Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1649

Search results for: malachite green

1649 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies

Authors: Abeer S. Elsherbiny, Ali H. Gemeay


In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, BET specific surface area and Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM). The prepared GO was investigated for the removal of malachite green, a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The removal methods of malachite green has been proceeded via adsorption process. GO nanosheets can be predicted as a good adsorbent material for the adsorption of cationic species. The adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption kinetics, concentration of adsorbate, pH, and temperature. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed using four kinetic models such as the pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, intraparticle diffusion, and the Boyd model to understand the adsorption behavior of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets and the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change were also evaluated. The interaction of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated by infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, kinetics, malachite green

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1648 Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents

Authors: Omid Moradi, Mostafa Rajabi


Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, methyl orange, malachite green, removal

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1647 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design

Authors: Semra Çoruh, Yusuf Tibet


Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.

Keywords: malachite green, adsorption, red mud, fly ash, full factorial design

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1646 Bioremoval of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae: Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian


This study reports the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from simulated wastewater by using marine macro algae Ulva lactuca. Batch biosorption experiments were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity. The biosorption capacity was found to be maximum at pH 10. The effect of various other operation parameters such as biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and agitation was also investigated. The equilibrium attained at 120 min with 0.1 g/L of biosorbent. The isotherm experimental data fitted well with Langmuir Model with R² value of 0.994. The maximum Langmuir biosorption capacity was found to be 76.92 mg/g. Further, Langmuir separation factor RL value was found to be 0.004. Therefore, the adsorption is favorable. The biosorption kinetics of MG was found to follow pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mechanistic study revealed that the biosorption of malachite onto Ulva lactuca was controlled by film diffusion. The solute transfer in a solid-liquid adsorption process is characterized by the film diffusion and/or particle diffusion. Thermodynamic study shows ΔG° is negative indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature for the biosorption of malachite green. The biosorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (CHNS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur). This study showed that Ulva lactuca can be used as promising biosorbent for the removal of MG from wastewater.

Keywords: biosorption, Ulva lactuca, wastewater, malachite green, isotherm, kinetics

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1645 Fixed-Bed Column Studies of Green Malachite Removal by Use of Alginate-Encapsulated Aluminium Pillared Clay

Authors: Lazhar mouloud, Chemat Zoubida, Ouhoumna Faiza


The main objective of this study, concerns the modeling of breakthrough curves obtained in the adsorption column of malachite green into alginate-encapsulated aluminium pillared clay in fixed bed according to various operating parameters such as the initial concentration, the feed rate and the height fixed bed, applying mathematical models namely: the model of Bohart and Adams, Wolborska, Bed Depth Service Time, Clark and Yoon-Nelson. These models allow us to express the different parameters controlling the performance of the dynamic adsorption system. The results have shown that all models were found suitable for describing the whole or a definite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to the flow rate, the inlet dye concentration and the height of fixed bed.

Keywords: adsorption column, malachite green, pillared clays, alginate, modeling, mathematic models, encapsulation.

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1644 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega


Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: African catfish, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo, Saprolegniasis

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1643 Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Zamouche Meriem, Mehcene Ismahan, Temmine Manel, Bencheikh Lehocine Mosaab, Meniai Abdeslam Hassen


In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).

Keywords: adsorption, chemical activation, malachite green, sewage sludge

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1642 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra


Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.

Keywords: photocatalyst, visible light, lanthanide, SnO₂

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1641 Copper Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by a Novel Fluidized-bed Homogeneous Crystallization (FBHC) Technology

Authors: Cheng-Yen Huang, Yu-Jen Shih, Ming-Chun Yen, Yao-Hui Huang


This research developed a fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization (FBHC) process to remove copper from synthetic wastewater in terms of recovery of highly pure malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) pellets. The experimental parameters of FBHC which included pH, molar ratio of copper to carbonate, copper loading, upper flowrate and bed height were tested in the absence of seed particles. Under optimized conditions, both the total copper removal (TR) and crystallization ratio (CR) reached 99%. The malachite crystals were characterized by XRD and SEM. FBHC was capable of treating concentrated copper (1600 ppm) wastewater and minimizing the sludge production.

Keywords: copper, carbonate, fluidized-bed, crystallization, malachite

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1640 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke


The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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1639 Luffa cylindrica as Alternative for Treatment of Waste in the Classroom

Authors: Obradith Caicedo, Paola Devia


Methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) are substances commonly used in classrooms for academic purposes. Nevertheless, in most cases, there is no adequate disposal of this type of waste, their presence in the environment affects ecosystems due to the presence of color and the reduction of photosynthetic processes. In this work, we evaluated properties of fibers of Luffa cylindrica in removal from dyes of aqueous solutions through an adsorption process. The point of zero charge, acid and basic sites was also investigated. The best conditions of the adsorption process were determined under a discontinuous system, evaluating an interval of the variables 2 3 : pH value, particle size of the adsorbent and contact time. The temperature (18ºC), agitation (220 rpm) and adsorbent dosage (10g/L) were constant. Measurements were made using UV- Visible spectrophotometry. The point of zero charge for Luffa cylindrica was 4,3. The number of acidic and basic sites was 2.441 meq/g and 1,009 meq/g respectively. These indicate a prevalence of acid groups. The maximum dye sorption was found to be at a pH of 5,5 (97,1 % for MB) and 5,0 (97,7% for MG) and particle size of the adsorbent 850 µm. The equilibrium uptake was attained within 60 min. With this study, it has been shown that Luffa cylindrica can be used as efficient adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue, and malachite green from aqueous solution in classrooms.

Keywords: adsorption, dye removal, low-cost adsorbents, Luffa cylindrical

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1638 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand


In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: malachite green, nanocomposite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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1637 Effects of Malachite Green Contaminated Water on Production of Pak Choy and Chinese Convolvulus

Authors: N. Piwpuan, J. Tosalee, N. Phonkerd


Malachite green (MG), a synthetic dye, is used in industries and aquaculture and also disposed in the effluent. Use of wastewater in irrigation increases due to water shortage. However, wastewater containing dyes, MG, are toxic to biological systems. Therefore, effects of MG on growth of vegetables were evaluated in order to utilize dye-contaminated wastewater for irrigation. In this study, Pak choy (Brassica chinensis) and Chinese convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were grown in growing material (mixture of soil, coconut fiber, and compost) for four weeks and afterward kept watering with 200 ml of tap water containing MG at the concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, number of leaf and shoot and root dry weight of the treated plants were measured and compared with control. For both species, their biomass values were similar among treatments and did not differ from the control plants (dry weight were 0.6-1.0 and 1.1-1.7 g/plant for B. chinensis and I. aquatica, respectively). B. chinensis treated with 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of MG produced lower number of new leaf and had smaller and shorter leaf compared to control and treatment of 1 mg/L. These results indicate the different responses between plant species, which B. chinensis is more sensitive to contaminant compared to I. aquatica. There was no sign of MG and leucomalachite green (LMG) detected in root and shoot tissues of plants treated with MG at 20 mg/L, tested by thin layer chromatography. After plant harvest, toxicity of the growing material from all treatments was tested on mung beans. Percent germination (83-97%), seedling fresh weight (0.3-0.5 g/plant), and shoot length (11-12.5 cm) were similar to the control. These indicated that contaminant in growing material did not pose detrimental effect on mung beans. Based on these results, the water contaminated with low concentration of MG, such as discharge from aquaculture, may serve as ferti-irrigation water to compensate water shortage.

Keywords: ferti-irrigation, soil toxicity, triphenylmethane dye, wastewater reuse

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1636 Mechanism of Formation, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Iron Mineralization in M'Taguinarou North Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Fakher Eddine Messaoudi


The M'Taguinarou North iron occurrence contains Iron and polymetallic mineralization (Fe-Zn-Cu), hosted in Turonian limestone. It manifests in metric clusters of goethite and hematite and in centimetre veins of smithsonite, malachite, and azurite. The genesis of this mineralization is clearly polyphased and results from the supergene processes superposed on hydrothermal phases where the Triassic diapirs probably generated the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the sedimentary series, and the alteration of the Turonian limestone gave the formation of the hydrothermal primary ore composed of iron carbonates (siderite). Several uplift episodes affected the mineralization and the host rocks, generating the genesis of a polymetallic supergene assembly (goethite, malachite, azurite, quartz, and calcite). In M’taguinarou North, iron oxy-hydroxides are mainly observed in the form of fibrous stalactites, stalagmites, and Botroydale structures, where hematite precipitated first, followed immediately by goethite, limonite, and smithsonite. Siderite is completely absent. Subsequently, malachite, azurite, and calcite formed in the form of small veins intersecting the surrounding limestone.

Keywords: mineralization, genetic model, hydrothermal iron, supergene, Tebessa, Algeria

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1635 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar


This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

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1634 Preparation and Characterization of Biosorbent from Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes and its Application for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Manisha Choudhary, Sudarsan Neogi


Malachite green (MG), an organic basic dye, has been widely used for the dyeing purpose, as well as a fungicide and antiseptic in aquaculture industry to control fish parasites and disease. However, MG has now turned out to be an extremely controversial compound due to its adverse impact on living beings. Due to high toxicity, proper treatment of wastewater containing MG is utmost important. Among different available technologies, adsorption process is one of the most efficient and cost-effective treatment method due to its simplicity of design, ease of operation and regeneration of used materials. Nonetheless, commercial activated carbon is expensive leading the researchers to focus on utilizing natural resources. In the present work, a species of cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), was used to develop a highly efficient, low-cost powdered activated carbon by chemical activation using NaOH. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction analysis. Batch adsorption studies were performed to remove MG from an aqueous solution as a function of contact time, initial solution pH, initial dye concentration, biosorbent dosages, the presence of salt and temperature. By increasing the initial dye concentration from 100 to 500 mg/l, adsorption capacity increased from 165.45 to 831.58 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model and the chemisorption mechanisms were revealed. The electrostatic attractions and chemical interactions were observed between amino and hydroxyl groups of the biosorbent and amine groups of the dye. The adsorption was solely controlled by film diffusion. Different isotherm models were used to fit the adsorption data. The excellent recovery of adsorption efficiency after the regeneration of biosorbent indicated the high potential of this adsorbent to remove MG from aqueous solution and an excellent cost-effective biosorbent for wide application in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: adsorption, biosorbent, cactus, malachite green

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1633 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang


At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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1632 Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate

Authors: Javier Paul Montalvo Andia, Adriana Larrea Valdivia, Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano


The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, malachite, copper oxide, leaching

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1631 Contextual Paper on Green Finance: Analysis of the Green Bonds Market

Authors: Dina H. Gabr, Mona A. El Bannan


With growing worldwide concern for global warming, green finance has become the fuel that pushes the world to act in combating and mitigating climate change. Coupled with adopting the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Green finance became a vital tool in creating a pathway to sustainable development, as it connects the financial world with environmental and societal benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the concepts and definitions of green finance and the importance of 'green' impact investments today. The core challenge in combating climate change is reducing and controlling Greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, this study explores the solutions green finance provides putting emphasis on the use of renewable energy, which is necessary for enhancing the transition to the green economy. With increasing attention to the concept of green finance, multiple forms of green investments and financial tools have come to fruition; the most prominent are green bonds. The rise of green bonds, a debt market to finance climate solutions, provide a promising mechanism for sustainable finance. Following the review, this paper compiles a comprehensive green bond dataset, presenting a statistical study of the evolution of the green bonds market from its first appearance in 2006 until 2021.

Keywords: climate change, GHG emissions, green bonds, green finance, sustainable finance

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1630 Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls

Authors: Eman M. Elmazek


Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.

Keywords: green roof, green walls, urban farming, roof herb garden

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1629 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin


In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

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1628 Sustainable Building Law - The Legal Issues Abound

Authors: Richard J. Sobelsohn


Green Building and Sustainable Development help fight climate change, and protects the ozone, animal habitats, air quality, and ground water. The myriad of reasons to go Green has multiplied to the point that a developer that is building a ground-up or renovating/retrofitting a property has a plethora of choices to get to the green goal post. Sustainability not affects the bottom line but satisfies corporate mandates (ESG), consumer demand, market requirements, and the many laws dictating green building practices. The good news is that there are many paths a property owner can take to become green. The bad news is that there are many paths a property owner can take to become green, and they need to choose which direction to take. Certification of a building used to be the highest achievement in the Green building world. Now there are so many variables and laws with which a property owner must comply, and the legal analysis has mushroomed. Operation and Maintenance have also become one of the most important functions for a prudent Green Building owner. So adding to the “development/retrofit” parties involved in the sustainable building legal world, we now need to include all those people who keep the building green, and there are a lot of them!

Keywords: green building, sustainable development, legal issues, greenwashing, green cleaning, compliance, ESQ

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1627 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Jing Ma, Xindong An


Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: quality of life, green infrastructure, GIS, accessibility

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1626 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede


The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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1625 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu


The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics

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1624 Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis

Authors: Gon Park


Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.

Keywords: cadastral data, green Infrastructure, network analysis, parcel data

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1623 Magnitude of Green Computing in Trending IT World

Authors: Raghul Vignesh Kumar, M. Vadivel


With the recent years many industries and companies have turned their attention in realizing how going 'green' can benefit public relations, lower cost, and reduce global emissions from industrial manufacturing. Green Computing has become an originative way on how technology and ecology converge together. It is a growing import subject that creates an urgent need to train next generation computer scientists or practitioners to think ‘green’. However, green computing has not yet been well taught in computer science or computer engineering courses as a subject. In this modern IT world it’s impossible for an organization or common man to work without hardware like servers, desktop, IT devices, smartphones etc. But it is also important to consider the harmful impact of those devices and steps to achieve energy saving and environmental protection. This paper presents the magnitude of green computing and steps to be followed to go green.

Keywords: green computing, carbon-dioxide, greenhouse gas, energy saving, environmental protection agency

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1622 The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior

Authors: Yu Du, Jian-Guo Wang


Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.

Keywords: green product, attitude-behavior gap, behavior reasoning theory, green consumption, SEM

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1621 Removal of Brilliant Green in Environmental Samples by Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Granule

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Nika Shakerin, Farahnaz Zolriasatain, Elham Moniri


In this research, poly-ethylene terephthalate granule was prepared from Tak Corporation. The granule was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on brilliant green sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of brilliant green was 6. The sorption capacity of the granule for brilliant green was 4.6 mg g−1. The profile of brilliant green uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly-ethylene terephthalate granule. The developed method was utilized for the determination of brilliant green in environmental water samples by UV/Vis spectrophotometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly-ethylene terephthalate granule, brilliant green, environmental sample, removal

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1620 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar


Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries

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