Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19798

Search results for: reduced differential transform method

19798 Reduced Differential Transform Methods for Solving the Fractional Diffusion Equations

Authors: Yildiray Keskin, Omer Acan, Murat Akkus


In this paper, the solution of fractional diffusion equations is presented by means of the reduced differential transform method. Fractional partial differential equations have special importance in engineering and sciences. Application of reduced differential transform method to this problem shows the rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solution. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to fractional diffusion equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many fractional partial differential equations.

Keywords: fractional diffusion equations, Caputo fractional derivative, reduced differential transform method, partial

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19797 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin


In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

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19796 Differential Transform Method: Some Important Examples

Authors: M. Jamil Amir, Rabia Iqbal, M. Yaseen


In this paper, we solve some differential equations analytically by using differential transform method. For this purpose, we consider four models of Laplace equation with two Dirichlet and two Neumann boundary conditions and K(2,2) equation and obtain the corresponding exact solutions. The obtained results show the simplicity of the method and massive reduction in calculations when one compares it with other iterative methods, available in literature. It is worth mentioning that here only a few number of iterations are required to reach the closed form solutions as series expansions of some known functions.

Keywords: differential transform method, laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions, Neumann boundary conditions

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19795 Solving Momentum and Energy Equation by Using Differential Transform Techniques

Authors: Mustafa Ekici


Natural convection is a basic process which is important in a wide variety of practical applications. In essence, a heated fluid expands and rises from buoyancy due to decreased density. Numerous papers have been written on natural or mixed convection in vertical ducts heated on the side. These equations have been proved to be valuable tools for the modelling of many phenomena such as fluid dynamics. Finding solutions to such equations or system of equations are in general not an easy task. We propose a method, which is called differential transform method, of solving a non-linear equations and compare the results with some of the other techniques. Illustrative examples shows that the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: differential transform method, momentum, energy equation, boundry value problem

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19794 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi


In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, differential transform method

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19793 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li


Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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19792 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad


Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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19791 Effects of Variable Viscosity on Radiative MHD Flow in a Porous Medium Between Twovertical Wavy Walls

Authors: A. B. Disu, M. S. Dada


This study was conducted to investigate two dimensional heat transfer of a free convective-radiative MHD (Magneto-hydrodynamics) flow with temperature dependent viscosity and heat source of a viscous incompressible fluid in a porous medium between two vertical wavy walls. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as an exponential function of temperature. The flow is assumed to consist of a mean part and a perturbed part. The perturbed quantities were expressed in terms of complex exponential series of plane wave equation. The resultant differential equations were solved by Differential Transform Method (DTM). The numerical computations were presented graphically to show the salient features of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. The skin friction and Nusselt number were also analyzed for various governing parameters.

Keywords: differential transform method, MHD free convection, porous medium, two dimensional radiation, two wavy walls

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19790 Step Method for Solving Nonlinear Two Delays Differential Equation in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: H. N. Agiza, M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder with common age of onset, symptoms, and progression levels. In this paper we will solve analytically the PD model as a non-linear delay differential equation using the steps method. The step method transforms a system of delay differential equations (DDEs) into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). On some numerical examples, the analytical solution will be difficult. So we will approximate the analytical solution using Picard method and Taylor method to ODEs.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, step method, delay differential equation, two delays

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19789 The Dynamics of Unsteady Squeezing Flow between Parallel Plates (Two-Dimensional)

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Ibrahim Ismail Giwa


Unsteady squeezing flow of a viscous fluid between parallel plates is considered. The two plates are considered to be approaching each other symmetrically, causing the squeezing flow. Two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate is considered. The Navier-Stokes equation was reduced using similarity transformation to a single fourth order non-linear ordinary differential equation. The energy equation was transformed to a second order coupled differential equation. We obtained solution to the resulting ordinary differential equations via Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). HPM deforms a differential problem into a set of problem that are easier to solve and it produces analytic approximate expression in the form of an infinite power series by using only sixth and fifth terms for the velocity and temperature respectively. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. Comparisons among present and existing solutions were provided and it is shown that the proposed method is in good agreement with Variation of Parameter Method (VPM). The effects of appropriate dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles and temperature field are demonstrated with the aid of comprehensive graphs and tables.

Keywords: coupled differential equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method, plates, squeezing flow

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19788 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

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19787 Video Compression Using Contourlet Transform

Authors: Delara Kazempour, Mashallah Abasi Dezfuli, Reza Javidan


Video compression used for channels with limited bandwidth and storage devices has limited storage capabilities. One of the most popular approaches in video compression is the usage of different transforms. Discrete cosine transform is one of the video compression methods that have some problems such as blocking, noising and high distortion inappropriate effect in compression ratio. wavelet transform is another approach is better than cosine transforms in balancing of compression and quality but the recognizing of curve curvature is so limit. Because of the importance of the compression and problems of the cosine and wavelet transforms, the contourlet transform is most popular in video compression. In the new proposed method, we used contourlet transform in video image compression. Contourlet transform can save details of the image better than the previous transforms because this transform is multi-scale and oriented. This transform can recognize discontinuity such as edges. In this approach we lost data less than previous approaches. Contourlet transform finds discrete space structure. This transform is useful for represented of two dimension smooth images. This transform, produces compressed images with high compression ratio along with texture and edge preservation. Finally, the results show that the majority of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio of the new method based contourlet transform compared to wavelet transform are improved but in most of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the cosine transform is better than the method based on contourlet transform.

Keywords: video compression, contourlet transform, discrete cosine transform, wavelet transform

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19786 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y^'''= f(x,y,y^',y^'' ), y(α)=y_0,〖y〗^' (α)=β,y^('' ) (α)=μ with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non-stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, hybrid, linear multistep, self-starting, third order ordinary differential equations

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19785 Solution of Hybrid Fuzzy Differential Equations

Authors: Mahmood Otadi, Maryam Mosleh


The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: fuzzy number, fuzzy ODE, HAM, approximate method

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19784 Series Solutions to Boundary Value Differential Equations

Authors: Armin Ardekani, Mohammad Akbari


We present a method of generating series solutions to large classes of nonlinear differential equations. The method is well suited to be adapted in mathematical software and unlike the available commercial solvers, we are capable of generating solutions to boundary value ODEs and PDEs. Many of the generated solutions converge to closed form solutions. Our method can also be applied to systems of ODEs or PDEs, providing all the solutions efficiently. As examples, we present results to many difficult differential equations in engineering fields.

Keywords: computational mathematics, differential equations, engineering, series

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19783 Comparing Numerical Accuracy of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Using Taylor's Series Method, Euler's Method and Runge-Kutta (RK) Method

Authors: Palwinder Singh, Munish Sandhir, Tejinder Singh


The ordinary differential equations (ODE) represent a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real-life situations in the field of engineering, control systems, physics, chemistry and astronomy etc. Such type of differential equations can be solved by analytical methods or by numerical methods. If the solution is calculated using analytical methods, it is done through calculus theories, and thus requires a longer time to solve. In this paper, we compare the numerical accuracy of the solutions given by the three main types of one-step initial value solvers: Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method and Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method (RK4). The comparison of accuracy is obtained through comparing the solutions of ordinary differential equation given by these three methods. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy; we compare these numerical solutions with the exact solutions.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations (ODE), Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method

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19782 Method to Find a ε-Optimal Control of Stochastic Differential Equation Driven by a Brownian Motion

Authors: Francys Souza, Alberto Ohashi, Dorival Leao


We present a general solution for finding the ε-optimal controls for non-Markovian stochastic systems as stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion, which is a problem recognized as a difficult solution. The contribution appears in the development of mathematical tools to deal with modeling and control of non-Markovian systems, whose applicability in different areas is well known. The methodology used consists to discretize the problem through a random discretization. In this way, we transform an infinite dimensional problem in a finite dimensional, thereafter we use measurable selection arguments, to find a control on an explicit form for the discretized problem. Then, we prove the control found for the discretized problem is a ε-optimal control for the original problem. Our theory provides a concrete description of a rather general class, among the principals, we can highlight financial problems such as portfolio control, hedging, super-hedging, pairs-trading and others. Therefore, our main contribution is the development of a tool to explicitly the ε-optimal control for non-Markovian stochastic systems. The pathwise analysis was made through a random discretization jointly with measurable selection arguments, has provided us with a structure to transform an infinite dimensional problem into a finite dimensional. The theory is applied to stochastic control problems based on path-dependent stochastic differential equations, where both drift and diffusion components are controlled. We are able to explicitly show optimal control with our method.

Keywords: dynamic programming equation, optimal control, stochastic control, stochastic differential equation

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19781 Reduction of Differential Column Shortening in Tall Buildings

Authors: Hansoo Kim, Seunghak Shin


The differential column shortening in tall buildings can be reduced by improving material and structural characteristics of the structural systems. This paper proposes structural methods to reduce differential column shortening in reinforced concrete tall buildings; connecting columns with rigidly jointed horizontal members, using outriggers, and placing additional reinforcement at the columns. The rigidly connected horizontal members including outriggers reduce the differential shortening between adjacent vertical members. The axial stiffness of columns with greater shortening can be effectively increased by placing additional reinforcement at the columns, thus the differential column shortening can be reduced in the design stage. The optimum distribution of additional reinforcement can be determined by applying a gradient based optimization technique.

Keywords: column shortening, long-term behavior, optimization, tall building

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19780 A Series Solution of Fuzzy Integro-Differential Equation

Authors: Maryam Mosleh, Mahmood Otadi


The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: Fuzzy number, parametric form of a fuzzy number, fuzzy integrodifferential equation, homotopy analysis method

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19779 Scrutiny and Solving Analytically Nonlinear Differential at Engineering Field of Fluids, Heat, Mass and Wave by New Method AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


As all experts know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially heat, fluid and mass, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex and sometimes impossible like (fluids and gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure a innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and so compare to other methods such as HPM, ADM,… and exact solutions. Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations(ODE and PDE). In this paper, we investigate and solve 4 types of the nonlinear differential equation with AGM method : 1-Heat and fluid, 2-Unsteady state of nonlinear partial differential, 3-Coupled nonlinear partial differential in wave equation, and 4-Nonlinear integro-differential equation.

Keywords: new method AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear equations at engineering field, waves equations, integro-differential, fluid and thermal

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19778 Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based on Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Asyieh Ebrahimzadeh


In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet accompany with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.

Keywords: collocation method, Legendre wavelet, optimal control, Volterra integro-differential equation

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19777 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed


An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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19776 Residual Power Series Method for System of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Zuhier Altawallbeh


This paper investigates the approximate analytical solutions of general form of Volterra integro-differential equations system by using the residual power series method (for short RPSM). The proposed method produces the solutions in terms of convergent series requires no linearization or small perturbation and reproduces the exact solution when the solution is polynomial. Some examples are given to demonstrate the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed method. Comparisons with the Laplace decomposition algorithm verify that the new method is very effective and convenient for solving system of pantograph equations.

Keywords: integro-differential equation, pantograph equations, system of initial value problems, residual power series method

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19775 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir


The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

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19774 Analytical Solving of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Nonlinear Phenomena for Viscos Fluids

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In the paper, our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve a nonlinear differential equation which is about the motion of an incompressible fluid flow going down of an inclined plane without thermal effect with a simple and innovative approach which we have named it new method. Comparisons are made amongst the Numerical, new method, and HPM methods, and the results reveal that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other nonlinear problems. It is noteworthy that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations, and also most of the sets of differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they do not have acceptable solutions up to now. A summary of the excellence of this method in comparison to the other manners is as follows: 1) Differential equations are directly solvable by this method. 2) Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s). 3) It is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned assertions which will be proved in this case study, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison to the other methods.

Keywords: viscos fluid, incompressible fluid flow, inclined plane, nonlinear phenomena

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19773 Hit-Or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Authors: Osama Mohamed Elrajubi, Idris El-Feghi, Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer


This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Keywords: hit-or-miss operator transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing

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19772 Linear fractional differential equations for second kind modified Bessel functions

Authors: Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin


Fractional derivatives have been considered recently as a way to solve different problems in Engineering. In this way, second kind modified Bessel functions are considered here. The order α fractional differential equations of second kind Bessel functions, Kᵥ(x), are studied with simple initial conditions. The Laplace transform and Caputo definition of fractional derivatives are considered. Solutions have been found for ν=1/3, 1/2, 2/3, -1/3, -1/2 and (-2/3). In these cases, the solutions are the sum of two hypergeometric functions. The α fractional derivatives have been for α=1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, and the above values of ν. No convergence has been found for the integer values of ν Furthermore when α has been considered as a rational found m/p, no general solution has been found. Clearly, this case is more difficult to treat than those of first kind Bessel Function.

Keywords: Caputo, modified Bessel functions, hypergeometric, linear fractional differential equations, transform Laplace

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19771 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour


Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME).

Keywords: curvelet transform, CBCT, image enhancement, image denoising

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19770 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations by Lyapunov Functions

Authors: Mustafa Bayram Gücen, Coşkun Yakar


In this study, we have investigated the strict stability of fuzzy differential systems and we compare the classical notion of strict stability criteria of ordinary differential equations and the notion of strict stability of fuzzy differential systems. In addition that, we present definitions of stability and strict stability of fuzzy differential equations and also we have some theorems and comparison results. Strict Stability is a different stability definition and this stability type can give us an information about the rate of decay of the solutions. Lyapunov’s second method is a standard technique used in the study of the qualitative behavior of fuzzy differential systems along with a comparison result that allows the prediction of behavior of a fuzzy differential system when the behavior of the null solution of a fuzzy comparison system is known. This method is a usefull for investigating strict stability of fuzzy systems. First of all, we present definitions and necessary background material. Secondly, we discuss and compare the differences between the classical notion of stability and the recent notion of strict stability. And then, we have a comparison result in which the stability properties of the null solution of the comparison system imply the corresponding stability properties of the fuzzy differential system. Consequently, we give the strict stability results and a comparison theorem. We have used Lyapunov second method and we have proved a comparison result with scalar differential equations.

Keywords: fuzzy systems, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy stability, strict stability

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19769 Nonlinear Structural Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Actuators Using the Galerkin Discretization Technique

Authors: Hassen M. Ouakad


In this paper, the influence of van der Waals, as well as electrostatic forces on the structural behavior of MEMS and NEMS actuators, has been investigated using of a Euler-Bernoulli beam continuous model. In the proposed nonlinear model, the electrostatic fringing-fields and the mid-plane stretching (geometric nonlinearity) effects have been considered. The nonlinear integro-differential equation governing the static structural behavior of the actuator has been derived. An original Galerkin-based reduced-order model has been developed to avoid problems arising from the nonlinearities in the differential equation. The obtained reduced-order model equations have been solved numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. The basic design parameters such as the pull-in parameters (voltage and deflection at pull-in), as well as the detachment length due to the van der Waals force of some investigated micro- and nano-actuators have been calculated. The obtained numerical results have been compared with some other existing methods (finite-elements method and finite-difference method) and the comparison showed good agreement among all assumed numerical techniques.

Keywords: MEMS, NEMS, fringing-fields, mid-plane stretching, Galerkin

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