Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: A. O. Adesanya

9 Constant Order Predictor Corrector Method for the Solution of Modeled Problems of First Order IVPs of ODEs

Authors: A. A. James, A. O. Adesanya, M. R. Odekunle, D. G. Yakubu

Abstract:

This paper examines the development of one step, five hybrid point method for the solution of first order initial value problems. We adopted the method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method was evaluated at selected grid points to give the discrete linear multistep method. The method was implemented using a constant order predictor of order seven over an overlapping interval. The basic properties of the derived corrector was investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The region of absolute stability was also investigated. The method was tested on some numerical experiments and found to compete favorably with the existing methods.

Keywords: interpolation, approximate solution, collocation, differential system, half step, converges, block method, efficiency

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8 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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7 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

Abstract:

The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: implications, Lagos state, substances, sports performance, youth

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6 Analysis of Generated Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Dung

Authors: Babatope Alabadan, Adeyinka Adesanya, I. E. Afangideh

Abstract:

The use of energy is paramount to human existence. Every activity globally revolves round it. Over the years, different sources of energy (petroleum fuels predominantly) have been utilized. Animal waste treatment on the farm is a phenomenon that has called for rapt research attention. Generated wastes on farm pollute the environment in diverse ways. Waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. The objective of this work is to generate methane (CH4) gas from the anaerobic digestion of piggery dung. A retention time of 15 and 30 days and a mesophilic temperature range were selected. The generated biogas composition was methane (CH4), carbondioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) using gas chromatography method. At 15 days retention time, 60% of (CH4) was collected while CO2 and traces of H2S and NH3 accounted for 40%. At 30 days retention time, 75% of CH4, 20% of CO2 was collected while traces of H2S and NH3 amounted to 5%. For on and off farm uses, biogas can be upgraded to biomethane by removing the CO2, NH3 and H2S. This product (CH4) can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, methane, piggery dung

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5 Bioethanol Production from Wild Sorghum (Sorghum arundinacieum) and Spear Grass (Heteropogon contortus)

Authors: Adeyinka Adesanya, Isaac Bamgboye

Abstract:

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economic, political, and environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is an excellent renewable feedstock because it is both abundant and inexpensive. This project aims at producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic plants (Sorghum Arundinacieum and Heteropogon Contortus) by biochemical means, computing the energy audit of the process and determining the fuel properties of the produced ethanol. Acid pretreatment (0.5% H2SO4 solution) and enzymatic hydrolysis (using malted barley as enzyme source) were employed. The ethanol yield of wild sorghum was found to be 20% while that of spear grass was 15%. The fuel properties of the bioethanol from wild sorghum are 1.227 centipoise for viscosity, 1.10 g/cm3 for density, 0.90 for specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was found to be below -30 °C. That of spear grass was 1.206 centipoise for viscosity, 0.93 g/cm3 for density 1.08 specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was also found to be below -30 °C. The energy audit shows that about 64 % of the total energy was used up during pretreatment, while product recovery which was done manually demanded about 31 % of the total energy. Enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation total energy input were 1.95 %, 1.49 % and 1.04 % respectively, the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from wild sorghum was found to be 47 % and the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from spear grass was 72 %. Also, the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production for both grasses was 3.85 %.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, wild sorghum, spear grass, biochemical conversion

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4 Multimedia Technologies Utilisation as Predictors of Lecturers’ Teaching Effectiveness in Colleges of Education in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Abel Olusegun Egunjobi, Olusegun Oyeleye Adesanya

Abstract:

Teaching effectiveness of lecturers in a tertiary institution in Nigeria is one of the determinants of the lecturer’s productivity. In this study, therefore, lecturers’ teaching effectiveness was examined vis-à-vis their multimedia technologies utilisation in Colleges of Education (CoE) in South-West, Nigeria. This is for the purpose of ascertaining the relationship and contribution of multimedia technologies utilisation to lecturers’ teaching effectiveness in Nigerian colleges of education. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study, while a multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the study. A stratified sampling technique was used to select colleges of education, and a simple random sampling method was employed to select lecturers from the selected colleges of education. A total of 862 lecturers (627 males and 235 females) were selected from the colleges of education used for the study. The instrument used was lecturers’ questionnaire on multimedia technologies utilisation and teaching effectiveness with a reliability coefficient of 0.85 at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and t-test. The findings showed that the level of multimedia technologies utilisation in colleges of education was low, whereas lecturers’ teaching effectiveness was high. Findings also revealed that the lecturers used multimedia technologies purposely for personal and professional developments, so also for up to date news on economic and political matters. Also, findings indicated that laptop, Ipad, CD-ROMs, and computer instructional software were the multimedia technologies frequently utilised by the lecturers. There was also a significant difference in the teaching effectiveness between lecturers in the Federal and State COE. The government should, therefore, make adequate provision for multimedia technologies in the COE in Nigeria for lecturers’ utilisation in their instructions so as to boost their students’ learning outcomes.

Keywords: colleges of education, lecturers’ teaching effectiveness, multimedia technologies utilisation, Southwest Nigeria

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3 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

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2 Diurnal Circle of Rainfall and Convective Properties over West and Central Africa

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

The need to investigate diurnal weather circles in West Africa is coined in the fact that complex interactions often results from diurnal weather patterns. This study investigates diurnal circles of wind, rainfall and convective properties using six (6) hour interval data from the ERA-Interim and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The seven distinct zones, used in this work and classified as rainforest (west-coast, dry, Nigeria-Cameroon), Savannah (Nigeria, and Central Africa and South Sudan (CASS)), Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, were clearly indicated by the rainfall pattern in each zones. Results showed that the land‐ocean warming contrast was more strongly sensitive to seasonal cycle and has been very weak during March-May (MAM) but clearly spelt out during June-September (JJAS). Dipoles of wind convergence/divergence and wet/dry precipitation, between CASS and Nigeria Savannah zones, were identified in morning and evening hours of MAM, whereas distinct night and day anomaly, in the same location of CASS, were found to be consistent during the JJAS season. Diurnal variation of convective properties showed that stratiform precipitation, due to the extremely low occurrence of flashcount climatology, was dominant during morning hours for both MAM and JJAS than other periods of the day. On the other hand, diurnal variation of the system sizes showed that small system sizes were most dominant during the day time periods for both MAM and JJAS, whereas larger system sizes were frequent during the evening, night, and morning hours. The locations of flashcount and system sizes agreed with earlier results that morning and day-time hours were dominated by stratiform precipitation and small system sizes respectively. Most results clearly showed that the eastern locations of Sudano and Sahel were consistently dry because rainfall and precipitation features were predominantly few. System sizes greater than or equal to 800 km² were found in the western axis of the Sudano and Sahel zones, whereas the eastern axis, particularly in the Sahel zone, had minimal occurrences of small/large system sizes. From the results of locations of extreme systems, flashcount greater than 275 in one single system was never observed during the morning (6Z) diurnal, whereas, the evening (18Z) diurnal had the most frequent cases (at least 8) of flashcount exceeding 275 in one single system. Results presented had shown the importance of diurnal variation in understanding precipitation, flashcount, system sizes patterns at diurnal scales, and understanding land-ocean contrast, precipitation, and wind field anomaly at diurnal scales.

Keywords: convective properties, diurnal circle, flashcount, system sizes

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1 LncRNA-miRNA-mRNA Networks Associated with BCR-ABL T315I Mutation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Adenike Adesanya, Nonthaphat Wong, Xiang-Yun Lan, Shea Ping Yip, Chien-Ling Huang

Abstract:

Background: The most challenging mutation of the oncokinase BCR-ABL protein T315I, which is commonly known as the “gatekeeper” mutation and is notorious for its strong resistance to almost all tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), especially imatinib. Therefore, this study aims to identify T315I-dependent downstream microRNA (miRNA) pathways associated with drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Methods: T315I-carrying K562 cell clones (K562-T315I) were generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Imatinib-treated K562-T315I cells were subjected to small RNA library preparation and next-generation sequencing. Putative lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks were analyzed with (i) DESeq2 to extract differentially expressed miRNAs, using Padj value of 0.05 as cut-off, (ii) STarMir to obtain potential miRNA response element (MRE) binding sites of selected miRNAs on lncRNA H19, (iii) miRDB, miRTarbase, and TargetScan to predict mRNA targets of selected miRNAs, (iv) IntaRNA to obtain putative interactions between H19 and the predicted mRNAs, (v) Cytoscape to visualize putative networks, and (vi) several pathway analysis platforms – Enrichr, PANTHER and ShinyGO for pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, mitochondria isolation and transcript quantification were adopted to determine the new mechanism involved in T315I-mediated resistance of CML treatment. Results: Verification of the CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis with digital droplet PCR detected the mutation abundance of ≥80%. Further validation showed the viability of ≥90% by cell viability assay, and intense phosphorylated CRKL protein band being detected with no observable change for BCR-ABL and c-ABL protein expressions by Western blot. As reported by several investigations into hematological malignancies, we determined a 7-fold increase of H19 expression in K562-T315I cells. After imatinib treatment, a 9-fold increment was observed. DESeq2 revealed 171 miRNAs were differentially expressed K562-T315I, 112 out of these miRNAs were identified to have MRE binding regions on H19, and 26 out of the 112 miRNAs were significantly downregulated. Adopting the seed-sequence analysis of these identified miRNAs, we obtained 167 mRNAs. 6 hub miRNAs (hsa-let-7b-5p, hsa-let-7e-5p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-129-5p, and hsa-miR-372-3p) and 25 predicted genes were identified after constructing hub miRNA-target gene network. These targets demonstrated putative interactions with H19 lncRNA and were mostly enriched in pathways related to cell proliferation, senescence, gene silencing, and pluripotency of stem cells. Further experimental findings have also shown the up-regulation of mitochondrial transcript and lncRNA MALAT1 contributing to the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks induced by BCR-ABL T315I mutation. Conclusions: Our results have indicated that lncRNA-miRNA regulators play a crucial role not only in leukemogenesis but also in drug resistance, considering the significant dysregulation and interactions in the K562-T315I cell model generated by CRISPR-Cas9. In silico analysis has further shown that lncRNAs H19 and MALAT1 bear several complementary miRNA sites. This implies that they could serve as a sponge, hence sequestering the activity of the target miRNAs.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib resistance, lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA, T315I mutation

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