Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22698

Search results for: genetic analysis

22698 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

Abstract:

The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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22697 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

Abstract:

A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

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22696 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana

Abstract:

In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, microsatellite, polymorphism

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22695 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

Abstract:

This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

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22694 Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: M. A. Rubio, A. Urquia

Abstract:

Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function. These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis) are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two consecutive steps.

Keywords: optimization, sensitivity, genetic algorithms, model calibration

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22693 Factors Determining Intention to Pursue Genetic Testing for People in Taiwan

Authors: Ju-Chun Chien

Abstract:

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion proposed that the role of health services should shift the focus from cure to prevention. Nowadays, besides having physical examinations, people could also conduct genetic tests to provide important information for diagnosing, treating, and/or preventing illnesses. However, because of the incompletion of the Chinese Genetic Database, people in Taiwan were still unfamiliar with genetic testing. The purposes of the present study were to: (1) Figure out people’s attitudes towards genetic testing. (2) Examine factors that influence people’s intention to pursue genetic testing by means of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A pilot study was conducted on 249 Taiwanese in 2017 to test the feasibility of the self-developed instrument. The reliability and construct validity of scores on the self-developed questionnaire revealed that this HBM-based questionnaire with 40 items was a well-developed instrument. A total of 542 participants were recruited and the valid participants were 535 (99%) between the ages of 20 and 86. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, two-way contingency table analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used in this study. The main results were that only 32 participants (6%) had already undergone genetic testing; moreover, their attitude towards genetic testing was more positive than those who did not have the experience. Compared with people who never underwent genetic tests, those who had gone for genetic testing had higher self-efficacy, greater intention to pursue genetic testing, had academic majors in health-related fields, had chronic and genetic diseases, possessed Catastrophic Illness Cards, and all of them had heard about genetic testing. The variables that best predicted people’s intention to pursue genetic testing were cues to action, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits (the three variables all correlated with one another positively at high magnitudes). To sum up, the HBM could be effective in designing and identifying the needs and priorities of the target population to pursue genetic testing.

Keywords: genetic testing, knowledge of GT, people in Taiwan, the health belief model

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22692 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan, H. Ali, M. N. Naser

Abstract:

As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Monopterus cuchia, population, RAPD, Bangladesh

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22691 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan

Abstract:

The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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22690 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: dendrogram, polymorphism, RAPD technique, Ricinus communis L.

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22689 Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources

Authors: Asma Afshari, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar, Mehrnaz Rad

Abstract:

Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.

Keywords: C. perfringens, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR

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22688 High-Risk Gene Variant Profiling Models Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Vulnerability

Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Weiping Chen, Guanjie Chen, Jason Flannick, Emma Fikse, Glenda Smerin, Yanqin Yang, Yulong Li, John A. Hanover, William F. Simonds

Abstract:

Ethnic disparities in many diseases are well recognized and reflect the consequences of genetic, behavior, and environmental factors. However, direct scientific evidence connecting the ethnic genetic variations and the disease disparities has been elusive, which may have led to the ethnic inequalities in large scale genetic studies. Through the genome-wide analysis of data representing 185,934 subjects, including 14,955 from our own studies of the African America Diabetes Mellitus, we discovered sets of genetic variants either unique to or conserved in all ethnicities. We further developed a quantitative gene function-based high-risk variant index (hrVI) of 20,428 genes to establish profiles that strongly correlate with the subjects' self-identified ethnicities. With respect to the ability to detect human essential and pathogenic genes, the hrVI analysis method is both comparable with and complementary to the well-known genetic analysis methods, pLI and VIRlof. Application of the ethnicity-specific hrVI analysis to the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) national repository, containing 20,791 cases and 24,440 controls, identified 114 candidate T2DM-associated genes, 8.8-fold greater than that of ethnicity-blind analysis. All the genes identified are defined as either pathogenic or likely-pathogenic in ClinVar database, with 33.3% diabetes-associated and 54.4% obesity-associated genes. These results demonstrate the utility of hrVI analysis and provide the first genetic evidence by clustering patterns of how genetic variations among ethnicities may impede the discovery of diabetes and foreseeably other disease-associated genes.

Keywords: diabetes-associated genes, ethnic health disparities, high-risk variant index, hrVI, T2DM

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22687 Optimization Analysis of a Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger with Field Synergy Principle

Authors: M. C. Lin, C. W. Su

Abstract:

The paper investigates the optimization analysis to the heat exchanger design, mainly with response surface method and genetic algorithm to explore the relationship between optimal fluid flow velocity and temperature of the heat exchanger using field synergy principle. First, finite volume method is proposed to calculate the flow temperature and flow rate distribution for numerical analysis. We identify the most suitable simulation equations by response surface methodology. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm approach is applied to optimize the relationship between fluid flow velocity and flow temperature of the heat exchanger. The results show that the field synergy angle plays vital role in the performance of a true heat exchanger.

Keywords: optimization analysis, field synergy, heat exchanger, genetic algorithm

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22686 Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Tilia tomentosa Moench. (Silver Lime) in Duzce-Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Seda Birbilener, Semsettin Kulac, Zeki Severoglu

Abstract:

In this study, we have performed genetic diversity analysis of Tilia tomentosa genotypes by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 28 genotypes, including 25 members from the urban ecosystem and 3 genotypes from forest ecosystem as outgroup were used. 8 RAPD primers produced a total of 53 bands, of which 48 (90.6 %) were polymorphic. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P), observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's (1973) gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were found as 94.29 %, 1.94, 1.60, 0.34, and 0.50, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed that two major groups were observed. The genotypes of urban and forest ecosystems showed a high genetic similarity between 28% and 92% and these genotypes did not separate from each other in UPGMA tree. Also, urban and forest genotypes clustered together in principal component analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Tilia tomentosa, genetic diversity, urban ecosystem, RAPD, UPGMA

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22685 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

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22684 Discriminant Analysis as a Function of Predictive Learning to Select Evolutionary Algorithms in Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Daniel Vélez-Díaz, Edith Olaco García

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, data-mining techniques, evolutionary algorithms, discriminant analysis, machine learning

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22683 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

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22682 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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22681 Development of a Software System for Management and Genetic Analysis of Biological Samples for Forensic Laboratories

Authors: Mariana Lima, Rodrigo Silva, Victor Stange, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Due to the high reliability reached by DNA tests, since the 1980s this kind of test has allowed the identification of a growing number of criminal cases, including old cases that were unsolved, now having a chance to be solved with this technology. Currently, the use of genetic profiling databases is a typical method to increase the scope of genetic comparison. Forensic laboratories must process, analyze, and generate genetic profiles of a growing number of samples, which require time and great storage capacity. Therefore, it is essential to develop methodologies capable to organize and minimize the spent time for both biological sample processing and analysis of genetic profiles, using software tools. Thus, the present work aims the development of a software system solution for laboratories of forensics genetics, which allows sample, criminal case and local database management, minimizing the time spent in the workflow and helps to compare genetic profiles. For the development of this software system, all data related to the storage and processing of samples, workflows and requirements that incorporate the system have been considered. The system uses the following software languages: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in Web technology, with NodeJS platform as server, which has great efficiency in the input and output of data. In addition, the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL), which is free, allowing a better acceptance for users. The software system here developed allows more agility to the workflow and analysis of samples, contributing to the rapid insertion of the genetic profiles in the national database and to increase resolution of crimes. The next step of this research is its validation, in order to operate in accordance with current Brazilian national legislation.

Keywords: database, forensic genetics, genetic analysis, sample management, software solution

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22680 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

Abstract:

Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

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22679 Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors Affecting the Response to Clopidogrel Therapy

Authors: Snezana Mugosa, Zoran Todorovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Ivan Radosavljevic, Natasa Djordjevic

Abstract:

Introduction: Various studies have shown that the frequency of clopidogrel resistance ranges from 4-40%. The aim of this study was to provide in depth analysis of genetic and non-genetic factors that influence clopidogrel resistance in cardiology patients. Methods: We have conducted a prospective study in 200 hospitalized patients hospitalized at Cardiology Centre of the Clinical Centre of Montenegro. CYP2C19 genetic testing was conducted, and the PREDICT score was calculated in 102 out of 200 patients treated with clopidogrel in order to determine the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on outcomes of interest. Adverse cardiovascular events and adverse reactions to clopidogrel were assessed during 12 months follow up period. Results: PREDICT score and CYP2C19 enzymatic activity were found to be statistically significant predictors of expressing lack of therapeutic efficacy of clopidogrel by multivariate logistic regression, without multicollinearity or interaction between the predictors (p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: Pharmacogenetics analyses that were done in the Montenegrin population of patients for the first time suggest that these analyses can predict patient response to the certain therapy. Stepwise approach could be used in assessing the clopidogrel resistance in cardiology patients, combining the PREDICT score, platelet aggregation test, and genetic testing for CYP2C19 polymorphism.

Keywords: clopidogrel, pharmacogenetics, pharmacotherapy, PREDICT score

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22678 RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars

Authors: L. Petrovičová, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová, M. Wójcik-Jagła, M. Rapacz

Abstract:

In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Keywords: genetic diversity, polymorphism, RAPD markers, Secale cereale L.

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22677 Phenological and Molecular Genetic Diversity Analysis among Saudi durum Wheat Landraces

Authors: Naser B. Almari, Salem S. Alghamdi, Muhammad Afzal, Mohamed Helmy El Shal

Abstract:

Wheat landraces are a rich genetic resource for boosting agronomic qualities in breeding programs while also providing diversity and unique adaptation to local environmental conditions. These genotypes have grown increasingly important in the face of recent climate change challenges. This research aimed to look at the genetic diversity of Saudi Durum wheat landraces using morpho-phenological and molecular data. The principal components analysis (PCA) analysis recorded 78.47 % variance and 1.064 eigenvalues for the first six PCs of the total, respectively. The significant characters contributed more to the diversity are the length of owns at the tip relative to the length of the ear, culm: glaucosity of the neck, flag leaf: glaucosity of the sheath, flag leaf: anthocyanin coloration of auricles, plant: frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, ear: length, and ear: shape in profile in the PC1. The significant wheat genotypes contributed more in the PC1 (8, 14, 497, 650, 569, 590, 594, 598, 600, 601, and 604). The cluster analysis recorded an 85.42 cophenetic correlation among the 22 wheat genotypes and grouped the genotypes into two main groups. Group, I contain 8 genotypes, however, the 2nd group contains 12 wheat genotypes, while two genotypes (13 and 497) are standing alone in the dendrogram and unable to make a group with any one of the genotypes. The second group was subdivided into two subgroups. The genotypes (14, 602, and 600) were present in the second sub-group. The genotypes were grouped into two main groups. The first group contains 17 genotypes, while the second group contains 3 (8, 977, and 594) wheat genotypes. The genotype (602) was standing alone and unable to make a group with any wheat genotype. The genotypes 650 and 13 also stand alone in the first group. Using the Mantel test, the data recorded a significant (R2 = 0.0006) correlation (phenotypic and genetic) among 22 wheat durum genotypes.

Keywords: durum wheat, PCA, cluster analysis, SRAP, genetic diversity

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22676 Genetic Diversity of Sugar Beet Pollinators

Authors: Ksenija Taški-Ajdukovic, Nevena Nagl, Živko Ćurčić, Dario Danojević

Abstract:

Information about genetic diversity of sugar beet parental populations is of a great importance for hybrid breeding programs. The aim of this research was to evaluate genetic diversity among and within populations and lines of diploid sugar beet pollinators, by using SSR markers. As plant material were used eight pollinators originating from three USDA-ARS breeding programs and four pollinators from Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Depending on the presence of self-fertility gene, the pollinators were divided into three groups: autofertile (inbred lines), autosterile (open-pollinating populations), and group with partial presence of autofertility gene. A total of 40 SSR primers were screened, out of which 34 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 129 different alleles were obtained with mean value 3.2 alleles per SSR primer. According to the results of genetic variability assessment the number and percentage of polymorphic loci was the maximal in pollinators NS1 and tester cms2 while effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosis and Shannon’s index was highest in pollinator EL0204. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 77.34% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. Correspondence analysis results were very similar to grouping by neighbor-joining algorithm. Number of groups was smaller by one, because correspondence analysis merged IFVCNS pollinators with CZ25 into one group. Pollinators FC220, FC221 and C 51 were in the next group, while self-fertile pollinators CR10 and C930-35 from USDA-Salinas were separated. On another branch were self-sterile pollinators ЕL0204 and ЕL53 from USDA-East Lansing. Sterile testers cms1 and cms2 formed separate group. The presented results confirmed that SSR analysis can be successfully used in estimation of genetic diversity within and among sugar beet populations. Since the tested pollinator differed considering the presence of self-fertility gene, their heterozygosity differed as well. It was lower in genotypes with fixed self-fertility genes. Since the most of tested populations were open-pollinated, which rarely self-pollinate, high variability within the populations was expected. Cluster analysis grouped populations according to their origin.

Keywords: auto fertility, genetic diversity, pollinator, SSR, sugar beet

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22675 Morpho-Genetic Assessment of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Genetic Resources in Pakistan

Authors: Asim Mehmood, Abdul Karim, Muhammad J. Jaskani, Faisal S. Awan, Muhammad W. Sajid

Abstract:

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important commercial fruit crop of Pakistan. It is an allogamous crop having 25-40% cross pollination which on the one hand leads to clonal degradation and on the other hand can add variations to generated new cultivars. Morpho-genetic characterization of 37 guava accessions was carried out for study of the genetic diversity among guava accessions located in province Punjab, Pakistan. For morphological analysis, 17 morphological traits were studied, and strong positive correlation was found among the 7 morphological traits which included thickness of outer flesh in relation to core diameter, fruit length, fruit width, fruit juiciness, fruit size, fruit sweetness and number of seeds. For genetic characterization, 18 microsatellites were used, and the sizes of reproducible and scorable bands ranged from 150 to 320 bp. These 18 primer pairs amplified a total of 85 alleles in P. guajava, with an average total number of 4.7 alleles per locus and no more than two displayed bands (nuclear SSR loci). The phylogenetic tree based on the morphological and genetic traits showed the diversity of these 37 guava genotypes into two major groups. These results indicated that Pakistani guava is quite diverse and a more detail study is needed to define the level of genetic variability.

Keywords: Psidium guajava L, genetic diversity, SSR markers, polymorphism, dendrogram

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22674 Analysis of Genetic Variations in Camel Breeds (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Amr A. El Hanafy, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

Abstract:

Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, security and capital in many countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Inter simple sequence repeat technique was used to detect the genetic variations among some camel breeds (Majaheim, Safra, Wadah, and Hamara). Actual number of alleles, effective number of alleles, gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and polymorphic bands were calculated for each evaluated camel breed. Neighbor-joining tree that re-constructed for evaluated these camel breeds showed that, Hamara breed is distantly related from the other evaluated camels. In addition, the polymorphic sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity were identified for some camelidae cox1 gene sequences (obtained from NCBI). The distance value between C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius (0.072) was relatively low. Analysis of genetic diversity is an important way for conserving Camelus dromedarius genetic resources.

Keywords: camel, genetics, ISSR, neighbor-joining

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22673 Reliability Improvement of Power System Networks Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Alesaadi

Abstract:

Reliability analysis is a powerful method for determining the weak points of the electrical networks. In designing of electrical network, it is tried to design the most reliable network with minimal system shutting down, but it is usually associated with increasing the cost. In this paper, using adaptive genetic algorithm, a method was presented that provides the most reliable system with a certain economical cost. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a sample network and results will be analyzed.

Keywords: reliability, adaptive genetic algorithm, electrical network, communication engineering

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22672 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Wild Bulgarian Berries as Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Authors: Ilian Badjakov, Ivayla Dincheva, Violeta Kondakova, Rossitza Batchvarova

Abstract:

In this study, we present our initial results on the assessment of genetic diversity among wild Bulgarian berry accessions (Rubus idaeus L. Fragaria Vesca L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L.) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers. Leaves and fruits were collected from two natural habitats - the Balkan Mountain and the Mountain of Orpheus - Rhodope Mountain. All accessions were screened for their polymorphism using five RAPD primers. The phylogenetic distances calculated from RAPD data ranged from 0.29 to 0.82 thus indicating that a high level of gene diversity is present in the selected genotypes. In order to characterize further the structure and grouping of berry accessions, a dendrogram deriving from UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient matrix was designed. RAPD analysis provided to be efficient for discrimination of accessions within the same species with similar morphological characters

Keywords: Bulgarian wild berries, genetic diversity, RAPD, UPGMA

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22671 Genetic Diversity of Wild Population of Heterobranchus Spp. Based on Mitochondria DNA Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene Analysis

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, Ipinjolu J. K., Yuzine B. Esa, Magawata I., Hassan W. A., Turaki A. A.

Abstract:

Catfish (Heterobranchus spp.) is a major freshwater fish that are widely distributed in Nigeria waters and are gaining rapid aquaculture expansion. However, indiscriminate artificial crossbreeding of the species with others poses a threat to their biodiversity. There is a paucity of information about the genetic variability, hence this insight on the genetic variability is badly needed, not only for the species conservation but for aquaculture expansion. In this study, we tested the level of Genetic diversity, population differentiation and phylogenetic relationship analysis on 35 individuals of two populations of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 29 individuals of three populations of Heterobranchus longifilis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) gene sequence. Nucleotide sequences of 650 bp fragment of the COI gene of the two species were compared. In the whole 4 and 5 haplotypes were distinguished in the populations of H. bidorsalis & H. longifilis with accession numbers (MG334168 - MG334171 & MG334172 to MG334176) respectively. Haplotypes diversity indices revealed a range of 0.59 ± 0.08 to 0.57 ± 0.09 in H. bidorsalis and 0.000 to 0.001051 ± 0.000945 in H. longifilis population, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant variation among H. bidorsalis population of the Niger & Benue Rivers, detected significant genetic variation was between the Rivers of Niger, Kaduna and Benue population of H. longifilis. Two main clades were recovered, showing a clear separation between H. bidorsalis and H. longifilis in the phylogenetic tree. The mtDNA COI genes studied revealed high gene flow between populations with no distinct genetic differentiation between the populations as measured by the fixation index (FST) statistic. However, a proportion of population-specific haplotypes was observed in the two species studied, suggesting a substantial degree of genetic distinctiveness for each of the population investigated. These findings present the description of the species character and accessions of the fish’s genetic resources, through gene sequence submitted in Genetic database. The data will help to protect their valuable wild resource and contribute to their recovery and selective breeding in Nigeria.

Keywords: AMOVA, genetic diversity, Heterobranchus spp., mtDNA COI, phylogenetic tree

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22670 Genetic and Non-Genetic Evaluation of Milk Yield and Litter Size of Awassi Sheep in Drylands

Authors: Khaled Al-Najjar, Ahmad Q. Al-Momani, Ahmed Elnahas, Reda Elsaid

Abstract:

The research was carried out using records of Awassi sheep bred in drylands at Al-Fjaj Station, Jordan. That aimed to study non-genetic factors affecting milk yield (MK), litter size at birth (LZB); estimate heritability, repeatability, and genetic and phenotypic correlation using SAS and MTDFREML programs. The results were as follows, the average MK and LZB were 92.84 (kg) and 1.16, respectively. MK was highly significantly affected by each parity, age of ewe, year of lambing, and lactation period, while only the year of lambing had a significant effect on LZB. The heritability and repeatability were 0.07 and 0.10 for MK, while it was 0.05 and 0.25 for LZB. The genetic and phenotypic correlations were 0.17 and 0.02 between MK and LZB, respectively. The research concluded that the herd is genetically homozygous and therefore needs to increase genetic variance by introducing LZB-improved rams and selecting females from dams who achieved at least four parties to increase returns in drylands.

Keywords: Awassi sheep, genetic parameters, litter size, milk yield

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22669 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 357