Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15827

# Search results for: smoothing spline method

##### 15827 A Comparison of Smoothing Spline Method and Penalized Spline Regression Method Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper presents a study about a nonparametric regression model consisting of a smoothing spline method and a penalized spline regression method. We also compare the techniques used for estimation and prediction of nonparametric regression model. We tried both methods with crude oil prices in dollars per barrel and the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index. According to the results, it is concluded that smoothing spline method performs better than that of penalized spline regression method. Downloads 323
##### 15826 A Review on Higher-Order Spline Techniques for Solving Burgers Equation Using B-Spline Methods and Variation of B-Spline Techniques

Authors: Maryam Khazaei Pool, Lori Lewis

Abstract:

This is a summary of articles based on higher order B-splines methods and the variation of B-spline methods such as Quadratic B-spline Finite Elements Method, Exponential Cubic B-Spline Method, Septic B-spline Technique, Quintic B-spline Galerkin Method, and B-spline Galerkin Method based on the Quadratic B-spline Galerkin method (QBGM) and Cubic B-spline Galerkin method (CBGM). In this paper, we study the B-spline methods and variations of B-spline techniques to find a numerical solution to the Burgers’ equation. A set of fundamental definitions, including Burgers equation, spline functions, and B-spline functions, are provided. For each method, the main technique is discussed as well as the discretization and stability analysis. A summary of the numerical results is provided, and the efficiency of each method presented is discussed. A general conclusion is provided where we look at a comparison between the computational results of all the presented schemes. We describe the effectiveness and advantages of these methods. Downloads 5
##### 15825 Orthogonal Regression for Nonparametric Estimation of Errors-In-Variables Models

Authors: Anastasiia Yu. Timofeeva

Abstract:

Two new algorithms for nonparametric estimation of errors-in-variables models are proposed. The first algorithm is based on penalized regression spline. The spline is represented as a piecewise-linear function and for each linear portion orthogonal regression is estimated. This algorithm is iterative. The second algorithm involves locally weighted regression estimation. When the independent variable is measured with error such estimation is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. The simulation results have shown the advantage of the second algorithm under the assumption that true smoothing parameters values are known. Nevertheless the use of some indexes of fit to smoothing parameters selection gives the similar results and has an oversmoothing effect. Downloads 333
##### 15824 Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid. Downloads 316
##### 15823 Geospatial Curve Fitting Methods for Disease Mapping of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Davies Obaromi, Qin Yongsong, James Ndege

Abstract:

To interpolate scattered or regularly distributed data, there are imprecise or exact methods. However, there are some of these methods that could be used for interpolating data in a regular grid and others in an irregular grid. In spatial epidemiology, it is important to examine how a disease prevalence rates are distributed in space, and how they relate with each other within a defined distance and direction. In this study, for the geographic and graphic representation of the disease prevalence, linear and biharmonic spline methods were implemented in MATLAB, and used to identify, localize and compare for smoothing in the distribution patterns of tuberculosis (TB) in Eastern Cape Province. The aim of this study is to produce a more “smooth” graphical disease map for TB prevalence patterns by a 3-D curve fitting techniques, especially the biharmonic splines that can suppress noise easily, by seeking a least-squares fit rather than exact interpolation. The datasets are represented generally as a 3D or XYZ triplets, where X and Y are the spatial coordinates and Z is the variable of interest and in this case, TB counts in the province. This smoothing spline is a method of fitting a smooth curve to a set of noisy observations using a spline function, and it has also become the conventional method for its high precision, simplicity and flexibility. Surface and contour plots are produced for the TB prevalence at the provincial level for 2012 – 2015. From the results, the general outlook of all the fittings showed a systematic pattern in the distribution of TB cases in the province and this is consistent with some spatial statistical analyses carried out in the province. This new method is rarely used in disease mapping applications, but it has a superior advantage to be assessed at subjective locations rather than only on a rectangular grid as seen in most traditional GIS methods of geospatial analyses.

Keywords: linear, biharmonic splines, tuberculosis, South Africa

##### 15822 Quintic Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Parabolic Equations Arising in Beam Theory

Abstract:

We develop a method based on polynomial quintic spline for numerical solution of fourth-order non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation with variable coefficient. By using polynomial quintic spline in off-step points in space and finite difference in time directions, we obtained two three level implicit methods. Stability analysis of the presented method has been carried out. We solve four test problems numerically to validate the derived method. Numerical comparison with other methods shows the superiority of presented scheme. Downloads 281
##### 15821 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Abstract:

The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature. Downloads 375
##### 15820 Quintic Spline Method for Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Abstract:

We develop a method based on polynomial quintic spline for numerical solution of fourth-order non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation with variable coefficient. By using polynomial quintic spline in off-step points in space and finite difference in time directions, we obtained two three level implicit methods. Stability analysis of the presented method has been carried out. We solve four test problems numerically to validate the proposed derived method. Numerical comparison with other existence methods shows the superiority of our presented scheme. Downloads 288
##### 15819 Quartic Spline Method for Numerical Solution of Self-Adjoint Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

Abstract:

Using quartic spline, we develop a method for numerical solution of singularly perturbed two-point boundary-value problems. The purposed method is fourth-order accurate and applicable to problems both in singular and non-singular cases. The convergence analysis of the method is given. The resulting linear system of equations has been solved by using a tri-diagonal solver. We applied the presented method to test problems which have been solved by other existing methods in references, for comparison of presented method with the existing methods. Numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of our methods. Downloads 275
##### 15818 Spline Solution of Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

Abstract:

Using quartic spline, we develop a method for numerical solution of singularly perturbed two-point boundary-value problems. The purposed method is fourth-order accurate and applicable to problems both in singular and non-singular cases. The convergence analysis of the method is given. The resulting linear system of equations has been solved by using a tri-diagonal solver. We applied the presented method to test problems which have been solved by other existing methods in references, for comparison of presented method with the existing methods. Numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of our methods. Downloads 229
##### 15817 Design and Performance Analysis of Advanced B-Spline Algorithm for Image Resolution Enhancement

Abstract:

An approach to super-resolve the low-resolution (LR) image is presented in this paper which is very useful in multimedia communication, medical image enhancement and satellite image enhancement to have a clear view of the information in the image. The proposed Advanced B-Spline method generates a high-resolution (HR) image from single LR image and tries to retain the higher frequency components such as edges in the image. This method uses B-Spline technique and Crispening. This work is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The method is also suitable for real-time applications. Different combinations of decimation and super-resolution algorithms in the presence of different noise and noise factors are tested. Downloads 287
##### 15816 Convergence Analysis of Cubic B-Spline Collocation Method for Time Dependent Parabolic Advection-Diffusion Equations

Authors: Bharti Gupta, V. K. Kukreja

Abstract:

A comprehensive numerical study is presented for the solution of time-dependent advection diffusion problems by using cubic B-spline collocation method. The linear combination of cubic B-spline basis, taken as approximating function, is evaluated using the zeros of shifted Chebyshev polynomials as collocation points in each element to obtain the best approximation. A comparison, on the basis of efficiency and accuracy, with the previous techniques is made which confirms the superiority of the proposed method. An asymptotic convergence analysis of technique is also discussed, and the method is found to be of order two. The theoretical analysis is supported with suitable examples to show second order convergence of technique. Different numerical examples are simulated using MATLAB in which the 3-D graphical presentation has taken at different time steps as well as different domain of interest. Downloads 141
##### 15815 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines. Downloads 204
##### 15814 Forecasting Unemployment Rate in Selected European Countries Using Smoothing Methods

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to select the most accurate forecasting method for predicting the future values of the unemployment rate in selected European countries. In order to do so, several forecasting techniques adequate for forecasting time series with trend component, were selected, namely: double exponential smoothing (also known as Holt`s method) and Holt-Winters` method which accounts for trend and seasonality. The results of the empirical analysis showed that the optimal model for forecasting unemployment rate in Greece was Holt-Winters` additive method. In the case of Spain, according to MAPE, the optimal model was double exponential smoothing model. Furthermore, for Croatia and Italy the best forecasting model for unemployment rate was Holt-Winters` multiplicative model, whereas in the case of Portugal the best model to forecast unemployment rate was Double exponential smoothing model. Our findings are in line with European Commission unemployment rate estimates. Downloads 309
##### 15813 The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Abstract:

This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed. Downloads 351
##### 15812 Dividends Smoothing in an Era of Unclaimed Dividends: A Panel Data Analysis in Nigeria

Authors: Apedzan Emmanuel Kighir

Abstract:

This research investigates dividends smoothing among non-financial companies trading on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in an era of unclaimed dividends from 2004 to 2013. There has been a raging controversy among Regulatory Authorities, Company Executives, Registrars of Companies, Shareholders and the general public regarding the increasing incidence of unclaimed dividends in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to find out if corporate earnings management through dividends smoothing is implicated in unclaimed dividends among Nigerian non-financial firms. The research used panel data and employed Generalized Method of Moment as method of analysis. The research finds evidence of dividends-smoothing in this era of unclaimed dividends in Nigeria. The research concludes that dividends-smoothing is a trigger and red flag for unclaimed dividends, an output of earnings management. If earnings management and hence unclaimed dividends in Nigeria is allowed to continue, it will lead to great consequences to the investors and corporate policy of government. It is believed that the research will assist investors and government in making informed decisions regarding dividends policy in Nigeria. Downloads 210
##### 15811 Exponential Spline Solution for Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems with an Uncertain-But-Bounded Parameter

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider singular perturbation reaction-diffusion boundary value problems, which contain a small uncertain perturbation parameter. To solve these problems, we propose a numerical method which is based on an exponential spline and Shishkin mesh discretization. While interval analysis principle is used to deal with the uncertain parameter, sensitivity analysis has been conducted using different methods. Numerical results are provided to show the applicability and efficiency of our method, which is ε-uniform convergence of almost second order. Downloads 187
##### 15810 The Hyperbolic Smoothing Approach for Automatic Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Models

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of automatic parameter estimation in conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) models. Due to threshold structures commonly occurring in CRR models, the associated mathematical optimization problems have the significant characteristic of being strongly non-differentiable. In order to face this enormous task, the resolution method proposed adopts a smoothing strategy using a special C∞ differentiable class function. The final estimation solution is obtained by solving a sequence of differentiable subproblems which gradually approach the original conceptual problem. The use of this technique, called Hyperbolic Smoothing Method (HSM), makes possible the application of the most powerful minimization algorithms, and also allows for the main difficulties presented by the original CRR problem to be overcome. A set of computational experiments is presented for the purpose of illustrating both the reliability and the efficiency of the proposed approach. Downloads 62
##### 15809 Using “Eckel” Model to Measure Income Smoothing Practices: The Case of French Companies

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

Income smoothing represents an attempt on the part of the company's management to reduce variations in earnings through the manipulation of the accounting principles. In this study, we aimed to measure income smoothing practices in a sample of 30 French joint stock companies during the period (2007-2009), we used Dummy variables method and “ECKEL” model to measure income smoothing practices and Binomial test accourding to SPSS program, to confirm or refute our hypothesis. This study concluded that there are no significant statistical indicators of income smoothing practices in the sample studied of French companies during the period (2007-2009), so the income series in the same sample studied of is characterized by stability and non-volatility without any intervention of management through accounting manipulation. However, this type of accounting manipulation should be taken into account and efforts should be made by control bodies to apply Eckel model and generalize its use at the global level.

Keywords: income, smoothing, 'Eckel', French companies

##### 15808 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems. Downloads 64
##### 15807 Nonparametric Truncated Spline Regression Model on the Data of Human Development Index in Indonesia

Abstract:

Human Development Index (HDI) is a standard measurement for a country's human development. Several factors may have influenced it, such as life expectancy, gross domestic product (GDP) based on the province's annual expenditure, the number of poor people, and the percentage of an illiterate people. The scatter plot between HDI and the influenced factors show that the plot does not follow a specific pattern or form. Therefore, the HDI's data in Indonesia can be applied with a nonparametric regression model. The estimation of the regression curve in the nonparametric regression model is flexible because it follows the shape of the data pattern. One of the nonparametric regression's method is a truncated spline. Truncated spline regression is one of the nonparametric approach, which is a modification of the segmented polynomial functions. The estimator of a truncated spline regression model was affected by the selection of the optimal knots point. Knot points is a focus point of spline truncated functions. The optimal knots point was determined by the minimum value of generalized cross validation (GCV). In this article were applied the data of Human Development Index with a truncated spline nonparametric regression model. The results of this research were obtained the best-truncated spline regression model to the HDI's data in Indonesia with the combination of optimal knots point 5-5-5-4. Life expectancy and the percentage of an illiterate people were the significant factors depend to the HDI in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination is 94.54%. This means the regression model is good enough to applied on the data of HDI in Indonesia. Downloads 216
##### 15806 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

Abstract:

In this paper, semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions. Downloads 256
##### 15805 Polynomial Chaos Expansion Combined with Exponential Spline for Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems with Random Parameter

Abstract:

So many practical problems in science and technology developed over the past decays. For instance, the mathematical boundary layer theory or the approximation of solution for different problems described by differential equations. When such problems consider large or small parameters, they become increasingly complex and therefore require the use of asymptotic methods. In this work, we consider the singularly perturbed boundary value problems which contain very small parameters. Moreover, we will consider these perturbation parameters as random variables. We propose a numerical method to solve this kind of problems. The proposed method is based on an exponential spline, Shishkin mesh discretization, and polynomial chaos expansion. The polynomial chaos expansion is used to handle the randomness exist in the perturbation parameter. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) are used to validate the solution and the accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results are provided to show the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method, which maintains a very remarkable high accuracy and it is ε-uniform convergence of almost second order. Downloads 91
##### 15804 Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders

Authors: Alberto Hananel

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method. Downloads 294
##### 15803 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades. Downloads 386
##### 15802 Development and Implementation of Curvature Dependent Force Correction Algorithm for the Planning of Forced Controlled Robotic Grinding

Abstract:

A curvature dependent force correction algorithm for planning force controlled grinding process with off-line programming flexibility is designed for ABB industrial robot, in order to avoid the manual interface during the process. The machining path utilizes a spline curve fit that is constructed from the CAD data of the workpiece. The fitted spline has a continuity of the second order to assure path smoothness. The implemented algorithm computes uniform forces normal to the grinding surface of the workpiece, by constructing a curvature path in the spatial coordinates using the spline method. Downloads 289
##### 15801 Application of Nonparametric Geographically Weighted Regression to Evaluate the Unemployment Rate in East Java

Abstract:

East Java Province has a first rank as a province that has the most counties and cities in Indonesia and has the largest population. In 2015, the population reached 38.847.561 million, this figure showed a very high population growth. High population growth is feared to lead to increase the levels of unemployment. In this study, the researchers mapped and modeled the unemployment rate with 6 variables that were supposed to influence. Modeling was done by nonparametric geographically weighted regression methods with truncated spline approach. This method was chosen because spline method is a flexible method, these models tend to look for its own estimation. In this modeling, there were point knots, the point that showed the changes of data. The selection of the optimum point knots was done by selecting the most minimun value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV). Based on the research, 6 variables were declared to affect the level of unemployment in eastern Java. They were the percentage of population that is educated above high school, the rate of economic growth, the population density, the investment ratio of total labor force, the regional minimum wage and the ratio of the number of big industry and medium scale industry from the work force. The nonparametric geographically weighted regression models with truncated spline approach had a coefficient of determination 98.95% and the value of MSE equal to 0.0047. Downloads 231
##### 15800 A Design System for Complex Profiles of Machine Members Using a Synthetic Curve

Abstract:

This paper proposes a development of a CAD/CAM system for complex profiles of various machine members using a synthetic curve i.e. B-spline. Conventional methods in designing and manufacturing of complex profiles are tedious and time consuming. Even programming those on a computer numerical control (CNC) machine can be a difficult job because of the complexity of the profiles. The system developed provides graphical and numerical representation B-spline profile for any given input. In this paper, the system is applicable to represent a cam profile with B-spline and attempt is made to improve the follower motion. Downloads 381
##### 15799 Endocardial Ultrasound Segmentation using Level Set method

Abstract:

This paper presents a fully automatic segmentation method of the left ventricle at End Systolic (ES) and End Diastolic (ED) in the ultrasound images by means of an implicit deformable model (level set) based on Geodesic Active Contour model. A pre-processing Gaussian smoothing stage is applied to the image, which is essential for a good segmentation. Before the segmentation phase, we locate automatically the area of the left ventricle by using a detection approach based on the Hough Transform method. Consequently, the result obtained is used to automate the initialization of the level set model. This initial curve (zero level set) deforms to search the Endocardial border in the image. On the other hand, quantitative evaluation was performed on a data set composed of 15 subjects with a comparison to ground truth (manual segmentation). Downloads 390
##### 15798 Statistical and Land Planning Study of Tourist Arrivals in Greece during 2005-2016

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou

Abstract:

During the last 10 years, in spite of the economic crisis, the number of tourists arriving in Greece has increased, particularly during the tourist season from April to October. In this paper, the number of annual tourist arrivals is studied to explore their preferences with regard to the month of travel, the selected destinations, as well the amount of money spent. The collected data are processed with statistical methods, yielding numerical and graphical results. From the computation of statistical parameters and the forecasting with exponential smoothing, useful conclusions are arrived at that can be used by the Greek tourism authorities, as well as by tourist organizations, for planning purposes for the coming years. The results of this paper and the computed forecast can also be used for decision making by private tourist enterprises that are investing in Greece. With regard to the statistical methods, the method of Simple Exponential Smoothing of time series of data is employed. The search for a best forecast for 2017 and 2018 provides the value of the smoothing coefficient. For all statistical computations and graphics Microsoft Excel is used. Downloads 193