Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15415

Search results for: shield method

15415 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is generally very demanding. In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new construction method called the 'shield switching type micro-tunneling method' which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield method. In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing an intermediate shaft. This paper provides the information, features and construction examples of this newly developed method.

Keywords: micro-tunneling method, secondary lining applied RC segment, sharp curve, shield method, switching type

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
15414 Shield Tunnel Excavation Simulation of a Case Study Using a So-Called 'Stress Relaxation' Method

Authors: Shengwei Zhu, Alireza Afshani, Hirokazu Akagi

Abstract:

Ground surface settlement induced by shield tunneling is addressing increasing attention as shield tunneling becomes a popular construction technique for tunnels in urban areas. This paper discusses a 2D longitudinal FEM simulation of a tunneling case study in Japan (Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line). Tunneling-induced field data was already collected and is used here for comparison and evaluating purposes. In this model, earth pressure, face pressure, backfilling grouting, elastic tunnel lining, and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soil elements are considered. A method called ‘stress relaxation’ is also exploited to simulate the gradual tunneling excavation. Ground surface settlements obtained from numerical results using the introduced method are then compared with the measurement data.

Keywords: 2D longitudinal FEM model, tunneling case study, stress relaxation, shield tunneling excavation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
15413 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir

Abstract:

A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
15412 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Abstract:

Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
15411 Influence of Shield Positions on Thermo/Fluid Performance of Pin Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

In heat sinks, the flow within the core exhibits separation and hence does not lend itself to simple analytical boundary layer or duct flow analysis of the wall friction. In this paper, I present some findings from an experimental and numerical study aimed to obtain physical insight into the influence of the presence of the shield and its position on the hydraulic and thermal performance of square pin fin heat sink without top by-pass. The variations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained under varied parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the shield position. The numerical code is validated by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. It is shown that, there is a good agreement between the temperature predictions based on the model and the experimental data. Results show that, as the presence of the shield, the heat transfer of fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance increased. The surface temperature distribution of the heat sink base is more uniform when the dimensionless shield position equals to 1/3 or 2/3. The comprehensive performance evaluation approach based on identical pumping power criteria is adopted and shows that the optimum shield position is at x/l=0.43 where energy is saved.

Keywords: shield, fin array, performance evaluation, heat transfer, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
15410 Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Lines with Shield Wire Segmentation against Atmospheric Discharges Using ATPDraw

Authors: Marcio S. da Silva, Jose Mauricio de B. Bezerra, Antonio E. de A. Nogueira

Abstract:

This paper aims to make a performance analysis of shield wire transmission lines against atmospheric discharges when it is made the option of sectioning the shield wire and verify if the tolerability of the change. As a goal of this work, it was established to make complete modeling of a transmission line in the ATPDraw program with shield wire grounded in all the towers and in some towers. The methodology used to make the proposed evaluation was to choose an actual transmission line that served as a case study. From the choice of transmission line and verification of all its topology and materials, complete modeling of the line using the ATPDraw software was performed. Then several atmospheric discharges were simulated by striking the grounded shield wires in each tower. These simulations served to identify the behavior of the existing line against atmospheric discharges. After this first analysis, the same line was reconsidered with shield wire segmentation. The shielding wire segmentation technique aims to reduce induced losses in shield wires and is adopted in some transmission lines in Brazil. With the same conditions of atmospheric discharge the transmission line, this time with shield wire segmentation was again evaluated. The results obtained showed that it is possible to obtain similar performances against atmospheric discharges between a shield wired line in multiple towers and the same line with shield wire segmentation if some precautions are adopted as verification of the ground resistance of the wire segmented shield, adequacy of the maximum length of the segmented gap, evaluation of the separation length of the electrodes of the insulator spark, among others. As a conclusion, it is verified that since the correct assessment and adopted the correct criteria of adjustment a transmission line with shielded wire segmentation can perform very similar to the traditional use with multiple earths. This solution contributes in a very important way to the reduction of energy losses in transmission lines.

Keywords: atmospheric discharges, ATPDraw, shield wire, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
15409 Design of a Portable Shielding System for a Newly Installed NaI(Tl) Detector

Authors: Mayesha Tahsin, A.S. Mollah

Abstract:

Recently, a 1.5x1.5 inch NaI(Tl) detector based gamma-ray spectroscopy system has been installed in the laboratory of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department of the Military Institute of Science and Technology for radioactivity detection purposes. The newly installed NaI(Tl) detector has a circular lead shield of 22 mm width. An important consideration of any gamma-ray spectroscopy is the minimization of natural background radiation not originating from the radioactive sample that is being measured. Natural background gamma-ray radiation comes from naturally occurring or man-made radionuclides in the environment or from cosmic sources. Moreover, the main problem with this system is that it is not suitable for measurements of radioactivity with a large sample container like Petridish or Marinelli beaker geometry. When any laboratory installs a new detector or/and new shield, it “must” first carry out quality and performance tests for the detector and shield. This paper describes a new portable shielding system with lead that can reduce the background radiation. Intensity of gamma radiation after passing the shielding will be calculated using shielding equation I=Ioe-µx where Io is initial intensity of the gamma source, I is intensity after passing through the shield, µ is linear attenuation coefficient of the shielding material, and x is the thickness of the shielding material. The height and width of the shielding will be selected in order to accommodate the large sample container. The detector will be surrounded by a 4π-geometry low activity lead shield. An additional 1.5 mm thick shield of tin and 1 mm thick shield of copper covering the inner part of the lead shielding will be added in order to remove the presence of characteristic X-rays from the lead shield.

Keywords: shield, NaI (Tl) detector, gamma radiation, intensity, linear attenuation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
15408 Circuit Models for Conducted Susceptibility Analyses of Multiconductor Shielded Cables

Authors: Saih Mohamed, Rouijaa Hicham, Ghammaz Abdelilah

Abstract:

This paper presents circuit models to analyze the conducted susceptibility of multiconductor shielded cables in frequency domains using Branin’s method, which is referred to as the method of characteristics. These models, Which can be used directly in the time and frequency domains, take into account the presence of both the transfer impedance and admittance. The conducted susceptibility is studied by using an injection current on the cable shield as the source. Two examples are studied, a coaxial shielded cable and shielded cables with two parallel wires (i.e., twinax cables). This shield has an asymmetry (one slot on the side). Results obtained by these models are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods.

Keywords: circuit models, multiconductor shielded cables, Branin’s method, coaxial shielded cable, twinax cables

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
15407 Face Shield Design with Additive Manufacturing Practice Combating COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: May M. Youssef

Abstract:

This article introduces a design, for additive manufacturing technology, face shield as Personal Protective Equipment from the respiratory viruses such as coronavirus 2. The face shields help to reduce ocular exposure and play a vital role in diverting away from the respiratory COVID-19 air droplets around the users' face. The proposed face shield comprises three assembled polymer parts. The frame with a transparency overhead projector sheet visor is suitable for frontline health care workers and ordinary citizens. The frame design allows tightening the shield around the user’s head and permits rubber elastic straps to be used if required. That ergonomically designed with a unique face mask support used in case of wearing extra protective mask was created using computer aided design (CAD) software package. The finite element analysis (FEA) structural verification of the proposed design is performed by an advanced simulation technique. Subsequently, the prototype model was fabricated by a 3D printing using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) as a globally developed face shield product. This study provides a different face shield designs for global production, which showed to be suitable and effective toward supply chain shortages and frequent needs of personal protective goods during coronavirus disease and similar viruses.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Coronavirus-19, face shield, personal protective equipment, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
15406 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri

Abstract:

One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
15405 Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection

Authors: Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Fang Lin, Tzu-Huei Wu, Chih-Hsiang Ko, Wing P. Chan

Abstract:

Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye. Patients who underwent health examinations were selectively enrolled in this study in compliance with the protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Joint Institutional Review Board at Taipei Medical University. Participants’ brains were scanned with a water-based marker simultaneously by a multislice CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash) under a fixed tube current-time setting or automatic tube current modulation (TCM). The lens dose was measured by Gafchromic films, whose dose response curve was previously fitted using thermoluminescent dosimeters, with or without barium sulfate or bismuth-antimony shield laid above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. The application of barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shields decreased 24% and 47% of the lens dose on average, respectively. Under topogram-based TCM, the dose saving power of bismuth-antimony shield was mitigated whereas that of barium sulfate shield was enhanced. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images were decreased separately by barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shield, resulting in an overall reduction of the CNR. In contrast, the integration of topogram-based TCM elevated signal difference between the ROIs on the zygomatic bones and eyeballs while preferentially decreasing the signal-to-noise ratios upon the use of barium sulfate shield. The results of this study indicate that the balance between eye exposure and image quality can be optimized by combining eye shields with topogram-based TCM on the multislice scanner. Eye shielding could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield. The application of both shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.

Keywords: computed tomography, barium sulfate shield, dose saving, image quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
15404 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
15403 Design Of An Arduino Shield For New Generation Microcontroller Training

Authors: Boubacar Niang, Denis Raulin

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a dedicated board for learning and programming with ATMEL AVR new generation micro controller’s family. This board designed as a "shield" for the Arduino Uno allows us to focus on the design and programming of basic micro controller functionalities in high level language with a considerable time saving because of dealing with additional components is not required.

Keywords: Arduino, microcontroller, programming, language

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
15402 Reduction of Physician's Radiation Dose during Cardiac Catheterization Procedures Using Lead-Free Sterile Radiation Shields

Authors: Mohammad O. Diab, Sahera A. Saleh, Mustapha M. Dichari, Nijez Aloulou, Omar Hamoui, Feras Chehade

Abstract:

This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of lead-free sterile radiation shield (Radionex) in the reduction of physician's exposure dose during interventional cardiology procedures. Cardiac catheterization procedures are often associated with high radiation doses and high levels of secondary radiation emitted by the patient's body. This study compares physician exposure dose rate during cardiac catheterization procedures done through the femoral artery with sterile radiation shielding to same procedures made without the shielding. The mean operator radiation dose rate without using the shield was found to be 18.4µSv/min compared to a mean dose rate of 5.1 µSv/min when using the shield, rendering a reduction of 72.5% of radiation received by the physician. Sterile radiation shielding is consequently an effective addition to a cardiac catheterization lab radiation protection system.

Keywords: cardiac catheterization, physician exposure dose, sterile radiation shielding, lead-free sterile radiation shields

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
15401 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic(CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP), stainless wire mesh, electromagnetic shielding

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
15400 Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models

Authors: Mudavath Raju, Bhaskar Gugulothu, B. Rajendra Naik

Abstract:

The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.

Keywords: VLSI, interconnects, signal integrity, crosstalk, shield insertion, guard trace, deep sub micron

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
15399 How Pandemic Changed the Protective Aids for People in Day to Day Life

Authors: Jinali Chaklasiya

Abstract:

The importance of face masks, gloves, sanitizer, face shield Were only Applied for Doctor Amenities, and because of the outbreak of coronavirus, everybody has to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for health measures. . The main focus of this research paper is in the area of how doctor amenities changed the importance of gloves, face masks, sanitizer, face shield in day to day life of people. For this research, we have collected data from a quantitative survey. A questionnaire survey was conducted to note down the user point of view in doctor amenities and why is it important. The result of the questionnaire survey has helped to design parameters which were used to ideate new protective products. Thus, it is concluded to keep in mind that these protective devices can be used in day-to-day life by people across the globe. In the coming future, the protective device can make a difference and protect us from other common viruses.

Keywords: equpiment, coronavirus, products, protective, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
15398 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
15397 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Arvind Mittal, Rajesh Gupta

Abstract:

Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: microstructure, mechanical properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
15396 Numerical Analyze of Corona Discharge on HVDC Transmission Lines

Authors: H. Nouri, A. Tabbel, N. Douib, H. Aitsaid, Y. Zebboudj

Abstract:

This study and the field test comparisons were carried out on the Algerian Derguna-Setif transmission systems. The transmission line of normal voltage 225 kV is 65 km long, transported and uses twin bundle conductors protected with two shield wires of transposed galvanized steel. An iterative finite-element method is used to solve Poisons equation. Two algorithms are proposed for satisfying the current continuity condition and updating the space-charge density. A new approach to the problem of corona discharge in transmission system has been described in this paper. The effect of varying the configurations and wires number is also investigated. The analysis of this steady is important in the design of HVDC transmission lines. The potential and electric field have been calculating in locations singular points of the system.

Keywords: corona discharge, finite element method, electric field, HVDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
15395 Petrology and Finite Strain of the Al Amar Region, Northern Ar-Rayn Terrane, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Lami Mohammed, Hussain J. Al Faifi, Abdel Aziz Al Bassam, Osama M. K. Kassem

Abstract:

The Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Ar Rayn terrane have been identified as parts of the Eastern Arabian Shield. It focuses on the petrological and finite strain properties to display the tectonic setting of the Al Amar suture for high deformed volcanic and granitoids rocks. The volcanic rocks are classified into two major series: the eastern side cycle, which includes dacite, rhyodacite, rhyolite, and ignimbrites, and the western side cycle, which includes andesite and pyroclastics. Granitoids rocks also contain monzodiorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and alkali-feldspar granite. To evaluate the proportions of shear contributions in penetratively deformed rocks. Asymmetrical porphyroclast and sigmoidal structural markers along the suture's strike, namely the Al Amar, are expected to reveal strain factors. The Rf/phi and Fry techniques are used to characterize quartz and feldspar porphyroclast, biotite, and hornblende grains in Abt schist, high deformed volcanic rock, and granitoids. The findings exposed that these rocks had experienced shape flattening, finite strain accumulation, and overall volume loss. The magnitude of the strain appears to increase across the nappe contacts with neighboring lithologies. Subhorizontal foliation likely developed in tandem with thrusting and nappe stacking, almost parallel to tectonic contacts. The ductile strain accumulation that occurred during thrusting along the Al Amar suture mostly includes a considerable pure shear component. Progressive thrusting by overlaid transpression and oblique convergence is shown by stacked nappes and diagonal stretching lineations along the thrust axes. The subhorizontal lineation might be the result of the suture's most recent activity. The current study's findings contradict the widely accepted model that links orogen-scale structures in the Arabian Shield to oblique convergence with dominant simple shear deformation. A significant pure shear component/crustal thickening increment should have played a significant role in the evolution of the suture and thus in the Shield's overall deformation history. This foliation was primarily generated by thrusting nappes together, showing that nappe stacking was linked to substantial vertical shortening induced by the active Al Amar suture on a massive scale.

Keywords: petrology, finite strain analysis, al amar region, ar-rayn terrane, Arabian shield

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
15394 Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing

Authors: Hideki Igawa, Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Takashi Yokomuro, Hideo Eguchi

Abstract:

In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight concrete improved the self-healing performance.

Keywords: expanding material, heavyweight concrete, self-healing performance, synthetic fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
15393 IoT Based Monitoring Temperature and Humidity

Authors: Jay P. Sipani, Riki H. Patel, Trushit Upadhyaya

Abstract:

Today there is a demand to monitor environmental factors almost in all research institutes and industries and even for domestic uses. The analog data measurement requires manual effort to note readings, and there may be a possibility of human error. Such type of systems fails to provide and store precise values of parameters with high accuracy. Analog systems are having drawback of storage/memory. Therefore, there is a requirement of a smart system which is fully automated, accurate and capable enough to monitor all the environmental parameters with utmost possible accuracy. Besides, it should be cost-effective as well as portable too. This paper represents the Wireless Sensor (WS) data communication using DHT11, Arduino, SIM900A GSM module, a mobile device and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Experimental setup includes the heating arrangement of DHT11 and transmission of its data using Arduino and SIM900A GSM shield. The mobile device receives the data using Arduino, GSM shield and displays it on LCD too. Heating arrangement is used to heat and cool the temperature sensor to study its characteristics.

Keywords: wireless communication, Arduino, DHT11, LCD, SIM900A GSM module, mobile phone SMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
15392 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factors Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shields

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shield configuration. The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.

Keywords: buildup factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, layer-splitting tecnique

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
15391 Modelling Magnetohydrodynamics to Investigate Variation of Shielding Gases on Arc Characteristics in the GTAW Process

Authors: Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Norman A. McPherson, Duncan Camilleri, Daniel Micallef

Abstract:

Gas tungsten arc welding requires a gas shield to be present in order to protect the arc area from contamination by atmospheric gases. As a result of each gas having its own unique thermophysical properties, the shielding gas selected can have a major influence on the arc stability, welding speed, weld appearance and geometry, mechanical properties and fume generation. Alternating shielding gases is a relatively new method of discreetly supplying two different shielding gases to the welding region in order to take advantage of the beneficial properties of each gas, as well as the inherent pulsing effects generated. As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of this novel supply method, a computational fluid dynamics model has been generated to include the gas dependent thermodynamic and transport properties in order to evaluate the effects that an alternating gas supply has on the arc plasma. Experimental trials have also been conducted to validate the model arc profile predictions.

Keywords: Alternating shielding gases, ANSYS CFX, Gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW), magnetohydrodynamics(MHD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
15390 Yield Enhancement and Reduced Nutrient Removal by Weeds in Winter Irrigated Cotton Using Potassium Salt Based Glyphosate

Authors: N. Viji, K. Siddeswaran

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Eastern Block farm, Department of Farm Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter season of 2011-2012 to evaluate potassium salt based glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) with and without intercultural operations on seed cotton yield and weed nutrient removal in irrigated cotton. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of POE glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) at 1350 (T1), 1800 (T2), 2250 (T3) g a.e. ha-1, 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC (T4), PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC (T5), HW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T6), HWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T7), PWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T8), HW at 25 and 45 DAS (T9) and Unweeded control (T10). Among the weed management methods, decreased nutrient removal by weeds were observed with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC. Higher seed cotton yield was obtained with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 at 35 and 70 DAS with + IC at 45 and 55 DAS which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC at 45 and 55 DAS. Comparing treatments without intercultural operation, intercultural operation carried out treatments performed better and recorded more seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, weed, glyphosate, nutrient

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15389 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan

Abstract:

The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: aerogel, aramid fabric, flexibility, thermal resistance

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15388 Socratic Style of Teaching: An Analysis of Dialectical Method

Authors: Muhammad Jawwad, Riffat Iqbal

Abstract:

Socratic Method, also known as dialectical method and elenctic method, has significant relevancy in the contemporary educational system. It can be incorporated in modern day educational systems theoretically as well as practically. Being interactive and dialogue based in nature, this teaching approach is followed by critical thinking and innovation. The pragmatic value of the Dialectical Method has been discussed in this article and the limitations of the Socratic Method have been highlighted also. The interactive Method of Socrates can be used in many subjects of the students of different grades. The Limitations and delimitations of the Method have also been discussed for its proper implementation. In this article, it has been attempted to elaborate and analyze the teaching method of Socrates with all its pre-suppositions and Epistemological character.

Keywords: Socratic method, dialectical method, knowledge, teaching, virtue

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15387 A Simple Computational Method for the Gravitational and Seismic Soil-Structure-Interaction between New and Existent Buildings Sites

Authors: Nicolae Daniel Stoica, Ion Mierlus Mazilu

Abstract:

This work is one of numerical research and aims to address the issue of the design of new buildings in a 3D location of existing buildings. In today's continuous development and congestion of urban centers is a big question about the influence of the new buildings on an already existent vicinity site. Thus, in this study, we tried to focus on how existent buildings may be affected by any newly constructed buildings and in how far this influence is really decreased. The problem of modeling the influence of interaction between buildings is not simple in any area in the world, and neither in Romania. Unfortunately, most often the designers not done calculations that can determine how close to reality these 3D influences nor the simplified method and the more superior methods. In the most literature making a "shield" (the pilots or molded walls) is absolutely sufficient to stop the influence between the buildings, and so often the soil under the structure is ignored in the calculation models. The main causes for which the soil is neglected in the analysis are related to the complexity modeling of interaction between soil and structure. In this paper, based on a new simple but efficient methodology we tried to determine for a lot of study cases the influence, in terms of assessing the interaction land structure on the behavior of structures that influence a new building on an existing one. The study covers additional subsidence that may occur during the execution of new works and after its completion. It also highlighted the efforts diagrams and deflections in the soil for both the original case and the final stage. This is necessary to see to what extent the expected impact of the new building on existing areas.

Keywords: soil, structure, interaction, piles, earthquakes

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15386 Moho Undulations beneath South of Egypt, Using the Seismic Waves Generated by Tele Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny, Haroon Elshaikh, Gaber Hassib, Yassin Ali

Abstract:

The Moho discontinuity undulations beneath the southern part of Egypt have been defined using the seismic waves generated by tele earthquakes. These earthquakes have been recorded by the Aswan seismic network, which consists of 10 seismic stations established around the lake of Nasser. An additional seismic station was located towards the east of the Lake of Nasser by about ~ 150 km. Receiver functions and H-k stacking methods were used for obtaining the depths of Moho discontinuity and the Vp/Vs ratios beneath each seismic station. Our results revealed that, the depths of Moho discontinuity beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser range from 36 to 39 km, with an average value of 37.5 km. These results are consistent with the previous works done on the same area. The obtained Vp/Vs ratios for the crust of this area were ranged from 1.73 to 1.86, with an average value of 1.79. While beneath the station located towards the east, the Moho discontinuity was detected at a shallowest depth of 27 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.82. The difference in the Moho depths beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser and the station located to the east revealed the boundary position between the Saharan Metacraton to the west and the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east. This structural boundary delineates the position of the old collision of the Oceanic crust of the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east with the Continental crust of the Saharan Metacraton to the west.

Keywords: Moho undulations, south of Egypt, seismic waves, earthquakes

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