Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9503

Search results for: secondary lining applied RC segment

9503 A Numerical Investigation of Segmental Lining Joints Interactions in Tunnels

Authors: M. H. Ahmadi, A. Mortazavi, H. Zarei

Abstract:

Several authors have described the main mechanism of formation of cracks in the segment lining during the construction of tunnels with tunnel boring machines. A comprehensive analysis of segmental lining joints may help to guarantee a safe construction during Tunneling and serviceable stages. The most frequent types of segment damage are caused by a condition of uneven segment matching due to contact deficiencies. This paper investigated the interaction mechanism of precast concrete lining joints in tunnels. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) was used to analyze a typical segmental lining model consisting of six segment rings. In the analyses, typical segmental lining design parameters of the Ghomrood water conveyance tunnel, Iran were employed in the study. In the conducted analysis, the worst-case scenario of loading faced during the boring of Ghomrood tunnel was considered. This was associated with the existence of a crushed zone dipping at 75 degree at the location of the key segment. In the analysis, moreover, the effect of changes in horizontal stress ratio on the loads on the segment was assessed. The boundary condition associated with K (ratio of the horizontal to the vertical stress) values of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 were applied to the model and separate analysis was conducted for each case. Important parameters such as stress, moments, and displacements were measured at joint locations and the surrounding rock. Accordingly, the segment joint interactions were assessed and analyzed. Moreover, rock mass properties of the Ghomrood in Ghom were adopted. In this study, the load acting on segments joints are included a crushed zone stratum force that intersect tunnel with 75 slopes in the location of the key segment, gravity force of segments and earth pressures. A numerical investigation was used for different coefficients of stress concentration of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and different geological conditions of saturated crushed zone under the critical scenario. The numerical results also demonstrate that maximum bending moments in longitudinal joints occurred for crushed zone with the weaken strengths (Sandstone). Besides that, increasing the load in segment-stratum interfaces affected radial stress in longitudinal joints and finally the opening of joints occurred.

Keywords: joint, interface, segment, contact

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9502 Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic

Authors: Yasuyuki Nabeshima

Abstract:

Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.

Keywords: tunnel, lining concrete, void, non-destructive inspection, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
9501 Modelling of Damage as Hinges in Segmented Tunnels

Authors: Gelacio JuáRez-Luna, Daniel Enrique GonzáLez-RamíRez, Enrique Tenorio-Montero

Abstract:

Frame elements coupled with springs elements are used for modelling the development of hinges in segmented tunnels, the spring elements modelled the rotational, transversal and axial failure. These spring elements are equipped with constitutive models to include independently the moment, shear force and axial force, respectively. These constitutive models are formulated based on damage mechanics and experimental test reported in the literature review. The mesh of the segmented tunnels was discretized in the software GID, and the nonlinear analyses were carried out in the finite element software ANSYS. These analyses provide the capacity curve of the primary and secondary lining of a segmented tunnel. Two numerical examples of segmented tunnels show the capability of the spring elements to release energy by the development of hinges. The first example is a segmental concrete lining discretized with frame elements loaded until hinges occurred in the lining. The second example is a tunnel with primary and secondary lining, discretized with a double ring frame model. The outer ring simulates the segmental concrete lining and the inner ring simulates the secondary cast-in-place concrete lining. Spring elements also modelled the joints between the segments in the circumferential direction and the ring joints, which connect parallel adjacent rings. The computed load vs displacement curves are congruent with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature review. It is shown that the modelling of a tunnel with primary and secondary lining with frame elements and springs provides reasonable results and save computational cost, comparing with 2D or 3D models equipped with smeared crack models.

Keywords: damage, hinges, lining, tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
9500 Study of the Effect of Seismic Behavior of Twin Tunnels Position on Each Other

Authors: M. Azadi, M. Kalhor

Abstract:

Excavation of shallow tunnels such as subways in urban areas plays a significant role as a life line and investigation of the soil behavior against tunnel construction is one of the vital subjects studied in the geotechnical scope. Nowadays, urban tunnels are mostly drilled by T.B.Ms and changing the applied forces to tunnel lining is one of the most risky matters while drilling tunnels by these machines. Variation of soil cementation can change the behavior of these forces in the tunnel lining. Therefore, this article is designed to assess the impact of tunnel excavation in different soils and several amounts of cementation on applied loads to tunnel lining under static and dynamic loads. According to the obtained results, changing the cementation of soil will affect the applied loadings to the tunnel envelope significantly. It can be determined that axial force in tunnel lining decreases considerably when soil cementation increases. Also, bending moment and shear force in tunnel lining decreases as the soil cementation increases and causes bending and shear behavior of the segments to improve. Based on the dynamic analyses, as cohesion factor in soil increases, bending moment, axial and shear forces of segments decrease but lining behavior of the tunnel is the same as static state. The results show that decreasing the overburden applied to lining caused by cementation is different in two static and dynamic states.

Keywords: seismic behavior, twin tunnels, tunnel positions, TBM, optimum distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
9499 Ground-Structure Interaction Analysis of Aged Tunnels

Authors: Behrang Dadfar, Hossein Bidhendi, Jimmy Susetyo, John Paul Abbatangelo

Abstract:

Finding structural demand under various conditions that a structure may experience during its service life is an important step towards structural life-cycle analysis. In this paper, structural demand for the precast concrete tunnel lining (PCTL) segments of Toronto’s 60-year-old subway tunnels is investigated. Numerical modelling was conducted using FLAC3D, a finite difference-based software capable of simulating ground-structure interaction and ground material’s flow in three dimensions. The specific structural details of the segmental tunnel lining, such as the convex shape of the PCTL segments at radial joints and the PCTL segment pockets, were considered in the numerical modelling. Also, the model was developed in a way to accommodate the flexibility required for the simulation of various deterioration scenarios, shapes, and patterns that have been observed over more than 20 years. The soil behavior was simulated by using plastic-hardening constitutive model of FLAC3D. The effect of the depth of the tunnel, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as well as the patterns of deterioration of the segments were studied. The structural capacity under various deterioration patterns and the existing loading conditions was evaluated using axial-flexural interaction curves that were developed for each deterioration pattern. The results were used to provide recommendations for the next phase of tunnel lining rehabilitation program.

Keywords: precast concrete tunnel lining, ground-structure interaction, numerical modelling, deterioration, tunnels

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
9498 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is generally very demanding. In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new construction method called the 'shield switching type micro-tunneling method' which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield method. In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing an intermediate shaft. This paper provides the information, features and construction examples of this newly developed method.

Keywords: micro-tunneling method, secondary lining applied RC segment, sharp curve, shield method, switching type

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
9497 Parametric Study for Obtaining the Structural Response of Segmental Tunnels in Soft Soil by Using No-Linear Numerical Models

Authors: Arturo Galván, Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martínez, Israel Enrique Herrera Díaz, José Ramón Gasca Tirado

Abstract:

In recent years, one of the methods most used for the construction of tunnels in soft soil is the shield-driven tunneling. The advantage of this construction technique is that it allows excavating the tunnel while at the same time a primary lining is placed, which consists of precast segments. There are joints between segments, also called longitudinal joints, and joints between rings (called as circumferential joints). This is the reason because of this type of constructions cannot be considered as a continuous structure. The effect of these joints influences in the rigidity of the segmental lining and therefore in its structural response. A parametric study was performed to take into account the effect of different parameters in the structural response of typical segmental tunnels built in soft soil by using non-linear numerical models based on Finite Element Method by means of the software package ANSYS v. 11.0. In the first part of this study, two types of numerical models were performed. In the first one, the segments were modeled by using beam elements based on Timoshenko beam theory whilst the segment joints were modeled by using inelastic rotational springs considering the constitutive moment-rotation relation proposed by Gladwell. In this way, the mechanical behavior of longitudinal joints was simulated. On the other hand for simulating the mechanical behavior of circumferential joints elastic springs were considered. As well as, the stability given by the soil was modeled by means of elastic-linear springs. In the second type of models, the segments were modeled by means of three-dimensional solid elements and the joints with contact elements. In these models, the zone of the joints is modeled as a discontinuous (increasing the computational effort) therefore a discrete model is obtained. With these contact elements the mechanical behavior of joints is simulated considering that when the joint is closed, there is transmission of compressive and shear stresses but not of tensile stresses and when the joint is opened, there is no transmission of stresses. This type of models can detect changes in the geometry because of the relative movement of the elements that form the joints. A comparison between the numerical results with two types of models was carried out. In this way, the hypothesis considered in the simplified models were validated. In addition, the numerical models were calibrated with (Lab-based) experimental results obtained from the literature of a typical tunnel built in Europe. In the second part of this work, a parametric study was performed by using the simplified models due to less used computational effort compared to complex models. In the parametric study, the effect of material properties, the geometry of the tunnel, the arrangement of the longitudinal joints and the coupling of the rings were studied. Finally, it was concluded that the mechanical behavior of segment and ring joints and the arrangement of the segment joints affect the global behavior of the lining. As well as, the effect of the coupling between rings modifies the structural capacity of the lining.

Keywords: numerical models, parametric study, segmental tunnels, structural response

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
9496 3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.

Keywords: bearing capacity, FLAC3D, geosynthetic, settlement, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
9495 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: analysis, distribution, Saudi, GIS, schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
9494 Epididymis in the Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae): Light Microscope Study

Authors: Bruno C. Schimming, Leandro L. Martins, PatríCia F. F. Pinheiro, Raquel F. Domeniconi, FabríCio S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The agouti is a wildlife rodent that can be used as an alternative source of animal protein and this species has been raised in captivity in Brazil with the aim of providing meat. Thus, the knowledge of their reproductive biology and morphology of the reproductive organs is important. The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of epididymis in the Azara’s agouti, by light microscopy. Samples of epididymis were obtained from five adult Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) during castration surgery performed at the Municipal Zoo of Catanduva, Brazil. Fragments of the epididymal regions (initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda) were collected. The biological samples were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde for 24 hours, followed by histologic procedures comprising embedding in ParaplastTM (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA), sections of 5 µm, and staining with HE and Masson’s trichrome. The epididymis was a highly convoluted tubule that links the testis to the vas deferens. The epithelium lining was pseudostratified columnar surrounded by a periductal stroma. The epithelium contains several cell types: principal, basal, apical, clear, and hallo cells. Principal cells were the most abundant cell type. There were observed also migratory cells named halo cells. The caput epididymis was divided into two different regions: initial segment and caput. The initial segment has a very wide lumen, a high epithelium with conspicuous microvilli and the lumen was wide with exfoliated material. The other region of the caput epididymis, showed a lower epithelium when compared with the initial segment, large amounts of spermatozoa in the lumen, and a cytoplasmic vacuolization. This region presented many narrows cells. Many spermatozoa appeared in the lumen of corpus epididymis. The cauda region had a lower epithelium than the other epididymal regions in the agouti. The cauda epithelium presented plicae protruding into the lumen. Large amounts of spermatozoa are also present in the lumen. Small microvilli uniformly arranged so as to form a kind of “brush border” are observed on the apical surface of the cauda epithelium. The pattern of the epithelium lining the duct of the agouti epididymis does not differ greatly from that reported to other mammals, such as domestic and wildlife animals. These findings can cooperate with future investigations especially those related to rational exploration of these animals. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional ethics committee (CEUA 796/2015). This study was supported by FAPESP (Grants 2015/23822-1).

Keywords: wildlife, testis excurrent ducts, epididymis, morphology

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9493 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
9492 Dynamic Analysis of Double Deck Tunnel

Authors: C. W. Kwak, I. J. Park, D. I. Jang

Abstract:

The importance of cost-wise effective application and construction is getting increase due to the surge of traffic volume in the metropolitan cities. Accordingly, the necessity of the tunnel has large section becomes more critical. Double deck tunnel can be one of the most appropriate solutions to the necessity. The dynamic stability of double deck tunnel is essential against seismic load since it has large section and connection between perimeter lining and interim slab. In this study, 3-dimensional dynamic numerical analysis was conducted based on the Finite Difference Method to investigate the seismic behavior of double deck tunnel. Seismic joint for dynamic stability and the mitigation of seismic impact on the lining was considered in the modeling and analysis. Consequently, the mitigation of acceleration, lining displacement and stress were verified successfully.

Keywords: double deck tunnel, interim slab, 3-dimensional dynamic numerical analysis, seismic joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
9491 Utilization of Treated Spend Pot Lining by Product from the Primary Aluminum Production in Cement and Concrete

Authors: Hang Tran, Victor Brial, Luca Sorelli, Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon, David Conciatori, Laurent Birry

Abstract:

Spend pot lining (SPL) is a by-product generated from primary aluminum production. SPL consists of two parts, the first cut is rich in carbonaceous materials, and the second cut is rich in aluminum and silicon oxides. After treating by the hydrometallurgical Low Caustic Leaching and Liming process, the refractory part of SPL becomes an inert material, called LCLL ash in this project. LCLL ash was calcined at different temperatures (800 and 1000°C) and Calcined LCLL ash ground as fines of cement and replacement a part of cement in concrete production. The effect of LCLL ash on the chemical properties, mechanical properties and fresh behavior of concrete was evaluated by isothermal calorimetry, compressive test, and slump test. These results were compared to the reference mixture.

Keywords: spend pot lining, concrete, cement, compressive strength, calorimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
9490 Investigation of Bird Impact on Tailplane

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

The typical airplane stabilizer structures consist of two main similar segments (outer and inner parts), one of them a little larger than the other. In this study, bird impact on four different spots of the stabilizer structure: (a) between two ribs of smaller segment, (b) between two ribs of larger segment, (c) on the rib connecting the two segments, and (d) on a middle rib of the smaller segment, is investigated and their results are compared by means of energy absorption, displacement, and bird’s mass diagrams as well as visible damage induced on the stabilizer structure.

Keywords: airplane, bird strike, LS-DYNA, stabilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
9489 Analysis Customer Loyalty Characteristic and Segmentation Analysis in Mobile Phone Category in Indonesia

Authors: A. B. Robert, Adam Pramadia, Calvin Andika

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to explore consumer loyalty characteristic of mobile phone category in Indonesia. Second, this research attempts to identify consumer segment and to explore their profile in each segment as the basis of marketing strategy formulation. This study used some tools of multivariate analysis such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis. Discriminate analysis used to discriminate consumer loyal and not loyal by using particular variables. Cluster analysis used to reveal various segment in mobile phone category. In addition to having better customer understanding in each segment, this study used descriptive analysis and cross tab analysis in each segment defined by cluster analysis. This study expected several findings. First, consumer can be divided into two large group of loyal versus not loyal by set of variables. Second, this study identifies customer segment in mobile phone category. Third, exploring customer profile in each segment that has been identified. This study answer a call for additional empirical research into different product categories. Therefore, a replication research is advisable. By knowing the customer loyalty characteristic, and deep analysis of their consumption behavior and profile for each segment, this study is very advisable for high impact marketing strategy development. This study contributes body of knowledge by adding empirical study of consumer loyalty, segmentation analysis in mobile phone category by multiple brand analysis.

Keywords: customer loyalty, segmentation, marketing strategy, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, mobile phone

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
9488 Quality Evaluation of Backfill Grout in Tunnel Boring Machine Tail Void Using Impact-Echo (IE): Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) Numerical Analysis

Authors: Ju-Young Choi, Ki-Il Song, Kyoung-Yul Kim

Abstract:

During Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) tunnel excavation, backfill grout should be injected after the installation of segment lining to ensure the stability of the tunnel and to minimize ground deformation. If grouting is not sufficient to fill the gap between the segments and rock mass, hydraulic pressures occur in the void, which can negatively influence the stability of the tunnel. Recently the tendency to use TBM tunnelling method to replace the drill and blast(NATM) method is increasing. However, there are only a few studies of evaluation of backfill grout. This study evaluates the TBM tunnel backfill state using Impact-Echo(IE). 3-layers, segment-grout-rock mass, are simulated by FLAC 2D, FDM-based software. The signals obtained from numerical analysis and IE test are analyzed by Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT) in time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain. The result of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of backfill grouting in tail void.

Keywords: tunnel boring machine, backfill grout, impact-echo method, time-frequency domain analysis, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
9487 Dry Matter, Moisture, Ash and Crude Fibre Content in Distinct Segments of ‘Durian Kampung’ Husk

Authors: Norhanim Nordin, Rosnah Shamsudin, Azrina Azlan, Mohammad Effendy Ya’acob

Abstract:

An environmental friendly approach for disposal of voluminous durian husk waste could be implemented by substituting them into various valuable commodities, such as healthcare and biofuel products. Thus, the study of composition value in each segment of durian husk was very crucial to determine the suitable proportions of nutrients that need to be added and mixed in the product. A total of 12 ‘Durian Kampung’ fruits from Sg Ruan, Pahang were selected and each fruit husk was divided into four segments and labelled as P-L (thin neck area of white inner husk), P-B (thick bottom area of white inner husk), H (green and thorny outer husk) and W (whole combination of P-B and H). Four experiments have been carried out to determine the dry matter, moisture, ash and crude fibre content. The results show that the H segment has the highest dry matter content (30.47%), while the P-B segment has the highest percentage in moisture (81.83%) and ash (6.95%) content. It was calculated that the ash content of the P-B segment has a higher rate of moisture level which causes the ash content to increase about 2.89% from the P-L segment. These data have proven that each segment of durian husk has a significant difference in terms of composition value, which might be useful information to fully utilize every part of the durian husk in the future.

Keywords: durian husk, crude fibre content, dry matter content, moisture content

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9486 50+ Customers' Behavior in the Financial Market of the Czech Republic

Authors: K. Matušínská, H. Starzyczná, M. Stoklasa

Abstract:

The paper deals with behaviour of the segment 50+ in the financial market in the Czech Republic. This segment could be said as the strong market power and it can be a crucial business potential for financial business units. The main defined objective of this paper is analysis of the customers´ behaviour of the segment 50-60 years in the financial market in the Czech Republic and proposal making of the suitable marketing approach to satisfy their demands in the area of product, price, distribution and marketing communication policy. This paper is based on data from one part of primary marketing research. Paper determinates the basic problem areas as well as definition of financial services marketing, defining the primary research problem, hypothesis and primary research methodology. Finally suitable marketing approach to selected sub-segment at age of 50-60 years is proposed according to marketing research findings.

Keywords: population aging in the Czech Republic, segment 50-60 years, financial services marketing, marketing research, marketing approach

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9485 Application of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Authors: Richard Ayobayowa Foyewa

Abstract:

This work examined the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. The definition of ICT was given briefly before areas in which the ICT could be applied in teaching and learning of English language were observed. Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of the computer and Internet facilities were also observed. The conclusion drawn was that ICT is very relevant in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. It was therefore recommended that teachers who are not computer literate should go for the training without further delay; government should always employ English language teachers who are computer literates. Government should make fund available in schools for the training and re-training of English language teachers in various computer programmes and in making internet facilities available in secondary schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning of English

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
9484 Effective Communication with the Czech Customers 50+ in the Financial Market

Authors: K. Matušínská, H. Starzyczná, M. Stoklasa

Abstract:

The paper deals with finding and describing of the effective marketing communication forms relating to the segment 50+ in the financial market in the Czech Republic. The segment 50+ can be seen as a great marketing potential in the future but unfortunately the Czech financial institutions haven´t still reacted enough to this fact and they haven´t prepared appropriate marketing programs for this customers´ segment. Demographic aging is a fundamental characteristic of the current European population evolution but the perspective of further population aging is more noticeable in the Czech Republic. This paper is based on data from one part of primary marketing research. Paper determinates the basic problem areas as well as definition of marketing communication in the financial market, defining the primary research problem, hypothesis and primary research methodology. Finally suitable marketing communication approach to selected sub-segment at age of 50-60 years is proposed according to marketing research findings.

Keywords: population aging in the Czech Republic, segment 50+, financial services, marketing communication, marketing research, marketing communication approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
9483 Web Page Design Optimisation Based on Segment Analytics

Authors: Varsha V. Rohini, P. R. Shreya, B. Renukadevi

Abstract:

In the web analytics the information delivery and the web usage is optimized and the analysis of data is done. The analytics is the measurement, collection and analysis of webpage data. Page statistics and user metrics are the important factor in most of the web analytics tool. This is the limitation of the existing tools. It does not provide design inputs for the optimization of information. This paper aims at providing an extension for the scope of web analytics to provide analysis and statistics of each segment of a webpage. The number of click count is calculated and the concentration of links in a web page is obtained. Its user metrics are used to help in proper design of the displayed content in a webpage by Vision Based Page Segmentation (VIPS) algorithm. When the algorithm is applied on the web page it divides the entire web page into the visual block tree. The visual block tree generated will further divide the web page into visual blocks or segments which help us to understand the usage of each segment in a page and its content. The dynamic web pages and deep web pages are used to extend the scope of web page segment analytics. Space optimization concept is used with the help of the output obtained from the Vision Based Page Segmentation (VIPS) algorithm. This technique provides us the visibility of the user interaction with the WebPages and helps us to place the important links in the appropriate segments of the webpage and effectively manage space in a page and the concentration of links.

Keywords: analytics, design optimization, visual block trees, vision based technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
9482 Feature Extractions of EMG Signals during a Constant Workload Pedaling Exercise

Authors: Bing-Wen Chen, Alvin W. Y. Su, Yu-Lin Wang

Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) is one of the important indicators during exercise, as it is closely related to the level of muscle activations. This work quantifies the muscle conditions of the lower limbs in a constant workload exercise. Surface EMG signals of the vastus laterals (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius medianus (GM), gastrocnemius lateral (GL) and Soleus (SOL) were recorded from fourteen healthy males. The EMG signals were segmented in two phases: activation segment (AS) and relaxation segment (RS). Period entropy (PE), peak count (PC), zero crossing (ZC), wave length (WL), mean power frequency (MPF), median frequency (MDF) and root mean square (RMS) are calculated to provide the quantitative information of the measured EMG segments. The outcomes reveal that the PE, PC, ZC and RMS have significantly changed (p<.001); WL presents moderately changed (p<.01); MPF and MDF show no changed (p>.05) during exercise. The results also suggest that the RS is also preferred for performance evaluation, while the results of the extracted features in AS are usually affected directly by the amplitudes. It is further found that the VL exhibits the most significant changes within six muscles during pedaling exercise. The proposed work could be applied to quantify the stamina analysis and to predict the instant muscle status in athletes.

Keywords: electromyographic feature extraction, muscle status, pedaling exercise, relaxation segment

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9481 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza

Abstract:

Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: cord lining epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell, regenerative medicine, umbilical cord

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9480 Observation and Study of Landslides Affecting the Tangier: Oued Rmel Motorway Segment

Authors: S. Houssaini, L. Bahi

Abstract:

The motorway segment between Tangier and Oued R’mel has experienced, since the beginning of building works, significant instability and landslides linked to a number of geological, hydrogeological and geothermic factors affecting the different formations. The landslides observed are not fully understood, despite many studies conducted on this segment. This study aims at producing new methods to better explain the phenomena behind the landslides, taking into account the geotechnical and geothermic contexts. This analysis builds up on previous studies and geotechnical data collected in the field. The final body of data collected shall be processed through the Plaxis software for a better and customizable view of the landslide problems in the area, which will help to find solutions and stabilize land in the area.

Keywords: landslides, modeling, risk, stabilization

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9479 Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Lining Stem Cells For Wound Healing in Diabetic Murine Model

Authors: Fui Ping Lim, Wen Choong Chua, Toan Thang Phan

Abstract:

Aim: This study investigates the roles of Cord Lining Stem Cells (CLSCs) as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic wounds. Method: 20 genetically diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to two arms; (i) control group received placebo treatment (sham media or cells delivery material), and (ii) active comparator received CLSCs. Two full-thickness wounds, each sized 10mm X 10mm were created, one on each side of the midline on the back of the mice. Digital pictures were taken on day 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28. Wound areas were analyzed with ImageJ TM software and calculated as percentage of the original wound. Time to closure was defined as the day the wound bed was completely epithelized and filled with new tissues. Results: The CLSCs-treated wounds, showed a significant increase in the percentage of wound closure and achieved 100% closure of the wound sooner than the control group by an average of 3.7 days. The mice treated with CLSCs have a shorter wound closure time (mean closure day: 19.8 days) as compared to the control group (mean closure day: 23.5 days). Conclusion: Our preliminary findings inferred that CLSCs treated wound achieved higher percentage of wound closure within a shorter duration of time.

Keywords: cord lining stem cell, diabetic wound, stem cell, wound

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9478 Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk

Authors: Mohamed Anouar Razgallah

Abstract:

This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.

Keywords: secondary prevention, primary prevention, background risk, ecomomics

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9477 Air Classification of Dust from Steel Converter Secondary De-dusting for Zinc Enrichment

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer

Abstract:

The off-gas from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), where pig iron is converted into steel, is treated in the primary ventilation system. This system is in full operation only during oxygen-blowing when the BOF converter vessel is in a vertical position. When pig iron and scrap are charged into the BOF and when slag or steel are tapped, the vessel is tilted. The generated emissions during charging and tapping cannot be captured by the primary off-gas system. To capture these emissions, a secondary ventilation system is usually installed. The emissions are captured by a canopy hood installed just above the converter mouth in tilted position. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of Zn and other components on the particle size of BOF secondary ventilation dust. Because of the high temperature of the BOF process it can be expected that Zn will be enriched in the fine dust fractions. If Zn is enriched in the fine fractions, classification could be applied to split the dust into two size fractions with a different content of Zn. For this air classification experiments with dust from the secondary ventilation system of a BOF were performed. The results show that Zn and Pb are highly enriched in the finest dust fraction. For Cd, Cu and Sb the enrichment is less. In contrast, the non-volatile metals Al, Fe, Mn and Ti were depleted in the fine fractions. Thus, air classification could be considered for the treatment of dust from secondary BOF off-gas cleaning.

Keywords: air classification, converter dust, recycling, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
9476 Medical Neural Classifier Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fadzil Ahmad, Noor Ashidi Mat Isa

Abstract:

This study introduces an improved genetic algorithm procedure that focuses search around near optimal solution corresponded to a group of elite chromosome. This is achieved through a novel crossover technique known as Segmented Multi Chromosome Crossover. It preserves the highly important information contained in a gene segment of elite chromosome and allows an offspring to carry information from gene segment of multiple chromosomes. In this way the algorithm has better possibility to effectively explore the solution space. The improved GA is applied for the automatic and simultaneous parameter optimization and feature selection of artificial neural network in pattern recognition of medical problem, the cancer and diabetes disease. The experimental result shows that the average classification accuracy of the cancer and diabetes dataset has improved by 0.1% and 0.3% respectively using the new algorithm.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, pattern clasification, classification accuracy

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9475 Secondary Metabolites from Turkish Marine-Derived Fungi Hypocrea nigricans

Authors: H. Heydari, B. Konuklugil, P. Proksch

Abstract:

Marine-derived fungi can produce interesting bioactive secondary metabolites that can be considered the potential for drug development. Turkey is a country of a peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea at the north, the Aegean Sea at the west, and the Mediterranean Sea at the south. Despite the approximately 8400 km of coastline, studies on marine secondary metabolites and their biological activity are limited. In our ongoing search for new natural products with different bioactivities produced by the marine-derived fungi, we have investigated secondary metabolites of Turkish collection of the marine sea slug (Peltodoris atromaculata) associated fungi Hypocrea nigricans collected from Seferihisar in the Egean sea. According to the author’s best knowledge, no study was found on this fungal species in terms of secondary metabolites. Isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Hypocrea nigricans were (isodihydroauroglaucin,tetrahydroauroglaucin and dihydroauroglaucin. The structures of the compounds were established based on an NMR and MS analysis. Structural elucidation of another isolated secondary metabolite/s continues.

Keywords: Hypocrea nigricans, isolation, marine fungi, secondary metabolites

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9474 Handy Ekg: Low-Cost ECG For Primary Care Screening In Developing Countries

Authors: Jhiamluka Zservando Solano Velasquez, Raul Palma, Alejandro Calderon, Servio Paguada, Erick Marin, Kellyn Funes, Hana Sandoval, Oscar Hernandez

Abstract:

Background: Screening cardiac conditions in primary care in developing countries can be challenging, and Honduras is not the exception. One of the main limitations is the underfunding of the Healthcare System in general, causing conventional ECG acquisition to become a secondary priority. Objective: Development of a low-cost ECG to improve screening of arrhythmias in primary care and communication with a specialist in secondary and tertiary care. Methods: Design a portable, pocket-size low-cost 3 lead ECG (Handy EKG). The device is autonomous and has Wi-Fi/Bluetooth connectivity options. A mobile app was designed which can access online servers with machine learning, a subset of artificial intelligence to learn from the data and aid clinicians in their interpretation of readings. Additionally, the device would use the online servers to transfer patient’s data and readings to a specialist in secondary and tertiary care. 50 randomized patients volunteer to participate to test the device. The patients had no previous cardiac-related conditions, and readings were taken. One reading was performed with the conventional ECG and 3 readings with the Handy EKG using different lead positions. This project was possible thanks to the funding provided by the National Autonomous University of Honduras. Results: Preliminary results show that the Handy EKG performs readings of the cardiac activity similar to those of a conventional electrocardiograph in lead I, II, and III depending on the position of the leads at a lower cost. The wave and segment duration, amplitude, and morphology of the readings were similar to the conventional ECG, and interpretation was possible to conclude whether there was an arrhythmia or not. Two cases of prolonged PR segment were found in both ECG device readings. Conclusion: Using a Frugal innovation approach can allow lower income countries to develop innovative medical devices such as the Handy EKG to fulfill unmet needs at lower prices without compromising effectiveness, safety, and quality. The Handy EKG provides a solution for primary care screening at a much lower cost and allows for convenient storage of the readings in online servers where clinical data of patients can then be accessed remotely by Cardiology specialists.

Keywords: low-cost hardware, portable electrocardiograph, prototype, remote healthcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 75