Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16211

Search results for: branch and bound method

16211 An Efficient Approach to Optimize the Cost and Profit of a Tea Garden by Using Branch and Bound Method

Authors: Abu Hashan Md Mashud, M. Sharif Uddin, Aminur Rahman Khan


In this paper, we formulate a new problem as a linear programming and Integer Programming problem and maximize profit within the limited budget and limited resources based on the construction of a tea garden problem. It describes a new idea about how to optimize profit and focuses on the practical aspects of modeling and the challenges of providing a solution to a complex real life problem. Finally, a comparative study is carried out among Graphical method, Simplex method and Branch and bound method.

Keywords: integer programming, tea garden, graphical method, simplex method, branch and bound method

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
16210 A Parallel Algorithm for Solving the PFSP on the Grid

Authors: Samia Kouki


Solving NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems by exact search methods, such as Branch-and-Bound, may degenerate to complete enumeration. For that reason, exact approaches limit us to solve only small or moderate size problem instances, due to the exponential increase in CPU time when problem size increases. One of the most promising ways to reduce significantly the computational burden of sequential versions of Branch-and-Bound is to design parallel versions of these algorithms which employ several processors. This paper describes a parallel Branch-and-Bound algorithm called GALB for solving the classical permutation flowshop scheduling problem as well as its implementation on a Grid computing infrastructure. The experimental study of our distributed parallel algorithm gives promising results and shows clearly the benefit of the parallel paradigm to solve large-scale instances in moderate CPU time.

Keywords: grid computing, permutation flow shop problem, branch and bound, load balancing

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
16209 Sparse Principal Component Analysis: A Least Squares Approximation Approach

Authors: Giovanni Merola


Sparse Principal Components Analysis aims to find principal components with few non-zero loadings. We derive such sparse solutions by adding a genuine sparsity requirement to the original Principal Components Analysis (PCA) objective function. This approach differs from others because it preserves PCA's original optimality: uncorrelatedness of the components and least squares approximation of the data. To identify the best subset of non-zero loadings we propose a branch-and-bound search and an iterative elimination algorithm. This last algorithm finds sparse solutions with large loadings and can be run without specifying the cardinality of the loadings and the number of components to compute in advance. We give thorough comparisons with the existing sparse PCA methods and several examples on real datasets.

Keywords: SPCA, uncorrelated components, branch-and-bound, backward elimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
16208 Scheduling Method for Electric Heater in HEMS considering User’s Comfort

Authors: Yong-Sung Kim, Je-Seok Shin, Ho-Jun Jo, Jin-O Kim


Home Energy Management System (HEMS) which makes the residential consumers contribute to the demand response is attracting attention in recent years. An aim of HEMS is to minimize their electricity cost by controlling the use of their appliances according to electricity price. The use of appliances in HEMS may be affected by some conditions such as external temperature and electricity price. Therefore, the user’s usage pattern of appliances should be modeled according to the external conditions, and the resultant usage pattern is related to the user’s comfortability on use of each appliances. This paper proposes a methodology to model the usage pattern based on the historical data with the copula function. Through copula function, the usage range of each appliance can be obtained and is able to satisfy the appropriate user’s comfort according to the external conditions for next day. Within the usage range, an optimal scheduling for appliances would be conducted so as to minimize an electricity cost with considering user’s comfort. Among the home appliance, electric heater (EH) is a representative appliance which is affected by the external temperature. In this paper, an optimal scheduling algorithm for an electric heater (EH) is addressed based on the method of branch and bound. As a result, scenarios for the EH usage are obtained according to user’s comfort levels and then the residential consumer would select the best scenario. The case study shows the effects of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional operation of the EH, and it also represents impacts of the comfort level on the scheduling result.

Keywords: load scheduling, usage pattern, user’s comfort, copula function, branch and bound, electric heater

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
16207 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Abu Hasan, Rochmadi, Hary Sulistyo, Suharto Honggokusumo


This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
16206 The Study of Effect the Number of Cluster in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Seyeh Hassan Eftekhar Afzali, Hamid Mohammadi


Pistachio is like almond but the second cycle of growth (third phase) has rather fast growth. This is caused to add final mass of product. When the germ grows, it and its cover are reached to the final size during six week period. As starting the second phase, the lignifications of pericarp is begun and continued for 4 or 6 weeks. Physiological maturity or easy separation of green from scutum is specified. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results of the bunch numbers on the growth of branch in current year are shown that the most growth of branch is happened by trimming of one and two bunches of the branch and the most diameter of the branch is happened by trimming of one to four bunches of branch. Trimming of a bunch is caused the most number of pistachio products in the bunch.

Keywords: pistachio, cluster, bud, fruit, branch

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
16205 An Approach to the Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Uncertain Operation Time

Authors: Zhongmin Wang, Lin Wei, Hengshan Zhang, Tianhua Chen, Yimin Zhou


The assembly line balancing problems are signficant in mass production systems. In order to deal with the uncertainties that practically exist but barely mentioned in the literature, this paper develops a mathematic model with an optimisation algorithm to solve the assembly line balancing problem with uncertainty operation time. The developed model is able to work with a variable number of workstations under the uncertain environment, aiming to obtain the minimal number of workstation and minimal idle time for each workstation. In particular, the proposed approach first introduces the concept of protection time that closely works with the uncertain operation time. Four dominance rules and the mechanism of determining up and low bounds are subsequently put forward, which serve as the basis for the proposed branch and bound algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed work verified on a benchmark data set is able to solve the uncertainties efficiently.

Keywords: assembly lines, SALBP-UOT, uncertain operation time, branch and bound algorithm.

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16204 Spin-Dependent Transport Signatures of Bound States: From Finger to Top Gates

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Yu, Chi-Shung Tang, Nzar Rauf Abdullah, Vidar Gudmundsson


Spin-orbit gap feature in energy dispersion of one-dimensional devices is revealed via strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) effects under Zeeman field. We describe the utilization of a finger-gate or a top-gate to control the spin-dependent transport characteristics in the SOI-Zeeman influenced split-gate devices by means of a generalized spin-mixed propagation matrix method. For the finger-gate system, we find a bound state in continuum for incident electrons within the ultra-low energy regime. For the top-gate system, we observe more bound-state features in conductance associated with the formation of spin-associated hole-like or electron-like quasi-bound states around band thresholds, as well as hole bound states around the reverse point of the energy dispersion. We demonstrate that the spin-dependent transport behavior of a top-gate system is similar to that of a finger-gate system only if the top-gate length is less than the effective Fermi wavelength.

Keywords: spin-orbit, zeeman, top-gate, finger-gate, bound state

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
16203 Investigation of Axisymmetric Bimetallic Tube Extrusion with Conic Die

Authors: A. Eghbali, M. Goodarzi, M. Hagh Panahi


In this article process of direct extrusion of axisymmetric bimetallic tube with conic die profile and constant Mandrel by upper bound method has been analyzed and finite element method is simulated. Deformation area is divided into six smaller deformation areas and are calculated by presenting two generalized velocity field and applicable input and output sections separately (velocity profile with logarithmic curve for input section and spherical velocity profile for materials output ) for each die profile in spherical coordinate system strain rate values in every deformation area. After internal power, shearing power and material friction power is obtained, extrusion force is calculated. The results of upper bound analysis method with given results from other researcher's experiments and simulation by finite parts method (Abaqus software) are compared for conic die.

Keywords: extrusion, upper bound, axisy metric, deformation velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
16202 Application of Double Side Approach Method on Super Elliptical Winkler Plate

Authors: Hsiang-Wen Tang, Cheng-Ying Lo


In this study, the static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate is analyzed by applying the double side approach method. The lack of information about super elliptical Winkler plates is the motivation of this study and we use the double side approach method to solve this problem because of its superior ability on efficiently treating problems with complex boundary shape. The double side approach method has the advantages of high accuracy, easy calculation procedure and less calculation load required. Most important of all, it can give the error bound of the approximate solution. The numerical results not only show that the double side approach method works well on this problem but also provide us the knowledge of static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate in practical use.

Keywords: super elliptical winkler plate, double side approach method, error bound, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
16201 A Numerical Study of Seismic Effects on Slope Stability Using Node-Based Smooth Finite Element Method

Authors: H. C. Nguyen


This contribution considers seismic effects on the stability of slope and footing resting on a slope. The seismic force is simply treated as static inertial force through the values of acceleration factor. All domains are assumed to be plasticity deformations approximated using node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM). The failure mechanism and safety factor were then explored using numerical procedure based on upper bound approach in which optimization problem was formed as second order cone programming (SOCP). The data obtained confirm that upper bound procedure using NS-FEM and SOCP can give stable and rapid convergence results of seismic stability factors.

Keywords: upper bound analysis, safety factor, slope stability, footing resting on slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
16200 Methodological Aspect of Emergy Accounting in Co-Production Branching Systems

Authors: Keshab Shrestha, Hung-Suck Park


Emergy accounting of the systems networks is guided by a definite rule called ‘emergy algebra’. The systems networks consist of two types of branching. These are the co-product branching and split branching. The emergy accounting procedure for both the branching types is different. According to the emergy algebra, each branch in the co-product branching has different transformity values whereas the split branching has the same transformity value. After the transformity value of each branch is determined, the emergy is calculated by multiplying this with the energy. The aim of this research is to solve the problems in determining the transformity values in the co-product branching through the introduction of a new methodology, the modified physical quantity method. Initially, the existing methodologies for emergy accounting in the co-product branching is discussed and later, the modified physical quantity method is introduced with a case study of the Eucalyptus pulp production. The existing emergy accounting methodologies in the co-product branching has wrong interpretations with incorrect emergy calculations. The modified physical quantity method solves those problems of emergy accounting in the co-product branching systems. The transformity value calculated for each branch is different and also applicable in the emergy calculations. The methodology also strictly follows the emergy algebra rules. This new modified physical quantity methodology is a valid approach in emergy accounting particularly in the multi-production systems networks.

Keywords: co-product branching, emergy accounting, emergy algebra, modified physical quantity method, transformity value

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
16199 Grid Computing for Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

Authors: Aouaouche Elmaouhab, Hassina Beggar


Solving multi-objective discrete optimization applications has always been limited by the resources of one machine: By computing power or by memory, most often both. To speed up the calculations, the grid computing represents a primary solution for the treatment of these applications through the parallelization of these resolution methods. In this work, we are interested in the study of some methods for solving multiple objective integer linear programming problem based on Branch-and-Bound and the study of grid computing technology. This study allowed us to propose an implementation of the method of Abbas and Al on the grid by reducing the execution time. To enhance our contribution, the main results are presented.

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, integer linear programming, grid computing, parallel computing

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16198 Bacteriological Analysis of Logan's Branch Rowan County, Kentucky Utilizing Membrane Filtration Method

Authors: Elizabeth G. Hereford, Geoffrey W. Gearner


Logan’s Branch, within the Triplett Creek Watershed of Rowan County, Kentucky, is a waterway located near important agricultural and residential areas. Part of Logan’s Branch flows over an exposed black shale formation with elevated radioactivity and heavy metals. Three sites were chosen in relation to the formation and sampled five times over a thirty-day period during the recreational season. A fourth site in North Fork in Rowan County, Kentucky was also sampled periodically as it too has contact with the shale formation. These sites were then sampled monthly. All samples are analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and total coliform bacteria utilizing the membrane filtration method and various culture media. Current data suggests that the radioactivity of the shale formation influences the bacteriological growth present in the waterway; however, further data will be collected and compared with that of my colleagues to confirm this trend.

Keywords: bacteriological analysis, Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, radioactive black shale formation, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
16197 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon


Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

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16196 Evaluation of Water Quality of the Surface Water of the Damietta Nile Branch, Damietta Governorate, Egypt

Authors: M. S. M. El-Bady


Water quality and heavy metals pollution of the Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta governorate were investigated in the current work. Fourteen different sampling points were selected along the Damietta Nile branch from Ras EL-Bar (sample 1) to Sheremsah (sample 14). Physical and chemical parameters and the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Al, Hg, Pb and Zn were investigated for water quality assessment of Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta Governorate. Most of the samples show that the water is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. All locations of samples near the sea are unsuitable water but the samples in the south direction away from the sea are suitable or good water for drinking and irrigation.

Keywords: water quality indices, Damietta Governorate, Nile river, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
16195 Optimal Classifying and Extracting Fuzzy Relationship from Query Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Faisal Alshuwaier, Ali Areshey


Text mining techniques are generally applied for classifying the text, finding fuzzy relations and structures in data sets. This research provides plenty text mining capabilities. One common application is text classification and event extraction, which encompass deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. The main contribution of this paper is the clarification of a concept graph generation mechanism, which is based on a text classification and optimal fuzzy relationship extraction. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper explains the application of fuzzy relationship extraction and branch and bound method to simplify the texts.

Keywords: extraction, max-prod, fuzzy relations, text mining, memberships, classification, memberships, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
16194 Upper Bound of the Generalized P-Value for the Difference between Two Future Population Means

Authors: Rada Somkhuean, Sa-aat Niwitpong, Suparat Niwitpong


This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the difference between two future population means when the variances are unknown, in both cases for when the variances are equal and unequal. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: generalized p-value, two future population means, upper bound, variances

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
16193 Interaction of Low-Energy Positrons with Mg Atoms: Elastic Scattering, Bound States, and Annihilation

Authors: Mahasen M. Abdel Mageed, H. S. Zaghloul


Annihilations, phase shifts, scattering lengths, and elastic cross sections of low energy positrons scattering from magnesium atoms were studied using the least-squares variational method (LSVM). The possibility of positron binding to the magnesium atoms is investigated. A trial wavefunction is suggested to represent e+-Mg elastic scattering and scattering parameters were derived to estimate the binding energy and annihilation rates. The trial function is taken to depend on several adjustable parameters and is improved iteratively by increasing the number of terms. The present results have the same behavior as reported semi-empirical, theoretical, and experimental results. Especially, the estimated positive scattering length supports the possibility of positron-magnesium bound state system that was confirmed in previous experimental and theoretical work.

Keywords: bound wavefunction, positron annihilation, scattering phase shift, scattering length

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
16192 Dynamic Response Analysis of Structure with Random Parameters

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


In this paper, we propose a method for the dynamic response of multi-storey structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example of three-storey structures. This equation is integrated numerically using Newmark’s method. The numerical results are obtained by the proposed method. The simulation accounting the interval analysis method results are compared with a probabilistic approach results. The interval analysis method provides a mean curve that is between an upper and lower bound obtained from the probabilistic approach.

Keywords: multi-storey structure, dynamic response, interval analysis method, random parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
16191 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The inferior gluteal artery is a prominent branch of the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Current study investigates the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose from the anterior trunk in 37.5% independently and 45.7% dependently as with the internal pudendal artery. Therefore, it arose from the anterior trunk in 83.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior trunk of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch in 1.5%. Beside the inferior gluteal artery arose with internal pudendal artery as from GPT of anterior division in 45.7%, it arose from the GPT arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.5%. Further, the inferior gluteal artery arose from the trunk with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk. Occasionally, it arose from the sciatic artery in 1.5%. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid. Further, it may also prevent avascular necrosis of femur neck as well as gluteal claudication.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, sciatic neuropathy, gluteal claudication

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
16190 Quantum Fisher Information of Bound Entangled W-Like States

Authors: Fatih Ozaydin


Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a multipartite entanglement witness and recently it has been studied extensively with separability and entanglement in the focus. On the other hand, bound entanglement is a special phenomena observed in mixed entangled states. In this work, we study the QFI of W states under a four-dimensional entanglement binding channel. Starting with initally pure W states of several qubits, we find how the QFI decreases as two qubits of the W state is subject to entanglement binding. We also show that as the size of the W state increases, the effect of entanglement binding is decreased.

Keywords: Quantum Fisher information, W states, bound entanglement, entanglement binding

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
16189 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin in United Kingdom Population

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The inferior gluteal artery is a largest branch of the anterior division of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Present study explores the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose directly from the anterior division of internal iliac artery in 39% and 45.7% indirectly as with the internal pudendal artery. Further, it arose indirectly from anterior division with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk in 1.5%. Therefore, it arose from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 86.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch (as from the sciatic artery) in 1.5%. It neither arose from anterior or posterior division in 1.5% as from gluteopudendal trunk arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy or gluteal claudication due to prolonged ligation in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal pudendal, sciatic nerve, sciatic artery, gluteal claudication, sciatic neuopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
16188 Ferromagnetic Potts Models with Multi Site Interaction

Authors: Nir Schreiber, Reuven Cohen, Simi Haber


The Potts model has been widely explored in the literature for the last few decades. While many analytical and numerical results concern with the traditional two site interaction model in various geometries and dimensions, little is yet known about models where more than two spins simultaneously interact. We consider a ferromagnetic four site interaction Potts model on the square lattice (FFPS), where the four spins reside in the corners of an elementary square. Each spin can take an integer value 1,2,...,q. We write the partition function as a sum over clusters consisting of monochromatic faces. When the number of faces becomes large, tracing out spin configurations is equivalent to enumerating large lattice animals. It is known that the asymptotic number of animals with k faces is governed by λᵏ, with λ ≈ 4.0626. Based on this observation, systems with q < 4 and q > 4 exhibit a second and first order phase transitions, respectively. The transition nature of the q = 4 case is borderline. For any q, a critical giant component (GC) is formed. In the finite order case, GC is simple, while it is fractal when the transition is continuous. Using simple equilibrium arguments, we obtain a (zero order) bound on the transition point. It is claimed that this bound should apply for other lattices as well. Next, taking into account higher order sites contributions, the critical bound becomes tighter. Moreover, for q > 4, if corrections due to contributions from small clusters are negligible in the thermodynamic limit, the improved bound should be exact. The improved bound is used to relate the critical point to the finite correlation length. Our analytical predictions are confirmed by an extensive numerical study of FFPS, using the Wang-Landau method. In particular, the q=4 marginal case is supported by a very ambiguous pseudo-critical finite size behavior.

Keywords: entropic sampling, lattice animals, phase transitions, Potts model

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16187 Radiochemical Purity of 68Ga-BCA-Peptides: Separation of All 68Ga Species with a Single iTLC Strip

Authors: Anton A. Larenkov, Alesya Ya Maruk


In the present study, highly effective iTLC single strip method for the determination of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 68Ga-BCA-peptides was developed (with no double-developing, changing of eluents or other additional manipulation). In this method iTLC-SG strips and commonly used eluent TFAaq. (3-5 % (v/v)) are used. The method allows determining each of the key radiochemical forms of 68Ga (colloidal, bound, ionic) separately with the peaks separation being no less than 4 σ. Rf = 0.0-0.1 for 68Ga-colloid; Rf = 0.5-0.6 for 68Ga-BCA-peptides; Rf = 0.9-1.0 for ionic 68Ga. The method is simple and fast: For developing length of 75 mm only 4-6 min is required (versus 18-20 min for pharmacopoeial method). The method has been tested on various compounds (including 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE, 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD2 etc.). The cross-validation work for every specific form of 68Ga showed good correlation between method developed and control (pharmacopoeial) methods. The method can become convenient and much more informative replacement for pharmacopoeial methods, including HPLC.

Keywords: DOTA-TATE, 68Ga, quality control, radiochemical purity, radiopharmaceuticals, TLC

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16186 Fuzzy Gauge Capability (Cg and Cgk) through Buckley Approach

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohsen Sadegh Amalnick


Different terms of the statistical process control (SPC) has sketch in the fuzzy environment. However, measurement system analysis (MSA), as a main branch of the SPC, is rarely investigated in fuzzy area. This procedure assesses the suitability of the data to be used in later stages or decisions of the SPC. Therefore, this research focuses on some important measures of MSA and through a new method introduces the measures in fuzzy environment. In this method, which works based on Buckley approach, imprecision and vagueness nature of the real world measurement are considered simultaneously. To do so, fuzzy version of the gauge capability (Cg and Cgk) are introduced. The method is also explained through example clearly.

Keywords: measurement, SPC, MSA, gauge capability (Cg and Cgk)

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16185 Open Forging of Cylindrical Blanks Subjected to Lateral Instability

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, D. M. Almutairi


The successful and efficient execution of a forging process is dependent upon the correct analysis of loading and metal flow of blanks. This paper investigates the Upper Bound Technique (UBT) and its application in the analysis of open forging process when a possibility of blank bulging exists. The UBT is one of the energy rate minimization methods for the solution of metal forming process based on the upper bound theorem. In this regards, the kinematically admissible velocity field is obtained by minimizing the total forging energy rate. A computer program is developed in this research to implement the UBT. The significant advantages of this method is the speed of execution while maintaining a fairly high degree of accuracy and the wide prediction capability. The information from this analysis is useful for the design of forging processes and dies. Results for the prediction of forging loads and stresses, metal flow and surface profiles with the assured benefits in terms of press selection and blank preform design are outlined in some detail. The obtained predictions are ready for comparison with both laboratory and industrial results.

Keywords: forging, upper bound technique, metal forming, forging energy, forging die/platen

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16184 Application of the Concept of Comonotonicity in Option Pricing

Authors: A. Chateauneuf, M. Mostoufi, D. Vyncke


Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is a technique that provides approximate solutions to a broad range of mathematical problems. A drawback of the method is its high computational cost, especially in a high-dimensional setting, such as estimating the Tail Value-at-Risk for large portfolios or pricing basket options and Asian options. For these types of problems, one can construct an upper bound in the convex order by replacing the copula by the comonotonic copula. This comonotonic upper bound can be computed very quickly, but it gives only a rough approximation. In this paper we introduce the Comonotonic Monte Carlo (CoMC) simulation, by using the comonotonic approximation as a control variate. The CoMC is of broad applicability and numerical results show a remarkable speed improvement. We illustrate the method for estimating Tail Value-at-Risk and pricing basket options and Asian options when the logreturns follow a Black-Scholes model or a variance gamma model.

Keywords: control variate Monte Carlo, comonotonicity, option pricing, scientific computing

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16183 Concept of a Pseudo-Lower Bound Solution for Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Authors: M. De Filippo, J. S. Kuang


In construction industry, reinforced concrete (RC) slabs represent fundamental elements of buildings and bridges. Different methods are available for analysing the structural behaviour of slabs. In the early ages of last century, the yield-line method has been proposed to attempt to solve such problem. Simple geometry problems could easily be solved by using traditional hand analyses which include plasticity theories. Nowadays, advanced finite element (FE) analyses have mainly found their way into applications of many engineering fields due to the wide range of geometries to which they can be applied. In such cases, the application of an elastic or a plastic constitutive model would completely change the approach of the analysis itself. Elastic methods are popular due to their easy applicability to automated computations. However, elastic analyses are limited since they do not consider any aspect of the material behaviour beyond its yield limit, which turns to be an essential aspect of RC structural performance. Furthermore, their applicability to non-linear analysis for modeling plastic behaviour gives very reliable results. Per contra, this type of analysis is computationally quite expensive, i.e. not well suited for solving daily engineering problems. In the past years, many researchers have worked on filling this gap between easy-to-implement elastic methods and computationally complex plastic analyses. This paper aims at proposing a numerical procedure, through which a pseudo-lower bound solution, not violating the yield criterion, is achieved. The advantages of moment distribution are taken into account, hence the increase in strength provided by plastic behaviour is considered. The lower bound solution is improved by detecting over-yielded moments, which are used to artificially rule the moment distribution among the rest of the non-yielded elements. The proposed technique obeys Nielsen’s yield criterion. The outcome of this analysis provides a simple, yet accurate, and non-time-consuming tool of predicting the lower-bound solution of the collapse load of RC slabs. By using this method, structural engineers can find the fracture patterns and ultimate load bearing capacity. The collapse triggering mechanism is found by detecting yield-lines. An application to the simple case of a square clamped slab is shown, and a good match was found with the exact values of collapse load.

Keywords: computational mechanics, lower bound method, reinforced concrete slabs, yield-line

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16182 Stability Bound of Ruin Probability in a Reduced Two-Dimensional Risk Model

Authors: Zina Benouaret, Djamil Aissani


In this work, we introduce the qualitative and quantitative concept of the strong stability method in the risk process modeling two lines of business of the same insurance company or an insurance and re-insurance companies that divide between them both claims and premiums with a certain proportion. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the ruin probability associate to the model considered, with a stationary distribution of a Markov random process called a reversed process. Our objective, after clarifying the condition and the perturbation domain of parameters, is to obtain the stability inequality of the ruin probability which is applied to estimate the approximation error of a model with disturbance parameters by the considered model. In the stability bound obtained, all constants are explicitly written.

Keywords: Markov chain, risk models, ruin probabilities, strong stability analysis

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