Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16412

Search results for: particle method

16412 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
16411 Application of Adaptive Particle Filter for Localizing a Mobile Robot Using 3D Camera Data

Authors: Maysam Shahsavari, Seyed Jamalaldin Haddadi

Abstract:

There are several methods to localize a mobile robot such as relative, absolute and probabilistic. In this paper, particle filter due to its simple implementation and the fact that it does not need to know to the starting position will be used. This method estimates the position of the mobile robot using a probabilistic distribution, relying on a known map of the environment instead of predicting it. Afterwards, it updates this estimation by reading input sensors and control commands. To receive information from the surrounding world, distance to obstacles, for example, a Kinect is used which is much cheaper than a laser range finder. Finally, after explaining the Adaptive Particle Filter method and its implementation in detail, we will compare this method with the dead reckoning method and show that this method is much more suitable for situations in which we have a map of the environment.

Keywords: particle filter, localization, methods, odometry, kinect

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
16410 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
16409 Simulation of Complex-Shaped Particle Breakage with a Bonded Particle Model Using the Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Platzer, Eric Fimbinger

Abstract:

In Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations, the breakage behavior of particles can be simulated based on different principles. In the case of large, complex-shaped particles that show various breakage patterns depending on the scenario leading to the failure and often only break locally instead of fracturing completely, some of these principles do not lead to realistic results. The reason for this is that in said cases, the methods in question, such as the Particle Replacement Method (PRM) or Voronoi Fracture, replace the initial particle (that is intended to break) into several sub-particles when certain breakage criteria are reached, such as exceeding the fracture energy. That is why those methods are commonly used for the simulation of materials that fracture completely instead of breaking locally. That being the case, when simulating local failure, it is advisable to pre-build the initial particle from sub-particles that are bonded together. The dimensions of these sub-particles consequently define the minimum size of the fracture results. This structure of bonded sub-particles enables the initial particle to break at the location of the highest local loads – due to the failure of the bonds in those areas – with several sub-particle clusters being the result of the fracture, which can again also break locally. In this project, different methods for the generation and calibration of complex-shaped particle conglomerates using bonded particle modeling (BPM) to enable the ability to depict more realistic fracture behavior were evaluated based on the example of filter cake. The method that proved suitable for this purpose and which furthermore allows efficient and realistic simulation of breakage behavior of complex-shaped particles applicable to industrial-sized simulations is presented in this paper.

Keywords: bonded particle model, DEM, filter cake, particle breakage

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16408 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi

Abstract:

In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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16407 Particle Swarm Optimization and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization to Multidimensional Function Approximation

Authors: Diogo Silva, Fadul Rodor, Carlos Moraes

Abstract:

This work compares the results of multidimensional function approximation using two algorithms: the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). These algorithms were both tested on three functions - The Rosenbrock, the Rastrigin, and the sphere functions - with different characteristics by increasing their number of dimensions. As a result, this study shows that the higher the function space, i.e. the larger the function dimension, the more evident the advantages of using the QPSO method compared to the PSO method in terms of performance and number of necessary iterations to reach the stop criterion.

Keywords: PSO, QPSO, function approximation, AI, optimization, multidimensional functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
16406 PD Test in Gas Insulated Substation Using UHF Method

Authors: T. Prabakaran

Abstract:

Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are widely used as important switchgear equipment because of its high reliability, low space requirement, low risk factor and easy maintenance, yet some failures have been reported. Some of the failures are due to presence of metallic particles inside the GIS compartment. The defect can be generated in GIS during production, maintenance, installation and can be due to ageing of the component. The Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) method is used to diagnose the insulation condition of GIS by detecting the PD signals in GIS. This paper identifies PD patterns for free moving particle defect and particle fixed on cone using UHF method. As insulation failure usually starts with PD activity, this paper investigates the differences in PD characteristics in SF6 gas with different types of defects. Experimental results show that correct identification of defects can be achieved based on considered PD characteristics. The method can be applied to prove the quality of assembly work at commissioning, also on a regular basis after many years in service to detect aged and conducting particles as a part of the condition based maintenance.

Keywords: gas insulated substation, partial discharge, free moving particle defect, particle fixed on cone defect, ultra high frequency method

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
16405 Discrete Element Modeling of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills

Authors: Yunjia Wang, Zhihong Zhao, Erxiang Song

Abstract:

Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. On the contrary, larger creep strains were observed in he rounded specimens in the direct shear test. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials.

Keywords: rockfills, creep behavior, particle crushing, discrete element method, boundary conditions

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16404 Investigation of Single Particle Breakage inside an Impact Mill

Authors: E. Ghasemi Ardi, K. J. Dong, A. B. Yu, R. Y. Yang

Abstract:

In current work, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM) was developed which provided information about particle dynamic and impact event condition inside a laboratory scale impact mill (Fritsch). It showed that each particle mostly experiences three impacts inside the mill. While the first impact frequently happens at front surface of the rotor’s rib, the frequent location of the second impact is side surfaces of the rotor’s rib. It was also showed that while the first impact happens at small impact angle mostly varying around 35º, the second impact happens at around 70º which is close to normal impact condition. Also analyzing impact energy revealed that varying mill speed from 6000 to 14000 rpm, the ratio of first impact’s average impact energy and minimum required energy to break particle (Wₘᵢₙ) increased from 0.30 to 0.85. Moreover, it was seen that second impact poses intense impact energy on particle which can be considered as the main cause of particle splitting. Finally, obtained information from DEM simulation along with obtained data from conducted experiments was implemented in semi-empirical equations in order to find selection and breakage functions. Then, using a back-calculation approach, those parameters were used to predict the PSDs of ground particles under different impact energies. Results were compared with experiment results and showed reasonable accuracy and prediction ability.

Keywords: single particle breakage, particle dynamic, population balance model, particle size distribution, discrete element method

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16403 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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16402 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo

Abstract:

Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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16401 Discrete Element Method Simulation of Crushable Pumice Sand

Authors: Sayed Hessam Bahmani, Rolsndo P. Orense

Abstract:

From an engineering point of view, pumice particles are problematic because of their crushability and compressibility due to their vesicular nature. Currently, information on the geotechnical characteristics of pumice sands is limited. While extensive empirical and laboratory tests can be implemented to characterize their behavior, these are generally time-consuming and expensive. These drawbacks have motivated attempts to study the effects of particle breakage of pumice sand through the Discrete Element Method (DEM). This method provides insights into the behavior of crushable granular material at both the micro and macro-level. In this paper, the results of single-particle crushing tests conducted in the laboratory are simulated using DEM through the open-source code YADE. This is done to better understand the parameters necessary to represent the pumice microstructure that governs its crushing features, and to examine how the resulting microstructure evolution affects a particle’s properties. The DEM particle model is then used to simulate the behavior of pumice sand during consolidated drained triaxial tests. The results indicate the importance of incorporating particle porosity and unique surface textures in the material characterization and show that interlocking between the crushed particles significantly influences the drained behavior of the pumice specimen.

Keywords: pumice sand, triaxial compression, simulation, particle breakage

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16400 Acceleration Techniques of DEM Simulation for Dynamics of Particle Damping

Authors: Masato Saeki

Abstract:

Presented herein is a novel algorithms for calculating the damping performance of particle dampers. The particle damper is a passive vibration control technique and has many practical applications due to simple design. It consists of granular materials constrained to move between two ends in the cavity of a primary vibrating system. The damping effect results from the exchange of momentum during the impact of granular materials against the wall of the cavity. This damping has the advantage of being independent of the environment. Therefore, particle damping can be applied in extreme temperature environments, where most conventional dampers would fail. It was shown experimentally in many papers that the efficiency of the particle dampers is high in the case of resonant vibration. In order to use the particle dampers effectively, it is necessary to solve the equations of motion for each particle, considering the granularity. The discrete element method (DEM) has been found to be effective for revealing the dynamics of particle damping. In this method, individual particles are assumed as rigid body and interparticle collisions are modeled by mechanical elements as springs and dashpots. However, the computational cost is significant since the equation of motion for each particle must be solved at each time step. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the DEM, the new algorithms are needed. In this study, new algorithms are proposed for implementing the high performance DEM. On the assumption that behaviors of the granular particles in the each divided area of the damper container are the same, the contact force of the primary system with all particles can be considered to be equal to the product of the divided number of the damper area and the contact force of the primary system with granular materials per divided area. This convenience makes it possible to considerably reduce the calculation time. The validity of this calculation method was investigated and the calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. This paper also presents the results of experimental studies of the performance of particle dampers. It is shown that the particle radius affect the noise level. It is also shown that the particle size and the particle material influence the damper performance.

Keywords: particle damping, discrete element method (DEM), granular materials, numerical analysis, equivalent noise level

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
16399 Printed Thai Character Recognition Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Phawin Sangsuvan, Chutimet Srinilta

Abstract:

This Paper presents the applications of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Method for Thai optical character recognition (OCR). OCR consists of the pre-processing, character recognition and post-processing. Before enter into recognition process. The Character must be “Prepped” by pre-processing process. The PSO is an optimization method that belongs to the swarm intelligence family based on the imitation of social behavior patterns of animals. Route of each particle is determined by an individual data among neighborhood particles. The interaction of the particles with neighbors is the advantage of Particle Swarm to determine the best solution. So PSO is interested by a lot of researchers in many difficult problems including character recognition. As the previous this research used a Projection Histogram to extract printed digits features and defined the simple Fitness Function for PSO. The results reveal that PSO gives 67.73% for testing dataset. So in the future there can be explored enhancement the better performance of PSO with improve the Fitness Function.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, particle swarm optimization, pattern recognition techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
16398 Improvement Image Summarization using Image Processing and Particle swarm optimization Algorithm

Authors: Hooman Torabifard

Abstract:

In the last few years, with the progress of technology and computers and artificial intelligence entry into all kinds of scientific and industrial fields, the lifestyles of human life have changed and in general, the way of humans live on earth has many changes and development. Until now, some of the changes has occurred in the context of digital images and image processing and still continues. However, besides all the benefits, there have been disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is the multiplicity of images with high volume and data; the focus of this paper is on improving and developing a method for summarizing and enhancing the productivity of these images. The general method used for this purpose in this paper consists of a set of methods based on data obtained from image processing and using the PSO (Particle swarm optimization) algorithm. In the remainder of this paper, the method used is elaborated in detail.

Keywords: image summarization, particle swarm optimization, image threshold, image processing

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16397 Direct Approach in Modeling Particle Breakage Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ebrahim Ghasemi Ardi, Ai Bing Yu, Run Yu Yang

Abstract:

Current study is aimed to develop an available in-house discrete element method (DEM) code and link it with direct breakage event. So, it became possible to determine the particle breakage and then its fragments size distribution, simultaneous with DEM simulation. It directly applies the particle breakage inside the DEM computation algorithm and if any breakage happens the original particle is replaced with daughters. In this way, the calculation will be followed based on a new updated particles list which is very similar to the real grinding environment. To validate developed model, a grinding ball impacting an unconfined particle bed was simulated. Since considering an entire ball mill would be too computationally demanding, this method provided a simplified environment to test the model. Accordingly, a representative volume of the ball mill was simulated inside a box, which could emulate media (ball)–powder bed impacts in a ball mill and during particle bed impact tests. Mono, binary and ternary particle beds were simulated to determine the effects of granular composition on breakage kinetics. The results obtained from the DEM simulations showed a reduction in the specific breakage rate for coarse particles in binary mixtures. The origin of this phenomenon, commonly known as cushioning or decelerated breakage in dry milling processes, was explained by the DEM simulations. Fine particles in a particle bed increase mechanical energy loss, and reduce and distribute interparticle forces thereby inhibiting the breakage of the coarse component. On the other hand, the specific breakage rate of fine particles increased due to contacts associated with coarse particles. Such phenomenon, known as acceleration, was shown to be less significant, but should be considered in future attempts to accurately quantify non-linear breakage kinetics in the modeling of dry milling processes.

Keywords: particle bed, breakage models, breakage kinetic, discrete element method

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16396 3-D Modeling of Particle Size Reduction from Micro to Nano Scale Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Himanshu Singh, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya

Abstract:

This paper adopts a top-down approach for mathematical modeling to predict the size reduction from micro to nano-scale through persistent etching. The process is simulated using a finite difference approach. Previously, various researchers have simulated the etching process for 1-D and 2-D substrates. It consists of two processes: 1) Convection-Diffusion in the etchant domain; 2) Chemical reaction at the surface of the particle. Since the process requires analysis along moving boundary, partial differential equations involved cannot be solved using conventional methods. In 1-D, this problem is very similar to Stefan's problem of moving ice-water boundary. A fixed grid method using finite volume method is very popular for modelling of etching on a one and two dimensional substrate. Other popular approaches include moving grid method and level set method. In this method, finite difference method was used to discretize the spherical diffusion equation. Due to symmetrical distribution of etchant, the angular terms in the equation can be neglected. Concentration is assumed to be constant at the outer boundary. At the particle boundary, the concentration of the etchant is assumed to be zero since the rate of reaction is much faster than rate of diffusion. The rate of reaction is proportional to the velocity of the moving boundary of the particle. Modelling of the above reaction was carried out using Matlab. The initial particle size was taken to be 50 microns. The density, molecular weight and diffusion coefficient of the substrate were taken as 2.1 gm/cm3, 60 and 10-5 cm2/s respectively. The etch-rate was found to decline initially and it gradually became constant at 0.02µ/s (1.2µ/min). The concentration profile was plotted along with space at different time intervals. Initially, a sudden drop is observed at the particle boundary due to high-etch rate. This change becomes more gradual with time due to declination of etch rate.

Keywords: particle size reduction, micromixer, FDM modelling, wet etching

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16395 Dynamical Characteristics of Interaction between Water Droplet and Aerosol Particle in Dedusting Technology

Authors: Ding Jue, Li Jiahua, Lei Zhidi, Weng Peifen, Li Xiaowei

Abstract:

With the rapid development of national modern industry, people begin to pay attention to environmental pollution and harm caused by industrial dust. Based on above, a numerical study on the dedusting technology of industrial environment was conducted. The dynamic models of multicomponent particles collision and coagulation, breakage and deposition are developed, and the interaction of water droplet and aerosol particle in 2-Dimension flow field was researched by Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method. The effects of the droplet scale, movement speed of droplet and the flow field structure on scavenging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that under the certain condition, 30μm of droplet has the best scavenging efficiency. At the initial speed 1m/s of droplets, droplets and aerosol particles have more time to interact, so it has a better scavenging efficiency for the particle.

Keywords: water droplet, aerosol particle, collision and coagulation, multi-monte carlo method

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16394 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh

Abstract:

The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
16393 Coarse-Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method Modelling of the Multiphase Flow in Hydrocyclones

Authors: Li Ji, Kaiwei Chu, Shibo Kuang, Aibing Yu

Abstract:

Hydrocyclones are widely used to classify particles by size in industries such as mineral processing and chemical processing. The particles to be handled usually have a broad range of size distributions and sometimes density distributions, which has to be properly considered, causing challenges in the modelling of hydrocyclone. The combined approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) offers convenience to model particle size/density distribution. However, its direct application to hydrocyclones is computationally prohibitive because there are billions of particles involved. In this work, a CFD-DEM model with the concept of the coarse-grained (CG) model is developed to model the solid-fluid flow in a hydrocyclone. The DEM is used to model the motion of discrete particles by applying Newton’s laws of motion. Here, a particle assembly containing a certain number of particles with same properties is treated as one CG particle. The CFD is used to model the liquid flow by numerically solving the local-averaged Navier-Stokes equations facilitated with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model to capture air-core. The results are analyzed in terms of fluid and solid flow structures, and particle-fluid, particle-particle and particle-wall interaction forces. Furthermore, the calculated separation performance is compared with the measurements. The results obtained from the present study indicate that this approach can offer an alternative way to examine the flow and performance of hydrocyclones

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, hydrocyclone, multiphase flow

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16392 Modeling Continuous Flow in a Curved Channel Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Indri Mahadiraka Rumamby, R. R. Dwinanti Rika Marthanty, Jessica Sjah

Abstract:

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was originally created to simulate nonaxisymmetric phenomena in astrophysics. However, this method still has several shortcomings, namely the high computational cost required to model values with high resolution and problems with boundary conditions. The difficulty of modeling boundary conditions occurs because the SPH method is influenced by particle deficiency due to the integral of the kernel function being truncated by boundary conditions. This research aims to answer if SPH modeling with a focus on boundary layer interactions and continuous flow can produce quantifiably accurate values with low computational cost. This research will combine algorithms and coding in the main program of meandering river, continuous flow algorithm, and solid-fluid algorithm with the aim of obtaining quantitatively accurate results on solid-fluid interactions with the continuous flow on a meandering channel using the SPH method. This study uses the Fortran programming language for modeling the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical method; the model is conducted in the form of a U-shaped meandering open channel in 3D, where the channel walls are soil particles and uses a continuous flow with a limited number of particles.

Keywords: smoothed particle hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, numerical simulation, fluid mechanics

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16391 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee

Abstract:

The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

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16390 Chaotic Sequence Noise Reduction and Chaotic Recognition Rate Improvement Based on Improved Local Geometric Projection

Authors: Rubin Dan, Xingcai Wang, Ziyang Chen

Abstract:

A chaotic time series noise reduction method based on the fusion of the local projection method, wavelet transform, and particle swarm algorithm (referred to as the LW-PSO method) is proposed to address the problem of false recognition due to noise in the recognition process of chaotic time series containing noise. The method first uses phase space reconstruction to recover the original dynamical system characteristics and removes the noise subspace by selecting the neighborhood radius; then it uses wavelet transform to remove D1-D3 high-frequency components to maximize the retention of signal information while least-squares optimization is performed by the particle swarm algorithm. The Lorenz system containing 30% Gaussian white noise is simulated and verified, and the phase space, SNR value, RMSE value, and K value of the 0-1 test method before and after noise reduction of the Schreiber method, local projection method, wavelet transform method, and LW-PSO method are compared and analyzed, which proves that the LW-PSO method has a better noise reduction effect compared with the other three common methods. The method is also applied to the classical system to evaluate the noise reduction effect of the four methods and the original system identification effect, which further verifies the superiority of the LW-PSO method. Finally, it is applied to the Chengdu rainfall chaotic sequence for research, and the results prove that the LW-PSO method can effectively reduce the noise and improve the chaos recognition rate.

Keywords: Schreiber noise reduction, wavelet transform, particle swarm optimization, 0-1 test method, chaotic sequence denoising

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16389 Time-Domain Expressions for Bridge Self-Excited Aerodynamic Forces by Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer

Authors: Hao-Su Liu, Jun-Qing Lei

Abstract:

This study introduces the theory of modified particle swarm optimizer and its application in time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces. Based on the indicial function expression and the rational function expression in time-domain expression for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, the characteristics of the two methods, i.e. the modified particle swarm optimizer and conventional search method, are compared in flutter derivatives’ fitting process. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that adopting whether the indicial function expression or the rational function expression, the fitting flutter derivatives obtained by modified particle swarm optimizer have better goodness of fit with ones obtained from experiment. As to the flutter derivatives which have higher nonlinearity, the self-excited aerodynamic forces, using the flutter derivatives obtained through modified particle swarm optimizer fitting process, are much closer to the ones simulated by the experimental. The modified particle swarm optimizer was used to recognize the parameters of time-domain expressions for flutter derivatives of an actual long-span highway-railway truss bridge with double decks at the wind attack angle of 0°, -3° and +3°. It was found that this method could solve the bounded problems of attenuation coefficient effectively in conventional search method, and had the ability of searching in unboundedly area. Accordingly, this study provides a method for engineering industry to frequently and efficiently obtain the time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces.

Keywords: time-domain expressions, bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, modified particle swarm optimizer, long-span highway-railway truss bridge

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16388 Growth Performance and Critical Supersaturation of Heterogeneous Condensation for High Concentration of Insoluble Sub-Micron Particles

Authors: Jie Yin, Jun Zhang

Abstract:

Measuring the growth performance and critical supersaturation of particle group have a high reference value for constructing a supersaturated water vapor environment that can improve the removal efficiency of the high-concentration particle group. The critical supersaturation and the variation of the growth performance with supersaturation for high-concentration particles were measured by a flow cloud chamber. Findings suggest that the influence of particle concentration on the growth performance will reduce with the increase of supersaturation. Reducing residence time and increasing particle concentration have similar effects on the growth performance of the high-concentration particle group. Increasing particle concentration and shortening residence time will increase the critical supersaturation of the particle group. The critical supersaturation required to activate a high-concentration particle group is lower than that of the single-particle when the minimum particle size in the particle group is the same as that of a single particle.

Keywords: sub-micron particles, heterogeneous condensation, critical supersaturation, nucleation

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16387 Advanced Particle Characterisation of Suspended Sediment in the Danube River Using Automated Imaging and Laser Diffraction

Authors: Flóra Pomázi, Sándor Baranya, Zoltán Szalai

Abstract:

A harmonized monitoring of the suspended sediment transport along such a large river as the world’s most international river, the Danube River, is a rather challenging task. The traditional monitoring method in Hungary is obsolete but using indirect measurement devices and techniques like optical backscatter sensors (OBS), laser diffraction or acoustic backscatter sensors (ABS) could provide a fast and efficient alternative option of direct methods. However, these methods are strongly sensitive to the particle characteristics (i.e. particle shape, particle size and mineral composition). The current method does not provide sufficient information about particle size distribution, mineral analysis is rarely done, and the shape of the suspended sediment particles have not been examined yet. The aims of the study are (1) to determine the particle characterisation of suspended sediment in the Danube River using advanced particle characterisation methods as laser diffraction and automated imaging, and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the indirect methods in order to determine the impact of suspended particle characteristics. The particle size distribution is determined by laser diffraction. The particle shape and mineral composition analysis is done by the Morphologi G3ID image analyser. The investigated indirect measurement devices are the LISST-Portable|XR, the LISST-ABS (Sequoia Inc.) and the Rio Grande 1200 kHz ADCP (Teledyne Marine). The major findings of this study are (1) the statistical shape of the suspended sediment particle - this is the first research in this context, (2) the actualised particle size distribution – that can be compared to historical information, so that the morphological changes can be tracked, (3) the actual mineral composition of the suspended sediment in the Danube River, and (4) the reliability of the tested indirect methods has been increased – based on the results of the sensitivity analysis and the previous findings.

Keywords: advanced particle characterisation, automated imaging, indirect methods, laser diffraction, mineral composition, suspended sediment

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16386 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

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16385 Non-Convex Multi Objective Economic Dispatch Using Ramp Rate Biogeography Based Optimization

Authors: Susanta Kumar Gachhayat, S. K. Dash

Abstract:

Multi objective non-convex economic dispatch problems of a thermal power plant are of grave concern for deciding the cost of generation and reduction of emission level for diminishing the global warming level for improving green-house effect. This paper deals with ramp rate constraints for achieving better inequality constraints so as to incorporate valve point loading for cost of generation in thermal power plant through ramp rate biogeography based optimization involving mutation and migration. Through 50 out of 100 trials, the cost function and emission objective function were found to have outperformed other classical methods such as lambda iteration method, quadratic programming method and many heuristic methods like particle swarm optimization method, weight improved particle swarm optimization method, constriction factor based particle swarm optimization method, moderate random particle swarm optimization method etc. Ramp rate biogeography based optimization applications prove quite advantageous in solving non convex multi objective economic dispatch problems subjected to nonlinear loads that pollute the source giving rise to third harmonic distortions and other such disturbances.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, ELD, biogeography-based optimization, BBO, ramp rate biogeography-based optimization, RRBBO, valve-point loading, VPL

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
16384 Formulation of Famotidine Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN): Preparation, Evaluation and Release Study

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Nurmazidah

Abstract:

Background and purpose: Famotidine is an H2 receptor blocker. Absorption orally is rapid enough, but famotidine can be degraded by stomach acid causing dose reduction until 35.8% after 50 minutes. This drug also undergoes first-pass metabolism which reduced its bio availability only until 40-50%. To overcome these problems, Solid Lipid Nano particles (SLNs) as alternative delivery systems can be formulated. SLNs is a lipid-based drug delivery technology with 50-1000 nm particle size, where the drug incorporated into the bio compatible lipids and the lipid particles are stabilized using appropriate stabilizers. When the particle size is 200 nm or below, lipid containing famotidine can be absorbed through the lymphatic vessels to the subclavian vein, so first-pass metabolism can be avoided. Method: Famotidine SLNs with various compositions of stabilizer was prepared using a high-speed homogenization and sonication method. Then, the particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, particle morphology and in vitro release profiles were evaluated. Optimization of sonication time also carried out. Result: Particle size of SLN by Particle Size Analyzer was in range 114.6 up to 455.267 nm. Ultrasonicated SLNs within 5 minutes generated smaller particle size than SLNs which was ultrasonicated for 10 and 15 minutes. Entrapment efficiency of SLNs were 74.17 up to 79.45%. Particle morphology of the SLNs was spherical and distributed individually. Release study of Famotidine revealed that in acid medium, 28.89 up to 80.55% of famotidine could be released after 2 hours. Nevertheless in basic medium, famotidine was released 40.5 up to 86.88% in the same period. Conclusion: The best formula was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Poloxamer 188 and 1 % Span 20, that had particle size 114.6 nm in diameter, 77.14% famotidine entrapped, and the particle morphology was spherical and distributed individually. SLNs with the best drug release profile was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Eudragit L 100-55 and 1% Tween 80 which had released 36.34 % in pH 1.2 solution, and 74.13% in pH 7.4 solution after 2 hours. The optimum sonication time was 5 minutes.

Keywords: famotodine, SLN, high speed homogenization, particle size, release study

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
16383 Concrete Cracking Simulation Using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element Method

Authors: R. Z. Wang, B. C. Lin, C. H. Huang

Abstract:

This study proposes a new method to simulate the crack propagation under mode-I loading using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) method. A new idea which is expected to combine both VFIFE and J-integral is proposed to calculate the stress density factor as the crack critical in elastic crack. The procedure of implement the cohesive crack propagation in VFIFE based on the fictitious crack model is also proposed. In VFIFIE, the structure deformation is described by numbers of particles instead of elements. The strain energy density and the derivatives of the displacement vector of every particle is introduced to calculate the J-integral as the integral path is discrete by particles. The particle on the crack tip separated into two particles once the stress on the crack tip satisfied with the crack critical and then the crack tip propagates to the next particle. The internal force and the cohesive force is applied to the particles.

Keywords: VFIFE, crack propagation, fictitious crack model, crack critical

Procedia PDF Downloads 260