated, was conducted and the significance levels of these problems were determined. When the data obtained are evaluated, it has been seen that the OSH risks of migrant workers arise from 58% laws and government policies, 29% from employers, 13% from personal faults of employees. An academic study has been carried out for the first time in this field regarding the OHS problems of migrant workers, and an academic study has been created to guide which of the problems should be prioritized.

Keywords: environmental conditions, migrant workers, OHS issues, workplace conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
153 Second-Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging in South Africa: The Case of Rural Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

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This paper explores the complexities surrounding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth’s identity and sense of belonging in post-apartheid South Africa, Bushbuckridge. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate first-generation Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. This is a single case study informed by data from 24 semi-structured interviews and narratives with migrant youth (18-34 years) born and raised in South Africa to Mozambican parent(s) living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Sen’s Capability and Crenshaw’s Intersectionality approaches, this paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how the role of participants’ identity status influences their agency and capability. The subject of youth migrants is often under-researched in the context of migration in South African thus, their opinions and views have often been marginalized in sociology. Through exploring participants’ experiences, this paper reveals that lack of identity status was described to be a huge hindrance to participants to identify as South Africans and they explained that is a constant distortion of their sense of belonging. Un-documentation status restricts participants and threatens their mobility and hinders their agency to access human rights and perpetuates social inequalities as well as hampering future aspirations. This paper concludes there is a strong association between identity status and levels of social integration. The development of a multi-layered comprehensive model in enhancing participants’ identity is recommended. This model encourages a collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders in enhancing and harnessing migrant youth capabilities in host societies.

Keywords: migrant youth, mozambique, second-generation, south africa

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152 The Utilization of Healthcare by African Migrants: The Lived Experiences of Unaccompanied Adolescent Migrants in South Africa

Authors: Kwanele Shishane

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Numerous countries are faced with challenges such as disease, poverty and other social ills and inadequate government support to meet the needs of the entire population. In developing countries, the concept of child-headed households has become a ubiquitous phenomenon and lived experience. As such, migration of children is common in these countries. This study aims to explore the lived experiences of unaccompanied adolescent migrant, with regards to the utilization of health care in South Africa. The objectives of the study are to examine the lived experiences of health care utilization by unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the predisposing, enabling and need factors influencing utilization of health care among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the social and cultural influences on health care utilization among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; and identify the health system barriers to utilization of health care by unaccompanied adolescent migrants. Andersen and Newman’s Model of Health Care Utilization (1995) which explains factors determining the utilization of healthcare will provide the theoretical framework for the empirical investigation of this study. The target population for this study is unaccompanied adolescent migrants, seeking to access services from migrant service organizations in four provinces in South Africa (Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, and Gauteng). Participants will be selected using a purposive sampling procedure. A qualitative research approach utilizing a descriptive phenomenological epistemology will be utilized in this study. Data will be collected through conducting in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with unaccompanied migrant adolescents, to explore their lived experiences related to access and utilization of health care, as an unaccompanied migrant in SA. The qualitative data will be analysed using Tech’s (1990) thematic analytical approach.

Keywords: health care utilisation, unaccompanied migrant youth, South Africa, lived experiences

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151 Barriers and Drivers Towards the Use of Childhood Vaccination Services by Undocumented Migrant Caregivers in Sabah, Malaysia: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Michal Christina Steven, Mohd. Yusof Hj Ibrahim, Haryati Abdul Karim, Prabakaran Dhanaraj, Kelly Alexius Mansin

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After 27 years, Malaysia reported polio cases in 2019 involving the children of the undocumented migrants living in Sabah. These undocumented migrants present a significant challenge in achieving the elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Due to the recent polio outbreak among the undocumented migrant children in Sabah, an in-depth interview was conducted among the caregivers of undocumented migrant children to identify the barriers and drivers towards vaccinating their children. Financial barriers, legal citizenship status, language barrier, the COVID-19 pandemic, and physical barriers have been the barriers to access vaccination services by undocumented migrants. Five significant drivers for undocumented migrants to vaccinate their children are social influence, fear of disease, parental trust in healthcare providers, good support, and vaccine availability. Necessary action should be taken immediately to address the problems of vaccinating the children of undocumented migrants to prevent the re-emergence of VPD.

Keywords: Malaysia, polio, Sabah, undocumented migrants

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150 Towards a More Inclusive Society: A Study on the Assimilation and Integration of the Migrant Children in Kerala

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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For the past few years, the state of Kerala has been witnessing a large inflow of migrant workers from other states of the country, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. The in-migration patterns in Kerala have changed over the time with the migrants having a higher residence history bringing their families to the state, thereby making the process more complicated and divergent in its approach. These developments have led to an increase in the young migrant population at least in some parts of the state, which has opened up doubts and questions related to their future in the host society. At this juncture, the study ponders into the factors that are associated with the assimilation and wellbeing of migrant children in the society of Kerala. As one of the objectives, the study also analyzed the influence and role played by the educational institutions (both public and private) in meeting the needs and aspirations of both the children and their parents. The study gains significance as it tries to identify various impediments that hinder the cognitive skill formation and behaviour patterns of the migrant children in the host society. Data and Methodology: The study is based on the primary data collected through a series of interviews and interactions held with parents, children, and teachers of different educational institutions, including both public and private. The primary survey also made use of research techniques like observation, in-depth interviews, and case study method. The study was conducted in schools in the Kanjikode area of the Palakkad district in Kerala. The findings of the study are on the basis of a survey conducted in four schools and 40 migrant children. Findings: The study found that majority of the children have wholly integrated and assimilated into the host society. The influence of the peer group was quite visible in giving stimulus to the assimilation process. Most of the children do not have any emotional or cultural sentiments attached to their state of origin, and they consider Kerala as their ‘home state’ and the local language (Malayalam) as their ‘mother tongue'. The study could also find that the existing education system in the host society fails to meet the needs and aspirations of migrants as well as that of their children. On a comparative scale, to some extent, private schools have succeeded in fulfiling the special requirements of the migrant children. An interesting point that the study could pinpoint at is that the children of the migrants show better health conditions and wellbeing than compared to the natives, which is usually addressed as an epidemiologic paradox. As a concluding remark, the study recommends the inclusion concept of inclusive education into the education system of the state with giving due emphasis on those who are at higher risk of being excluded or marginalized, along with fostering increased interaction between diverse groups.

Keywords: assimilation, Kerala, migrant children, well-being

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149 The Link between Migration Status and Occupational Health and Safety of Filipino Migrant Workers in South Korea

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young Woong Song

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The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and types of work-related health and safety problems among Filipino migrant workers and the link between their migration status and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems. We conducted a survey among 116 Filipino migrant workers who were both legal and undocumented. To assess the various forms of occupational health problems, we utilized the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS), Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) and a validated health and safety questionnaire. A focus group discussion (FGD) was also conducted to record relevant information that was limited by the questionnaires. Descriptive data were presented in frequency with percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the degree of association between variables (p < 0.05). Among the eight subscales of KOSS, inadequate social support (2.48), organizational injustice (2.57), and lack of reward (2.52) were experienced by workers. There was a 44.83% prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with arm/elbow having the highest rate, followed by shoulder and low back regions. Inadequate social support and discomfort in organizational climate and overall MSDs prevalence showed significant relationships with migration status (p < 0.05). There was a positive association between migration status and seven items under language and communication. A positive association was seen between migration status and some of the OHS problems of Filipino migrant workers in Korea. Undocumented workers in this study were seen to be more vulnerable to those stressors compared to those employed legally.

Keywords: Filipino workers, migration status, occupational health and safety, undocumented workers

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148 Intersectional Perspectives on Gender Equality in Higher Education: A Survey on Swiss Universities of Applied Science

Authors: Birgit Schmid, Brigitte Liebig, Susanne Burren, Maritza Le Breton, Martin Boehnel, Celestina Porta

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Internationalization of students is part of the agenda of many universities worldwide. Yet, how well do universities achieve to guarantee educational success for male and female students of migrant background? This contribution aims on analyzing the effects of the Swiss university environment on perceived educational outcome of migrant students from a gender sensitive perspective. Social selectivity and gender inequalities strongly influence students’ access and success at universities. However, the complex interaction between universities and their disciplinary environments, and educational success of migrant students of both sex remains rarely examined so far. Starting from an intersectional perspective and neo-institutional approaches on higher education organizations, this contribution addresses formal/informal factors in the university environment in its impact on male/female students’ perception of well-being, success and dropout motivation. The paper starts from a most recent Swiss online-survey of Bachelor-students in two Universities of Applied Science and a University of Education in Switzerland. It compares students’ perspectives in four large BA degree courses with different male/female ratio, i.e. educational science, technical/computer science, economy, and social work (N=9`608). Results highlight the complex interplay of gender, migrant background and further dimensions of social differentiation on students’ perception in these different fields of education. Further, they illustrate correlations between students’ perception of discriminatory contexts, poor ratings of social integration and study success, as well a higher rate of dropout ideas. The paper lines out, that formal aspects of internationalization are less important for successfully integrating male/female migrant students than informal university conditions, such as a culture of diversity, which has to become integral part of internationalization strategies.

Keywords: gender and migration, higher education, internationalization, success

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147 Children with Migration Backgrounds in Russian Elementary Schools: Teachers Attitudes and Practices

Authors: Chulpan Gromova, Rezeda Khairutdinova, Dina Birman

Abstract:

One of the most significant issues that schools all over the world face today is the ways teachers respond to increasing diversity. The study was informed by the tripartite model of multicultural competence, with awareness of personal biases a necessary component, together with knowledge of different cultures, and skills to work with students from diverse backgrounds. The paper presents the results of qualitative descriptive studies that help to understand how school teachers in Russia treat migrant children, how they solve the problems of adaptation of migrant children. The purpose of this study was to determine: a) educational practices used by primary school teachers when working with migrant children; b) relationship between practices and attitudes of teachers. Empirical data were collected through interviews. The participants were informed that a conversation was being recorded. They were also warned that the study was voluntary, absolutely anonymous, no personal data was disclosed. Consent was received from 20 teachers. The findings were analyzed using directive content analysis (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004). The analysis was deductive according to the categories of practices and attitudes identified in the literature review and enriched inductively to identify variation within these categories. Studying practices is an essential part of preparing future teachers for working in a multicultural classroom. For language and academic support, teachers mostly use individual work. In order to create a friendly classroom climate and environment teachers have productive conversations with students, organize multicultural events for the whole school or just for an individual class. The majority of teachers have positive attitudes toward migrant children. In most cases, positive attitudes lead to high expectations for their academic achievements. Conceptual orientation of teacher attitudes toward cultural diversity is mostly pluralistic. Positive attitudes, high academic expectations and conceptual orientation toward pluralism are favorably reflected in teachers’ practice.

Keywords: intercultural education, migrant children schooling, teachers attitudes, teaching practices

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146 Fear-Mongering and Its Antidotes: The Case of the Hungarian Anti-Migrant Campaign

Authors: Zsofia Nagy

Abstract:

A sharp increase in the number of refugees crossing Hungary during 2015, coupled with the Hungarian government’s agenda-setting strategy led to a powerful anti-migrant campaign in public, framing asylum-seekers as external threats to the country. While this campaign was, by and large, unchallenged by the Hungarian parliamentary opposition, Two-Tailed Dog Party, a Hungarian mock-party launched a counter-billboard campaign attacking the governmental discourse. Taking the latter as a case of digitally supported civic action, the paper first discusses two theoretical problems related to contemporary social movements: the problem of voice and the problem of participation. Afterward the paper presents the case of the Hungarian anti-migrant billboard campaign led by the government and the counter-billboard campaign and examines their action repertoires. It argues that a number of strategic differences are noteworthy: contrasts between traditional and digital methods, the reliance on the ’spirals of silence’ on the one hand and the breaking of this very silence on the other, where people are holding a minority opinion were given a platform and visibility in public. On a deeper level, the counter-campaign challenged the hegemonic views about public discourse. It effectively contrasted the government’s one-to-many, top-bottom approach to political communication with a campaign that relied on many-to-many communication and a bottom-up approach. While it is true that through memetic engineering, the original governmental messages were altered and the outcomes were brought back to the streets of Hungary; the effects of the two campaigns nevertheless reinforced the original anti-migrant focus of the political agenda.

Keywords: counterpublics, migration, refugees, social movements

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145 Migrant Women’s Rights “with Chinese Characteristics: The State of Migrant Women in the People’s Republic of China

Authors: Leigha C. Crout

Abstract:

This paper will investigate the categorical disregard of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in establishing and maintaining a baseline standard of civil guarantees for economic migrant women and their dependents. In light of the relative forward strides in terms of policy facilitating the ascension of female workers in China, this oft-invisible subgroup of women remains neglected from the modern-day “iron rice bowl” of the self-identified communist state. This study is being undertaken to rectify the absence of data on this subject and provide a baseline for future studies on the matter, as the human rights of migrants has become an established facet of transnational dialogue and debate. The basic methodology of this research will consist of the evaluation of China’s compliance with its own national guidelines, and the eight international human rights law treaties it has ratified. Data will be extracted and cross-checked from a number of relevant sources to monitor the extent of compliance, including but by no means limited to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) reports and responses, submissions and responses of international human rights treaty bodies, local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and their annual reports, and articles and commentaries authored by specialists on the modern state and implementation of Chinese law. Together, these data will illuminate the vast network of compliance that has forced many migrant women to work within situations of extreme economic precarity. The structure will proceed as follows: first, an outline of the current status of migrant workers and the enforcement of stipulated protections will be provided; next, the analysis of the oft-debated regulations directing and the outline of mandatory services guaranteed to external and internal migrants; and finally, a conclusion incorporating various recommendations to improve transparency and gradually decrease the amount of migrant work turned forced labor that typifies the economic migrant experience, especially in the case of women. The internal and international migrant workers in China are bound by different and uncomplimentary systems. The first, which governs Chinese citizens moving to different regions or provinces to find more sustainable employment (internal migrants), is called the hukou (or huji) residency system. This law enforces strict regulation of the movement of peoples, while ensuring that residents of urban areas receive preferential benefits to those received by their so-called “agricultural” resident counterparts. Given the overwhelming presence of the Communist Party of China throughout the vast state, the management of internal migrants and the disregard for foreign domestic workers is, at minimum, a surprising oversight. This paper endeavors to provide a much-needed foundation for future commentary and discussion on the treatment of female migrant workers and their families in the People’s Republic of China.

Keywords: female migrant worker’s rights, the People’s Republic of China, forced labor, Hukou residency system

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144 Socio Economy of Migrant Women Domestic Workers in India: A Study in Context of Mumbai City

Authors: Sunita Kumari, Abhishek Thakur

Abstract:

Focusing on female migrant domestic workers from Jharkhand, this study looks at their life before and after migration in Mumbai city. Girls coming from the marginalised communities migrate through different means and organizations like placement agencies, religious institutions such as church, with the help of group of friends or relatives and so forth. Most of them due to low educational attainment get into the unorganized sector jobs such as domestic work. In this backdrop, the paper tries to understand the socio-economic condition of tribal migrant women engaged as the domestic workers in the M ward of Mumbai city. The paper tries to investigate the early life of migrant women domestic workers, explores the reasons behind their migration and also examines the changes in their status after their engagement as domestic workers. The paper argues that though the economic and political reasons are quite explicit but the role of social institutions is also significant in the process of migration of women domestic workers. The study was qualitative in nature where fifteen in depth interviews were conducted and to develop a profound understanding one Focus Group Discussion was carried out at M ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation (Chembur East). To substantiate the findings, the secondary data was taken from the available resources. The findings of the study shows that situation in the family, lack of education, non availability of better economic opportunities and other factors forced them to migrate. The factors such as income in form of cash rather than in kind, attraction towards the Mumbai city and so on was also the reason behind migration. Finally, this study gives the ample opportunity to look at the lives of the women who are the part of the unorganised sector of our country. It further unbolts exploration in terms of social security legislation at the national level.

Keywords: paid domestic work, women, migration, Mumbai city

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143 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration

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142 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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141 The Role of Internal and External Control in the Migrant Related Representations of Right-Wing Extremists

Authors: Gabriella Kengyel

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the differences between the attitudes of the right-wing extremists with internal or external control towards migrants. They both have a significantly higher score on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and they are quite xenophobic (54%) according to Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Present research suggests their motives are different. Principle components analysis shows that extremists with internal control reject migrants because of welfare chauvinism and they think that there is some kind of political conspirationism behind the European Refugee Crisis. Contrarily extremist with external control believe in a common enemy and they are significantly more ethnocentric and less skeptical in politics. Results suggest that extremist with internal control shows hostility toward minorities and migrants mainly because of their own reference group.

Keywords: control, extremist, migrant, right-wing

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140 Count Regression Modelling on Number of Migrants in Households

Authors: Tsedeke Lambore Gemecho, Ayele Taye Goshu

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the number of international migrants in a household and to compare regression models for count response. This study is done by collecting data from total of 2288 household heads of 16 randomly sampled districts in Hadiya and Kembata-Tembaro zones of Southern Ethiopia. The Poisson mixed models, as special cases of the generalized linear mixed model, is explored to determine effects of the predictors: age of household head, farm land size, and household size. Two ethnicities Hadiya and Kembata are included in the final model as dummy variables. Stepwise variable selection has indentified four predictors: age of head, farm land size, family size and dummy variable ethnic2 (0=other, 1=Kembata). These predictors are significant at 5% significance level with count response number of migrant. The Poisson mixed model consisting of the four predictors with random effects districts. Area specific random effects are significant with the variance of about 0.5105 and standard deviation of 0.7145. The results show that the number of migrant increases with heads age, family size, and farm land size. In conclusion, there is a significantly high number of international migration per household in the area. Age of household head, family size, and farm land size are determinants that increase the number of international migrant in households. Community-based intervention is needed so as to monitor and regulate the international migration for the benefits of the society.

Keywords: Poisson regression, GLM, number of migrant, Hadiya and Kembata Tembaro zones

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139 Reconceptualizing Human Trafficking: Revealings of the Experience of Ethiopian Migrant Returnees

Authors: Waganesh Zeleke, Abebaw Minaye

Abstract:

This study examined the act, means, and purpose of human trafficking in the case of Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa. Using a questionnaire survey data was gathered from 1078 returnees. Twelve focus group discussions were used to solicit detailed experience of returnee about the process of their 'unsafe' immigration. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis results revealed that against the mainstream thinking of human trafficking means such as forcing, coercing, abducting or threatening, traffickers used 'victims’ free will' means by providing false promises to and capitalizing on the vulnerability of migrants. The migrants’ living condition including unemployment, ambitious view to change their life, and low level of risk perception were found to be risk factors which made them vulnerable and target of the brokers and smugglers who served as a catalyst in the process of their 'unsafe' migration. Equal to the traffickers/brokers/agency, the migrants’ family, friends and Ethiopian embassies contributed to the deplorable situation of migrant workers. 64.4% of the returnees reported that their migration is self-initiated, and 20% reported peer pressure and 13.8 percent reported family pressure, and it is only 1.8% who reported having been pushed by brokers. The findings revealed that 69.5% of the returnees do not know about the lifestyle and culture of the host community before their leave. In a similar vein, 50.9% of the returnees reported that they do not know about the nature of the work they are to do and their responsibilities. Further, 81% of the returnees indicated that the pre-migration training they received was not enough in equipping them with the required skill. Despite the returnees experiences of various forms of abuse and exploitation in the journey and at the destination they still have a positive attitude for migration (t=9.7 mean of 18.85 with a test value of 15). The returnees evaluated the support provided by sending agencies and Ethiopian embassies in the destination to be poor. 51.8% of the migrants do not know the details of the contract they signed during migration. Close to 70% of the returnees expressed that they had not got any legal support from stakeholders when they faced problems. What is more is that despite all these 27.9% of the returnees indicated re-immigrating as their plan. Based on these findings on the context and experience of Ethiopian migrant returnees, implications for training, policy, research, and intervention are discussed.

Keywords: trafficking, migrant, returnee, Ethiopia, experience, reconceptualizing

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138 On the Allopatry of National College Entrance Exam in China: The Root, Policy and Strategy

Authors: Shi Zhang

Abstract:

This paper aims to introduce the allopatry of national college entrance examination which allow migrant students enter senior high schools and take college entrance exam where they live, identifies the reasons affect the implementation of this policy in the Chinese context. Most of China’s provinces and municipalities recently have announced new policies regarding national college entrance exams for non-local students. The paper conducts SWOT analysis reveals the opportunities, strength, weakness and challenges of the scheme, so as to discuss the implementation strategies from the perspectives of idea and institution. The research findings imply that the government should take a more positive attitude toward relaxing the allopatry of NCEE policy restrictions, and promote the reform household registration policy and NCEE policy with synchronous operations. Higher education institutions should explore the diversification of enrollment model; the government should issue the authority of universities and colleges to select elite migrant students beyond the restrictions of NCEE. To suit reform policies to local conditions, the big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou should publish related compensate measures for children of migrant workers access to higher vocational colleges with tuition fee waivered. 

Keywords: college entrance examination, higher education, education policy, education equality

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