Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15721

Search results for: simplex method

15721 An Efficient Approach to Optimize the Cost and Profit of a Tea Garden by Using Branch and Bound Method

Authors: Abu Hashan Md Mashud, M. Sharif Uddin, Aminur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate a new problem as a linear programming and Integer Programming problem and maximize profit within the limited budget and limited resources based on the construction of a tea garden problem. It describes a new idea about how to optimize profit and focuses on the practical aspects of modeling and the challenges of providing a solution to a complex real life problem. Finally, a comparative study is carried out among Graphical method, Simplex method and Branch and bound method.

Keywords: integer programming, tea garden, graphical method, simplex method, branch and bound method

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
15720 Optimizing Human Diet Problem Using Linear Programming Approach: A Case Study

Authors: P. Priyanka, S. Shruthi, N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

Health is a common theme in most cultures. In fact all communities have their concepts of health, as part of their culture. Health continues to be a neglected entity. Planning of Human diet should be done very careful by selecting the food items or groups of food items also the composition involved. Low price and good taste of foods are regarded as two major factors for optimal human nutrition. Linear programming techniques have been extensively used for human diet formulation for quiet good number of years. Through the process, we mainly apply “The Simplex Method” which is a very useful statistical tool based on the theorem of Elementary Row Operation from Linear Algebra and also incorporate some other necessary rules set by the Simplex Method to help solve the problem. The study done by us is an attempt to develop a programming model for optimal planning and best use of nutrient ingredients.

Keywords: diet formulation, linear programming, nutrient ingredients, optimization, simplex method

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
15719 Genomic Identification of Anisakis Simplex Larvae by PCR-RAPD

Authors: Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto

Abstract:

Anisakiasis is a disease caused by infection with an anisakid larvae, mostly Anisakis simplex. The larvae commonly infect in marine fish and the disease is frequently reported in areas of the world where fish is consumed raw, lightly pickled or salted. In Japan, people have the habit of eating raw fish such as ‘sushi’ or ‘sashimi’, so they have more chance of infection with larvae of anisakid nematodes. There are three sibling species in A. simplex larvae, namely, A. simplex sensu stricto (Asss), A. pegreffii (Ap) and A. simplex C. It was revealed that Ap is dominant among the larvae from fish (Scomber japonics) in the Japan Sea side and Asss is dominant among those of the Pacific Ocean side conversely. Although anisakiasis has happened in Japan among both the Japan Sea side area and the Pacific Ocean side area. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variations between the siblings (Asss and Ap) and within the same sibling species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. In order to investigate the genetic difference among the each A. simplex larvae, we used RAPD technique to differentiate individuals of A. simplex obtained from Scomber japonics fish those were caught in the Japan sea (Goto Islands in Nagasaki Prefecture) and the cost of Pacific Ocean (Kanagawa Prefecture). The RAPD patterns of the control DNA (Genus Raphidascaris) were markedly different from those of the A. simplex. There were differences in amplification patterns between Asss and Ap. The RAPD patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same sea were somewhat different and variations were detected even among larvae from the same fish. These results suggest the considerable high genetic variability between Asss and Ap and the possible existence of genetic variation within the sibling species.

Keywords: Anisakiasis in Japan, Anisakis simplex, genomic identification, PCR-RAPD

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15718 A Prediction Model of Adopting IPTV

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

With the advent of IPTV in the fierce competition with existing broadcasting system, it is emerged as an important issue to predict how much the adoption of IPTV service will be. This paper aims to suggest a prediction model for adopting IPTV using classification and Ranking Belief Simplex (CaRBS). A simplex plot method of representing data allows a clear visual representation to the degree of interaction of the support from the variables to the prediction of the objects. CaRBS is applied to the survey data on the IPTV adoption.

Keywords: prediction, adoption, IPTV, CaRBS

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
15717 Optimal Cropping Pattern in an Irrigation Project: A Hybrid Model of Artificial Neural Network and Modified Simplex Algorithm

Authors: Safayat Ali Shaikh

Abstract:

Software has been developed for optimal cropping pattern in an irrigation project considering land constraint, water availability constraint and pick up flow constraint using modified Simplex Algorithm. Artificial Neural Network Models (ANN) have been developed to predict rainfall. AR (1) model used to generate 1000 years rainfall data to train the ANN. Simulation has been done with expected rainfall data. Eight number crops and three types of soil class have been considered for optimization model. Area under each crop and each soil class have been quantified using Modified Simplex Algorithm to get optimum net return. Efficacy of the software has been tested using data of large irrigation project in India.

Keywords: artificial neural network, large irrigation project, modified simplex algorithm, optimal cropping pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
15716 Mathematical Model of the Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 in Heterosexual Relations with and without Condom Usage in a College Population

Authors: Jacob A. Braun

Abstract:

This paper uses mathematical modeling to show the spread of Herpes Simplex type-2 with and without the usage of condoms in a college population. The model uses four differential equations to calculate the data for the simulation. The dt increment used is one week. It also runs based on a fixated period. The period chosen was five years to represent time spent in college. The average age of the individual is 21, once again to represent the age of someone in college. In the total population, there are almost two times as many women who have Herpes Simplex Type-2 as men. Additionally, Herpes Simplex Type-2 does not have a known cure. The goal of the model is to show how condom usage affects women’s chances of receiving the virus in the hope of being able to reduce the number of women infected. In the end, the model demonstrates that condoms offer significant protection to women from the virus. Since fewer women are infected with the virus when condoms are used, in turn, fewer males are infected. Since Herpes Simplex Type-2 affects the carrier for their whole life, a small decrease of infections could lead to large ramifications over time. Specifically, a small decrease of infections at a young age, such as college, could have a very big effect on the long-term number of people infected with the virus.

Keywords: college, condom, Herpes, mathematical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
15715 Soil Parameters Identification around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: I. Toumi, Y. Abed, A. Bouafia

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for identifying the cohesive soil parameters that takes into account different constitutive equations. The procedure, applied to identify the parameters of generalized Prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager failure criterion from a pressuremeter expansion curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the simulated curve using a simplex algorithm. The model response on pressuremeter path and its identification from experimental data lead to the determination of the friction angle, the cohesion and the Young modulus. Some parameters effects on the simulated curves and stresses path around pressuremeter probe are presented. Comparisons between the parameters determined with the proposed method and those obtained by other means are also presented.

Keywords: cohesive soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, optimization procedure, simplex algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
15714 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: L. Chevez, A. Apaza, J. Rodriguez, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos

Abstract:

Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, minimum noise fraction, MNF, simplex growing algorithm, SGA, standard normal variance, SNV, virtual dimension, XRD

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15713 Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Virus from the Sacral and Trigeminal Ganglions

Authors: Bernard L. Middleton, Susan P. Cosgrove

Abstract:

There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to anti-herpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in the viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV-1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.

Keywords: synergy pharmaceuticals, herpes treatment, herpes cure, synergy pharmaceuticals treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
15712 Inhibition of Mixed Infection Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Virus by Fullerene Compound

Authors: Dmitry Nosik, Nickolay Nosik, Elli Kaplina, Olga Lobach, Marina Chataeva, Lev Rasnetsov

Abstract:

Background and aims: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is very often associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection but HIV patients are treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs which are toxic. The use of an antiviral drug which will be active against both viruses like ferrovir found in our previous studies is rather actual. Earlier we had shown that Fullerene poly-amino capronic acid (FPACA) was active in case of monoinfection of HIV-1 or HSV-1. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficiency of FPACA against mixed infection of HIV and HSV. Methods: The peripheral blood lymphocytes, CEM, MT-4 cells were simultaneously infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1. FPACA was added 1 hour before infection. Cells viability was detected by MTT assay, virus antigens detected by ELISA, syncytium formation detected by microscopy. The different multiplicity of HIV-1/HSV-1 ratio was used. Results: The double viral HIV-1/HSV-1 infection was more cytopathic comparing with monoinfections. In mixed infection by the HIV-1/HSV-1 concentration of HIV-1 antigens and syncytium formations increased by 1,7 to 2,3 times in different cells in comparison with the culture infected with HIV-1 alone. The concentration of HSV-1 increased by 1,5-1,7 times, respectively. Administration of FPACA (1 microg/ml) protected cells: HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:1) – 80,1%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:4) – 57,2%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:8) – 46,3 %; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:16) – 17,0%. Virus’s antigen levels were also reduced. Syncytium formation was totally inhibited in all cases of mixed infection. Conclusion: FPACA showed antiviral activity in case of mixed viral infection induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus. The effect of viral inhibition increased with the multiplicity of HIV-1 in the inoculum. The mechanism of FPACA action is connected with the blocking of the virus particles adsorption to the cells and it could be suggested that it can have an antiviral activity against some other viruses too. Now FPACA could be considered as a potential drug for treatment of HIV disease complicated with opportunistic herpes viral infection.

Keywords: antiviral drug, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus (hsv), mixed viral infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
15711 Cash Flow Optimization on Synthetic CDOs

Authors: Timothée Bligny, Clément Codron, Antoine Estruch, Nicolas Girodet, Clément Ginet

Abstract:

Collateralized Debt Obligations are not as widely used nowadays as they were before 2007 Subprime crisis. Nonetheless there remains an enthralling challenge to optimize cash flows associated with synthetic CDOs. A Gaussian-based model is used here in which default correlation and unconditional probabilities of default are highlighted. Then numerous simulations are performed based on this model for different scenarios in order to evaluate the associated cash flows given a specific number of defaults at different periods of time. Cash flows are not solely calculated on a single bought or sold tranche but rather on a combination of bought and sold tranches. With some assumptions, the simplex algorithm gives a way to find the maximum cash flow according to correlation of defaults and maturities. The used Gaussian model is not realistic in crisis situations. Besides present system does not handle buying or selling a portion of a tranche but only the whole tranche. However the work provides the investor with relevant elements on how to know what and when to buy and sell.

Keywords: synthetic collateralized debt obligation (CDO), credit default swap (CDS), cash flow optimization, probability of default, default correlation, strategies, simulation, simplex

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15710 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Bhawana, Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Major Madhukar, Krishna Pandey, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Surya Suman, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: HSV, Rubella, seroprevalence, co-infection, ELISA, viral infectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
15709 Effect of Fuel Type on Design Parameters and Atomization Process for Pressure Swirl Atomizer and Dual Orifice Atomizer for High Bypass Turbofan Engine

Authors: Mohamed K. Khalil, Mohamed S. Ragab

Abstract:

Atomizers are used in many engineering applications including diesel engines, petrol engines and spray combustion in furnaces as well as gas turbine engines. These atomizers are used to increase the specific surface area of the fuel, which achieve a high rate of fuel mixing and evaporation. In all combustion systems reduction in mean drop size is a challenge which has many advantages since it leads to rapid and easier ignition, higher volumetric heat release rate, wider burning range and lower exhaust concentrations of the pollutant emissions. Pressure atomizers have a different configuration for design such as swirl atomizer (simplex), dual orifice, spill return, plain orifice, duplex and fan spray. Simplex pressure atomizers are the most common type of all. Among all types of atomizers, pressure swirl types resemble a special category since they differ in quality of atomization, the reliability of operation, simplicity of construction and low expenditure of energy. But, the disadvantages of these atomizers are that they require very high injection pressure and have low discharge coefficient owing to the fact that the air core covers the majority of the atomizer orifice. To overcome these problems, dual orifice atomizer was designed. This paper proposes a detailed mathematical model design procedure for both pressure swirl atomizer (Simplex) and dual orifice atomizer, examines the effects of varying fuel type and makes a clear comparison between the two types. Using five types of fuel (JP-5, JA1, JP-4, Diesel and Bio-Diesel) as a case study, reveal the effect of changing fuel type and its properties on atomizers design and spray characteristics. Which effect on combustion process parameters; Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), spray cone angle and sheet thickness with varying the discharge coefficient from 0.27 to 0.35 during takeoff for high bypass turbofan engines. The spray atomizer performance of the pressure swirl fuel injector was compared to the dual orifice fuel injector at the same differential pressure and discharge coefficient using Excel. The results are analyzed and handled to form the final reliability results for fuel injectors in high bypass turbofan engines. The results show that the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in dual orifice atomizer is larger than Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in pressure swirl atomizer, the film thickness (h) in dual orifice atomizer is less than the film thickness (h) in pressure swirl atomizer. The Spray Cone Angle (α) in pressure swirl atomizer is larger than Spray Cone Angle (α) in dual orifice atomizer.

Keywords: gas turbine engines, atomization process, Sauter mean diameter, JP-5

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
15708 Inverse Prediction of Thermal Parameters of an Annular Hyperbolic Fin Subjected to Thermal Stresses

Authors: Ashis Mallick, Rajeev Ranjan

Abstract:

The closed form solution for thermal stresses in an annular fin with hyperbolic profile is derived using Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The conductive-convective fin with variable thermal conductivity is considered in the analysis. The nonlinear heat transfer equation is efficiently solved by ADM considering insulated convective boundary conditions at the tip of fin. The constant of integration in the solution is to be estimated using minimum decomposition error method. The solution of temperature field is represented in a polynomial form for convenience to use in thermo-elasticity equation. The non-dimensional thermal stress fields are obtained using the ADM solution of temperature field coupled with the thermo-elasticity solution. The influence of the various thermal parameters in temperature field and stress fields are presented. In order to show the accuracy of the ADM solution, the present results are compared with the results available in literature. The stress fields in fin with hyperbolic profile are compared with those of uniform thickness profile. Result shows that hyperbolic fin profile is better choice for enhancing heat transfer. Moreover, less thermal stresses are developed in hyperbolic profile as compared to rectangular profile. Next, Nelder-Mead based simplex search method is employed for the inverse estimation of unknown non-dimensional thermal parameters in a given stress fields. Owing to the correlated nature of the unknowns, the best combinations of the model parameters which are satisfying the predefined stress field are to be estimated. The stress fields calculated using the inverse parameters give a very good agreement with the stress fields obtained from the forward solution. The estimated parameters are suitable to use for efficient and cost effective fin designing.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition, inverse analysis, hyperbolic fin, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
15707 Socratic Style of Teaching: An Analysis of Dialectical Method

Authors: Muhammad Jawwad, Riffat Iqbal

Abstract:

Socratic Method, also known as dialectical method and elenctic method, has significant relevancy in the contemporary educational system. It can be incorporated in modern day educational systems theoretically as well as practically. Being interactive and dialogue based in nature, this teaching approach is followed by critical thinking and innovation. The pragmatic value of the Dialectical Method has been discussed in this article and the limitations of the Socratic Method have been highlighted also. The interactive Method of Socrates can be used in many subjects of the students of different grades. The Limitations and delimitations of the Method have also been discussed for its proper implementation. In this article, it has been attempted to elaborate and analyze the teaching method of Socrates with all its pre-suppositions and Epistemological character.

Keywords: Socratic method, dialectical method, knowledge, teaching, virtue

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
15706 Mechanical Properties and Antibiotic Release Characteristics of Poly(methyl methacrylate)-based Bone Cement Formulated with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Kumaran Letchmanan, Shou-Cang Shen, Wai Kiong Ng

Abstract:

Postoperative implant-associated infections in soft tissues and bones remain a serious complication in orthopaedic surgery, which leads to impaired healing, re-implantation, prolong hospital stay and increase cost. Drug-loaded implants with sustained release of antibiotics at the local site are current research interest to reduce the risk of post-operative infections and osteomyelitis, thus, minimize the need for follow-up care and increase patient comfort. However, the improved drug release of the drug-loaded bone cements is usually accompanied by a loss in mechanical strength, which is critical for weight-bearing bone cement. Recently, more attempts have been undertaken to develop techniques to enhance the antibiotic elution as well as preserve the mechanical properties of the bone cements. The present study investigates the potential influence of addition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on the in vitro drug release kinetics of gentamicin (GTMC), along with the mechanical properties of bone cements. Simplex P was formulated with MSN and loaded with GTMC by direct impregnation. Meanwhile, Simplex P with water soluble poragen (xylitol) and high loading of GTMC as well as commercial bone cement CMW Smartset GHV were used as controls. MSN-formulated bone cements are able to increase the drug release of GTMC by 3-fold with a cumulative release of more than 46% as compared with other control groups. Furthermore, a sustained release could be achieved for two months. The loaded nano-sized MSN with uniform pore channels significantly build up an effective nano-network path in the bone cement facilitates the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. Compared with formulations using xylitol and high GTMC loading, incorporation of MSN shows no detrimental effect on biomechanical properties of the bone cements as no significant changes in the mechanical properties as compared with original bone cement. After drug release for two months, the bending modulus of MSN-formulated bone cements is 4.49 ± 0.75 GPa and the compression strength is 92.7 ± 2.1 MPa (similar to the compression strength of Simplex-P: 93.0 ± 1.2 MPa). The unaffected mechanical properties of MSN-formulated bone cements was due to the unchanged microstructures of bone cement, whereby more than 98% of MSN remains in the matrix and supports the bone cement structures. In contrast, the large portions of extra voids can be observed for the formulations using xylitol and high drug loading after the drug release study, thus caused compressive strength below the ASTM F541 and ISO 5833 minimum of 70 MPa. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement as a highly efficient, sustained and local drug delivery system with good mechanical properties.

Keywords: antibiotics, biomechanical properties, bone cement, sustained release

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15705 Sensitivity Analysis in Fuzzy Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, A. Ebrahimnejad

Abstract:

Fuzzy set theory has been applied to many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences. In this paper, we consider two classes of fuzzy linear programming (FLP) problems: Fuzzy number linear programming and linear programming with trapezoidal fuzzy variables problems. We state our recently established results and develop fuzzy primal simplex algorithms for solving these problems. Finally, we give illustrative examples.

Keywords: fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy numbers, duality, sensitivity analysis

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15704 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin

Abstract:

In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
15703 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Arezoo Hakimi, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal method, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
15702 A Comparison of Smoothing Spline Method and Penalized Spline Regression Method Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper presents a study about a nonparametric regression model consisting of a smoothing spline method and a penalized spline regression method. We also compare the techniques used for estimation and prediction of nonparametric regression model. We tried both methods with crude oil prices in dollars per barrel and the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index. According to the results, it is concluded that smoothing spline method performs better than that of penalized spline regression method.

Keywords: nonparametric regression model, penalized spline regression method, smoothing spline method, Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET)

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15701 Influence of Optimization Method on Parameters Identification of Hyperelastic Models

Authors: Bale Baidi Blaise, Gilles Marckmann, Liman Kaoye, Talaka Dya, Moustapha Bachirou, Gambo Betchewe, Tibi Beda

Abstract:

This work highlights the capabilities of particles swarm optimization (PSO) method to identify parameters of hyperelastic models. The study compares this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) method, Least Squares (LS) method, Pattern Search Algorithm (PSA) method, Beda-Chevalier (BC) method and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method. Four classic hyperelastic models are used to test the different methods through parameters identification. Then, the study compares the ability of these models to reproduce experimental Treloar data in simple tension, biaxial tension and pure shear.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, identification, hyperelastic, model

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15700 Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method

Authors: M. K. Balyan

Abstract:

The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.

Keywords: dynamical diffraction, hologram, object image, X-ray holography

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15699 Modified Approximation Methods for Finding an Optimal Solution for the Transportation Problem

Authors: N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

This paper presents a modification of approximation method for transportation problems. The initial basic feasible solution can be computed using either Russel's or Vogel's approximation methods. Russell’s approximation method provides another excellent criterion that is still quick to implement on a computer (not manually) In most cases Russel's method yields a better initial solution, though it takes longer than Vogel's method (finding the next entering variable in Russel's method is in O(n1*n2), and in O(n1+n2) for Vogel's method). However, Russel's method normally has a lesser total running time because less pivots are required to reach the optimum for all but small problem sizes (n1+n2=~20). With this motivation behind we have incorporated a variation of the same – what we have proposed it has TMC (Total Modified Cost) to obtain fast and efficient solutions.

Keywords: computation, efficiency, modified cost, Russell’s approximation method, transportation, Vogel’s approximation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
15698 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman

Abstract:

Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: steepest descent, line search, iteration, running time, unconstrained optimization, convergence

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15697 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari

Abstract:

Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, crack, torsional loading, meshless method

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
15696 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is generally very demanding. In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new construction method called the 'shield switching type micro-tunneling method' which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield method. In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing an intermediate shaft. This paper provides the information, features and construction examples of this newly developed method.

Keywords: micro-tunneling method, secondary lining applied RC segment, sharp curve, shield method, switching type

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15695 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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15694 Constant Order Predictor Corrector Method for the Solution of Modeled Problems of First Order IVPs of ODEs

Authors: A. A. James, A. O. Adesanya, M. R. Odekunle, D. G. Yakubu

Abstract:

This paper examines the development of one step, five hybrid point method for the solution of first order initial value problems. We adopted the method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method was evaluated at selected grid points to give the discrete linear multistep method. The method was implemented using a constant order predictor of order seven over an overlapping interval. The basic properties of the derived corrector was investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The region of absolute stability was also investigated. The method was tested on some numerical experiments and found to compete favorably with the existing methods.

Keywords: interpolation, approximate solution, collocation, differential system, half step, converges, block method, efficiency

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15693 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti

Abstract:

Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: cream, stability, In vitro, In vivo

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15692 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

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