Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: packaged seafood

77 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

Abstract:

Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
76 A Meta Regression Analysis to Detect Price Premium Threshold for Eco-Labeled Seafood

Authors: Cristina Giosuè, Federica Biondo, Sergio Vitale

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In the last years, the consumers' awareness for environmental concerns has been increasing, and seafood eco-labels are considered as a possible instrument to improve both seafood markets and sustainable fishing management. In this direction, the aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for eco-labeled wild seafood, by a meta-regression. Therefore, only papers published on ISI journals were searched on “Web of Knowledge” and “SciVerse Scopus” platforms, using the combinations of the following key words: seafood, ecolabel, eco-label, willingness, WTP and premium. The dataset was built considering: paper’s and survey’s codes, year of publication, first author’s nationality, species’ taxa and family, sample size, survey’s continent and country, data collection (where and how), gender and age of consumers, brand and ΔWTP. From analysis the interest on eco labeled seafood emerged clearly, in particular in developed countries. In general, consumers declared greater willingness to pay than that actually applied for eco-label products, with difference related to taxa and brand.

Keywords: eco label, meta regression, seafood, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
75 Use of Fish Gelatin Based-Films as Edible Pouch to Extend the Shelf-Life of Dried Chicken Powder and Chicken Oil

Authors: Soottawat Benjakul, Phakawat Tongnuanchan, Thummanoon Prodpran

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Edible pouches made from fish gelatin film incorporated without and with palm oil (PO), basil essential oil (BEO) or oil mixture (M) were prepared and used to store chicken powder and chicken skin oil in comparison with nylon/low-density polyethylene (Nylon/LDPE) pouch during storage of 15 days. The moisture content of chicken powder packaged in pouches from fish gelatin films incorporated without and with various oils increased during 15 days of storage (p > 0.05). However, there was a non-significant change in moisture content of sample packaged in Nylon/LDPE pouch (p > 0.05). Samples packaged in pouches from fish gelatin films incorporated with oils had lower moisture content than those stored in pouch from gelatin film without oil added throughout the storage (p < 0.05). This coincided with the higher increases in darkness and yellowness for the latter. All samples packaged in pouches made from all films had the slight increase in PV, whereas a drastic increase in TBARS was observed for all samples during 15 days of storage. During 15 days of storage, chicken skin oil packaged in Nylon/LDPE pouch had higher TBARS and p-anisidine value than those stored in pouches made from fish gelatin, regardless of oil incorporated (p< 0.05). Therefore, pouches from gelatin film incorporated with oils could lower water migration and lipid oxidation in fat containing foods and oils.

Keywords: edible pouch, fish gelatin, quality changes, storage stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
74 Bacteriophage Lysis Of Physiologically Stressed Listeria Monocytogenes In A Simulated Seafood Processing Environment

Authors: Geevika J. Ganegama Arachchi, Steve H. Flint, Lynn McIntyre, Cristina D. Cruz, Beatrice M. Dias-Wanigasekera, Craig Billington, J. Andrew Hudson, Anthony N. Mutukumira

Abstract:

In seafood processing plants, Listeriamonocytogenes(L. monocytogenes)likely exists in a metabolically stressed state due to the nutrient-deficient environment, processing treatments such as heating, curing, drying, and freezing, and exposure to detergents and disinfectants. Stressed L. monocytogenes cells have been shown to be as pathogenic as unstressed cells. This study investigated lytic efficacy of (LiMN4L, LiMN4p, and LiMN17) which were previouslycharacterized as virulent against physiologically stressed cells of three seafood borne L. monocytogenesstrains (19CO9, 19DO3, and 19EO3).Physiologically compromised cells ofL. monocytogenesstrains were prepared by aging cultures in TrypticaseSoy Broth at 15±1°C for 72 h; heat injuringcultures at 54±1 - 55±1°C for 40 - 60 min;salt-stressing cultures in Milli-Q water were incubated at 25±1°C in darkness for three weeks; and incubating cultures in 9% (w/v) NaCl at 15±1°C for 72 h. Low concentrations of physiologically compromised cells of three L. monocytogenesstrainswere challenged in vitrowith high titre of three phages in separate experiments using Fish Broth medium (aqueous fish extract) at 15 °C in order to mimic the environment of seafood processing plant. Each phage, when present at ≈9 log10 PFU/ml, reduced late exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes suspended in fish protein broth at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to a non-detectable level (< 10 CFU/ml). Each phage, when present at ≈8.5 log10 PFU/ml, reduced both heat-injured cells present at 2.5-3.6 log10 CFU/ml and starved cells that were showed coccoid shape, present at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to < 10 CFU/ml after 30 min. Phages also reduced salt-stressed cellspresent at ≈3 log10 CFU/ml by > 2 log10. L. monocytogenes (≈8 log10 CFU/ml) were reduced to below the detection limit (1 CFU/ml) by the three successive phage infections over 16 h, indicating that emergence of spontaneous phage resistance was infrequent. The three virulent phages showed high decontamination potential for physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes strains from seafood processing environments.

Keywords: physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes, heat injured, seafood processing environment, virulent phage

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
73 Influence of the Cooking Technique on the Iodine Content of Frozen Hake

Authors: F. Deng, R. Sanchez, A. Beltran, S. Maestre

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The high nutritional value associated with seafood is related to the presence of essential trace elements. Moreover, seafood is considered an important source of energy, proteins, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Generally, seafood is consumed cooked. Consequently, the nutritional value could be degraded. Seafood, such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed, could be considered as one of the main iodine sources. The deficient or excessive consumption of iodine could cause dysfunction and pathologies related to the thyroid gland. The main objective of this work is to evaluated iodine stability in hake (Merluccius) undergone different culinary techniques. The culinary process considered were: boiling, steaming, microwave cooking, baking, cooking en papillote (twisted cover with the shape of a sweet wrapper) and coating with a batter of flour and deep-frying. The determination of iodine was carried by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Regarding sample handling strategies, liquid-liquid extraction has demonstrated to be a powerful pre-concentration and clean-up approach for trace metal analysis by ICP techniques. Extraction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH reagent) was used as a sample preparation method in this work. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the stability of iodine was degraded with the cooking processes. The major degradation was observed for the boiling and microwave cooking processes. The content of iodine in hake decreased up to 60% and 52%, respectively. However, if the boiling cooking liquid is preserved, this loss that has been generated during cooking is reduced. Only when the fish was cooked by following the cooking en papillote process the iodine content was preserved.

Keywords: cooking process, ICP-MS, iodine, hake

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
72 Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution Using Edible Crabs, Based on Food Intended for Human Consumption

Authors: Nayab Kanwal, Noor Us Saher

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The management and utilization of food resources is becoming a big issue due to rapid urbanization, wastage and non-sustainable use of food, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the use of seafood as alternative sources is strongly promoted worldwide. Marine pollution strongly affects marine organisms, which ultimately decreases their export quality. The monitoring of contamination in marine organisms is a good indicator of the environmental quality as well as seafood quality. Monitoring the accumulation of chemical elements within various tissues of organisms has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this perspective, this study was carried out to compare the previous and current levels (Year 2012 and 2014) of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) in crabs marketed in Karachi and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. The accumulation of metals in marine organisms, both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Pb, Cd and Cr), natural and anthropogenic, is an actual food safety issue. Significant (p>0.05) variations in metal concentrations were found in all crab species between the two years, with most of the metals showing high accumulation in 2012. For toxicological risk assessment, EWI (Estimated weekly intake), Target Hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) were also assessed and high EWI, Non- cancer risk (THQ < 1) showed that there is no serious threat associated with the consumption of shellfish species on Karachi coast. The Cancer risk showed the highest risk from Cd and Pb pollution if consumed in excess. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to contaminated seafood. It could be concluded that considering the Pakistan coast, these edible species may be sensitive and vulnerable to the adverse effects of environmental contaminants; more attention should be paid to the Pb and Cd metal bioaccumulation and to toxicological risks to seafood and consumers.

Keywords: cancer risk, edible crabs, heavy metals pollution, risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
71 Analysis and Optimized Design of a Packaged Liquid Chiller

Authors: Saeed Farivar, Mohsen Kahrom

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The purpose of this work is to develop a physical simulation model for the purpose of studying the effect of various design parameters on the performance of packaged-liquid chillers. This paper presents a steady-state model for predicting the performance of package-Liquid chiller over a wide range of operation condition. The model inputs are inlet conditions; geometry and output of model include system performance variable such as power consumption, coefficient of performance (COP) and states of refrigerant through the refrigeration cycle. A computer model that simulates the steady-state cyclic performance of a vapor compression chiller is developed for the purpose of performing detailed physical design analysis of actual industrial chillers. The model can be used for optimizing design and for detailed energy efficiency analysis of packaged liquid chillers. The simulation model takes into account presence of all chiller components such as compressor, shell-and-tube condenser and evaporator heat exchangers, thermostatic expansion valve and connection pipes and tubing’s by thermo-hydraulic modeling of heat transfer, fluids flow and thermodynamics processes in each one of the mentioned components. To verify the validity of the developed model, a 7.5 USRT packaged-liquid chiller is used and a laboratory test stand for bringing the chiller to its standard steady-state performance condition is build. Experimental results obtained from testing the chiller in various load and temperature conditions is shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from simulating the performance of the chiller using the computer prediction model. An entropy-minimization-based optimization analysis is performed based on the developed analytical performance model of the chiller. The variation of design parameters in construction of shell-and-tube condenser and evaporator heat exchangers are studied using the developed performance and optimization analysis and simulation model and a best-match condition between the physical design and construction of chiller heat exchangers and its compressor is found to exist. It is expected that manufacturers of chillers and research organizations interested in developing energy-efficient design and analysis of compression chillers can take advantage of the presented study and its results.

Keywords: optimization, packaged liquid chiller, performance, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
70 Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Functional Polypropylene Films Incorporated with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ Useful as Returnable Packaging in Seafood Distribution

Authors: Suman Singh, Myungho Lee, Insik Park, Yangjai Shin, Youn Suk Lee

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Active antimicrobial films prepared by incorporating AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ at 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% (w/w) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization were carried out of all formulations and determined the antimicrobial efficiency and returnable antimicrobial efficiency according to the Japanese Industrial Standard method. The morphology of the films showed agglomerates of particles in the composites. The active formulation had decreased elongation compared to the pure PP sample. Thermal analyses indicated that the active formulation compositions had increased thermal stability. The films showed 50% antimicrobial properties after the fifth wash against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive ones. These findings suggest that PP films with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ particles could provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of seafood in the distribution chain.

Keywords: antimicrobial film, properties and characterization, returnable packaging, sea food

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
69 Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Umran Cansu, Gokhan Boran, Fatih Ozogul

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Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.

Keywords: chicken skin, fish skin, food industry, frog skin, gel strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
68 Design of In-House Test Method for Assuring Packing Quality of Bottled Spirits

Authors: S. Ananthakrishnan, U. H. Acharya

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Whether shopping in a retail location or via the internet, consumers expect to receive their products intact. When products arrive damaged or over-packaged, the result can be customer dissatisfaction and increased cost for retailers and manufacturers. The packaging performance depends on both the transport situation and the packaging design. During transportation, the packaged products are subjected to the variation in vibration levels from transport vehicles that vary in frequency and acceleration while moving to their destinations. Spirits manufactured by this Company were being transported to various parts of the country by road. There were instances of package breaking and customer complaints. The vibration experienced on a straight road at some speed may not be same as the vibration experienced by the same vehicle on a curve at the same speed. This vibration may negatively affect the product or packing. Hence, it was necessary to conduct a physical road test to understand the effect of vibration in the packaged products. The field transit trial has to be done before the transportations, which results in high investment. The company management was interested in developing an in-house test environment which would adequately represent the transit conditions. With the objective to develop an in-house test condition that can accurately simulate the mechanical loading scenario prevailing during the storage, handling and transportation of the products a brainstorming was done with the concerned people to identify the critical factors affecting vibration rate. Position of corrugated box, the position of bottle and speed of vehicle were identified as factors affecting the vibration rate. Several packing scenarios were identified by Design of Experiment methodology and simulated in the in-house test facility. Each condition was observed for 30 minutes, which was equivalent to 1000 km. The achieved vibration level was considered as the response. The average achieved in the simulated experiments was near to the third quartile (Q3) of the actual data. Thus, we were able to address around three-fourth of the actual phenomenon. Most of the cases in transit could be reproduced. The recommended test condition could generate a vibration level ranging from 9g to 15g as against a maximum of only 7g that was being generated earlier. Thus, the Company was able to test the packaged cartons satisfactorily in the house itself before transporting to the destinations, assuring itself that the breakages of the bottles will not happen.

Keywords: ANOVA, Corrugated box, DOE, Quartile

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
67 Study of the Composition of Lipids in Different Kinds of Packaged Food Products

Authors: Zineb Taidirt, Fathia Sebahi, Mohamed Karim Guarchani, Anissa Berkane, Noureddine Smail, Ouahiba Hadjoudj

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Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of death in Algeria. Several risk factors are responsible for this, including the consumption of foods containing saturated fat and trans fatty acids TFAs. This brief presents the results of a descriptive study of the lipid composition of 251 food products marketed in Algeria. The objective of the study is to describe the nature and composition of lipids and to verify the compliance of saturated and trans fatty acids intakes with the regulations. The study is based on data from the nutrition labelling of marketed food products. The results showed that the lipids in foodstuffs are diverse in nature and of varying amounts, but their nature is not specified on all products. In addition, the required content of saturated fatty acids is mentioned only in 29.48% of the products; 21.62% of them do not comply with the standard. Hydrogenation of fats, which produced Trans fatty acids, is common: 19.92% of products contain hydrogenated fats, and 74.89% may contain them according to the aspect of the lipid (solid fat). However, the trans fatty acid content is only mentioned in 5.18% of the products. The latter is above the limits set by Algerian regulations in 50% of the butter samples studied. The composition of lipids in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for the body is insufficient: only 13.94% of the products inform their contents on their labels. It is necessary to adopt mandatory restriction of trans fatty acids, to ban the use of partially-hydrogenated oils, and to require required mandatory labeling of the TFAs and the other fatty acids on packaged foods, and to conduct more studies in order to appreciate the intake of TFAs and saturated fat and appreciate their effects on the Algerian population and to get more informed about the composition of the lipid in packaged foods.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, lipids, nutrition labelling, lipids, trans fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
66 The Effects of Sous Vide Technology Combined with Different Herbals on Sensorial and Physical Quality of Fish Species Caught in the Northern Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea

Authors: Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F.Unal Şengör, Onur Gönülal

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In this study, sous vide technology were treated with different herbs into different fish species which were caught from northern Aegean and Marmara Sea. Before samples were packaged under vacuum, herbs had been cut and added at the same ratio into the package. Samples were sliced, the weight of each sample was about 150 g, and packaged under vacuum. During the storage period at 4ºC, taste, odor, texture properties of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by trained panelists. Meanwhile, the effect of different herbs on pH values of the samples was investigated. These results were correlated with sensorial results. Furthermore, the effects of different herbs on L, a, b values of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by color measurement. All sensorial results indicated that the values of samples treated with herbs were higher than that of the control group. Color measurement results and pH values were found parallel with sensorial results.

Keywords: Sous vide, fish, herbs, consumer preferences, pH, color measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
65 Use of Anti-Stick to Reduce Bitterness in Ultra Filtrated Chees-es(Single Packaged)

Authors: B. Khorram, M. Taslikh, R. Sattarzadeh, M. Ghazanfari

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Bitterness is one of the most important problems in cheese processing industry all over the world. There are several reasons that bitterness may develop in cheese. With a few exceptions bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis. In this investigation, anti-stick as a neutral substance in proteolysis were considered and studied for reducing the problem. This vast survey was conducted in a big cheese production factory (in Neyshabur) and in the same procedure anti-stick as interested factor in cheeses packaging compared to standard cheeses production, one line productions (65200 packs with anti-stick were tested by 2953 persons for bitterness and another line was included the same procedure with standard cheese. In this investigate: 83% of standard packaging cheeses, compared with only28% of consumers cheese with anti-stick which confirmed bitterness. Although bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis and Microbial factors, Somatic cell, Starters play important role in generating bitterness in ultra filtrated cheeses, but based on the results the other factors such as anti-stick in packaging can be effective methods for reducing and removing unfavorable bitterness in cheese production.

Keywords: bitterness, uf cheese, anti-stick, single packaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
64 Spectral Response Measurements and Materials Analysis of Ageing Solar Photovoltaic Modules

Authors: Fang-Yi Su, Zhen-Xiong Chen, Chi-Rung Li, Yung-Kuan Tseng

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The design and reliability of solar photovoltaic modules are essential for the development of solar energy, and people are still trying to further extend the life of PV modules to increase their efficiency to this day. Spectrum response measurement is one of the testing methods that is often used in the calibration and improvement of PV modules, as the different wavelengths of the spectral response can reflect the characteristics of the solar cell layers. In this study, this technology along with material analysis methods was used to gain a more comprehensive insight into the failure mode of PV modules. Spectrum response measurement and material analysis methods such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry were used to analyse non-packaged and packaged monocrystalline silicon solar cells before and after the accelerated ageing test. The results were first compared to each other before investigating the properties and material structure of solar cells under different conditions before and after degradation. The study provided a more in depth understanding of the ageing degradation mechanism of solar cells, the different spectral response results due to variations in degradation material, and their corresponding performance.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic module, degradation, failure mode analysis, solar cell, spectrum response measurement

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63 Harmful Algal Poisoning Symptoms in Coastal Areas of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri

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Nigeria has an extensive coastline of 853 km long between latitude 4°10′ to 6°20′ N and longitude 2°45′ to 8°35′ E and situated in the Gulf of Guinea within the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem. There is a substantial coastal community relying on this region for their livelihood of fishing, aquaculture, mariculture for various sea foods either for consumption or economic sustenance or both. Socio-economic study was conducted, using questionnaires and interview, to investigate the health symptoms of harmful algae experienced by these communities on consumption of sea foods. Eighteen symptoms were recorded. Of the respondents who experienced symptoms after consumption of sea foods, overall, more people (33.5%) experienced vomiting as a symptom, followed by nausea (14.03%) and then diarrhea (13.57%). Others were headache (9.95%), mouth tingling (8.6%) and tiredness (7.24%).The least were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills, burning sensation, breathing difficulty and balance difficulty which represented 0.45% each and the rest (dizziness, digestive tract tumors, itching, memory loss, & stomach pain) were less than 3% each. In terms of frequency, the most frequent symptom was diarrhea with 87.5% occurrence, closely followed by vomiting with 81.3%. Tiredness was 75% while nausea was 62.5% and headache 50%. Others such as dizziness, itching, memory loss, mouth tingling and stomach pain had about 40% occurrence or less. The least occurring symptoms were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills and balance difficulty and burning sensation occurring only once i.e 6.3%. Breathing difficulty was last but one with 12.5%. Visible symptom from seafood and the particular seafood consumed that prompted the visible symptoms, shows that 3.5% of the entire respondents who ate crab experienced various symptoms ranging from vomiting (2.4%), itching (0.5%) and headache (0.4%). For periwinkle, vomiting had 1.7%, while 1.2% represented diarrhea and nausea symptom comprised 0.8% of all the respondents who ate periwinkle. Some respondents who consumed fish shows that 0.4% of the respondents had Itching. From the respondents who preferred to consume shrimps/crayfish and crab, shrimps/crayfish, crab and periwinkle, the most common illness was tiredness (1.2%), while 0.5% had experienced diarrhea and many others. However, for most respondents who claimed to have no preference for any seafood, with 55.7% affirming this with vomiting being the highest (6.1%), followed closely by mouth tingling/ burning sensation (5.8%). Examining the seasonal influence on visible symptoms revealed that vomiting occurred more in the month of January with 5.5%, while headache and itching were predominant in October with (2.8%). Nausea has 3.1% in January than any season of the year, 2.6% of the entire respondents opined to have experience diarrhea in October than in any other season of the year. Regular evaluation of harmful algal poisoning symptoms is recommended for coastal communities.

Keywords: coastal, harmful algae, human poisoning symptoms, Nigeria, phycotoxins

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
62 Assessment of Commercial Antimicrobials Incorporated into Gelatin Coatings and Applied to Conventional Heat-Shrinking Material for the Prevention of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Beef Cuts

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, Rachael Reid, Paula Bourke, Patrick J. Cullen, Seamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton , Joe P. Kerry

Abstract:

One of the primary spoilage issues associated with vacuum-packed beef products is blown pack spoilage (BPS) caused by the psychrophilic spore-forming strain of Clostridium spp. Spores derived from this organism can be activated after heat-shrinking (eg. 90°C for 3 seconds). To date, research into the control of Clostridium spp in beef packaging is limited. Active packaging in the form of antimicrobially-active coatings may be one approach to its control. Antimicrobial compounds may be incorporated into packaging films or coated onto the internal surfaces of packaging films using a carrier matrix. Three naturally-sourced, commercially-available antimicrobials, namely; Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract) from Envirotech Innovative Products Ltd, Ireland; Inbac-MDA (IMDA) from Chemital LLC, Spain, mixture of different organic acids and sodium octanoate (SO) from Sigma-Aldrich, UK, were added into gelatin solutions at 2 concentrations: 2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against Clostridium estertheticum (DSMZ 8809). These gelatin solutions were coated onto the internal polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated, heat-shrinkable laminates conventionally used for meat packaging applications. Atmospheric plasma was used in order to enhance adhesion between packaging films and gelatin coatings. Pouches were formed from these coated packaging materials, and beef cuts which had been inoculated with C. estertheticum were vacuum packaged. Inoculated beef was vacuum packaged without employing active films and this treatment served as the control. All pouches were heat-sealed and then heat-shrunk at 90°C for 3 seconds and incubated at 2°C for 100 days. During this storage period, packs were monitored for the indicators of blown pack spoilage as follows; gas bubbles in drip, loss of vacuum (onset of BPS), blown, the presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and tightly stretched, “overblown” packs/ packs leaking. Following storage and assessment of indicator date, it was concluded that AFV- and SO-containing packaging inhibited the growth of C. estertheticum, significantly delaying the blown pack spoilage of beef primals. IMDA did not inhibit the growth of C. estertheticum. This may be attributed to differences in release rates and possible reactions with gelatin. Overall, active films were successfully produced following plasma surface treatment, and experimental data demonstrated clearly that the use of antimicrobially-active films could significantly prolong the storage stability of beef primals through the effective control of BPS.

Keywords: active packaging, blown pack spoilage, Clostridium, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
61 Detection and Quantification of Viable but Not Culturable Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Frozen Bivalve Molluscs

Authors: Eleonora Di Salvo, Antonio Panebianco, Graziella Ziino

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Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that is widely distributed in marine environments. It is frequently isolated from raw seafood, particularly shellfish. Consumption of raw or undercooked seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus may lead to acute gastroenteritis. Vibrio spp. has excellent resistance to low temperatures so it can be found in frozen products for a long time. Recently, the viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of bacteria has attracted great attention, and more than 85 species of bacteria have been demonstrated to be capable of entering this state. VBNC cells cannot grow in conventional culture medium but are viable and maintain metabolic activity, which may constitute an unrecognized source of food contamination and infection. Also V. parahaemolyticus could exist in VBNC state under nutrient starvation or low-temperature conditions. Aim: The aim of the present study was to optimize methods and investigate V. parahaemolyticus VBNC cells and their presence in frozen bivalve molluscs, regularly marketed. Materials and Methods: propidium monoazide (PMA) was integrated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting the tl gene to detect and quantify V. parahaemolyticus in the VBNC state. PMA-qPCR resulted highly specific to V. parahaemolyticus with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-1 log CFU/mL in pure bacterial culture. A standard curve for V. parahaemolyticus cell concentrations was established with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999 at the linear range of 1.0 to 8.0 log CFU/mL. A total of 77 samples of frozen bivalve molluscs (35 mussels; 42 clams) were subsequently subjected to the qualitative (on alkaline phosphate buffer solution) and quantitative research of V. parahaemolyticus on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar (DIFCO) NaCl 2.5%, and incubation at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Real-time PCR was conducted on homogenate samples, in duplicate, with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) dye, and exposed for 45 min under halogen lights (650 W). Total DNA was extracted from cell suspension in homogenate samples according to bolliture protocol. The Real-time PCR was conducted with species-specific primers for V. parahaemolitycus. The RT-PCR was performed in a final volume of 20 µL, containing 10 µL of SYBR Green Mixture (Applied Biosystems), 2 µL of template DNA, 2 µL of each primer (final concentration 0.6 mM), and H2O 4 µL. The qPCR was carried out on CFX96 TouchTM (Bio-Rad, USA). Results: All samples were negative both to the quantitative and qualitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus by the classical culturing technique. The PMA-qPCR let us individuating VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in the 20,78% of the samples evaluated with a value between the Log 10-1 and Log 10-3 CFU/g. Only clams samples were positive for PMA-qPCR detection. Conclusion: The present research is the first evaluating PMA-qPCR assay for detection of VBNC V. parahaemolyticus in bivalve molluscs samples, and the used method was applicable to the rapid control of marketed bivalve molluscs. We strongly recommend to use of PMA-qPCR in order to identify VBNC forms, undetectable by the classic microbiological methods. A precise knowledge of the V.parahaemolyticus in a VBNC form is fundamental for the correct risk assessment not only in bivalve molluscs but also in other seafood.

Keywords: food safety, frozen bivalve molluscs, PMA dye, Real-time PCR, VBNC state, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
60 The Determination of Co, Cd and Pb in Seafoods of Thewet Market, Bangkok to Develop Quality of Life of Consumer

Authors: Chinnawat Satsananan

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The amount of heavy metals in our environment has been of great concern because of their toxicity when their concentration is more than the permissible level. These metals enter the environment by different ways such as industrial activities, soil pollution. We have used flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique for determination of the concentration of Co, Cd and Pb in different tissues of five samples of seafoods (mackerel, squid, mussels, scallops and shrimp). The concentrations of Co, Cd and Pb in all examined seafoods were less than the reported literature values (WHO). The results mentioned that the seafoods obtained from Thewet Market were safety to consumption and make the quality of life of people in the community look better.

Keywords: heavy metals, seafood, atomic absorption spectrometry, Bangkok

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
59 Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-To-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C

Authors: Sangram Dhumal, Anil Karale

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The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.

Keywords: anthocyanin content, pomegranate, MAP, minimally processed, microbial quality, Bhagwa, shelf-life, overall quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
58 The Role of Biosecurity in Sustainable Aquaculture

Authors: Barbara Montwill

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The last three decades of continuing increase in the farming of aquatic animals worldwide placed a biosecurity in a different perspective. An introduction of new countries, technologies, species to aquaculture, increased movement of animals are a few factors the might be associated with biosecurity risks. Most farms depend on trade for various inputs such as broodstock, post-larvae/fingerlings and feed. These inputs represent potential pathways by which pathogens can enter farming operations and create conditions for emergence of new or reoccurrence of diseases and production loses. Farm biosecurity should be considered an essential component of a national aquatic animal biosecurity program and together with adequate import and export controls can lead to the development of successful aquaculture industry as a reliable source of safe seafood product. This presentation would describe some biosecurity management approaches to minimize the negative impact of aquatic diseases on production and preserve the power of antibiotics.

Keywords: aquaculture, biosecurity, antibiotics, antibiotics residues

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
57 The Effect of Chloride Dioxide and High Concentration of CO2 Gas Injection on the Quality and Shelf-Life for Exporting Strawberry 'Maehyang' in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

The strawberry ‘Maehyang’ cultivated in South Korea has been increased to export to Southeast Asia. The degradation of quality often occurs in strawberries during short export period. Botrytis cinerea has been known to cause major damage to the export strawberries and the disease was caused during shipping and distribution. This study was conducted to find out the sterilized effect of chlorine dioxide(ClO2) gas and high concentration of CO2 gas injection for ‘Maehyang’ strawberry and it was packaged with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films. The strawberry was harvested at 80% color changed stage and packaged with OTR film and perforated film (control). The treatments were a MAP used by with 20,000 cc·m-2·day·atm OTR film and gas injection in packages. The gas type of ClO2 and CO2 were injected into OTR film packages, and treatments were 6 mg/L ClO2, 15% CO2, and they were combined. The treated strawberries were stored at 3℃ for 30 days. Fresh weight loss rate was less than 1% in all OTR film packages but it was more than 15% in a perforated film treatment that showed severe deterioration of visual quality during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package showed approximately 15% of the maximum CO2 concentration in all treatments except control until the 21st day, it was the tolerated range of maximum CO2 concentration of strawberry in recommended CA or MA conditions. But, it increased to almost 50% on the 30th day. Oxygen concentration showed a decrease down to approximately 0% in all treatments except control for 25 days. Ethylene concentration was shown to be steady until the 17th day, but it quickly increased on the 17th day and dropped down on the final storage day (30th day). All treatments did not show any significant differences in gas treatments. Firmness increased in CO2 (15%) and ClO2 (6mg/L) + CO2 (15%) treatments during storage. It might be the effect of high concentration CO2 known by reducing decay and cell wall degradation. The soluble solid decreased in all treatments during storage. These results were caused to use up the sugar by the increase of respiration during storage. The titratable acidity showed a similarity in all treatments. Incidence of fungi was 0% in CO2 (15%) and ClO2 (6mg/L)+ CO2 (15%), but was more than 20% in a perforated film treatment. Consequently, The result indicates that Chloride Dioxide(ClO2) and high concentration of CO2 inhibited fungi growth. Due to the fact that fresh weight loss rate and incidence of fungi were lower, the ClO2(6mg/L)+ CO2(15%) prove to be most efficient in sterilization. These results suggest that Chloride Dioxide (ClO2) and high concentration of CO2 gas injection treatments were an effective decontamination technique for improving the safety of strawberries.

Keywords: chloride dioxide, high concentration of CO2, modified atmosphere condition, oxygen transmission rate films

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
56 A Genetic-Neural-Network Modeling Approach for Self-Heating in GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Anwar Jarndal

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In this paper, a genetic-neural-network (GNN) based large-signal model for GaN HEMTs is presented along with its parameters extraction procedure. The model is easy to construct and implement in CAD software and requires only DC and S-parameter measurements. An improved decomposition technique is used to model self-heating effect. Two GNN models are constructed to simulate isothermal drain current and power dissipation, respectively. The two model are then composed to simulate the drain current. The modeling procedure was applied to a packaged GaN-on-Si HEMT and the developed model is validated by comparing its large-signal simulation with measured data. A very good agreement between the simulation and measurement is obtained.

Keywords: GaN HEMT, computer-aided design and modeling, neural networks, genetic optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
55 Molecular Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in the Pork Chain Supply and the Potential Anti-Staphylococcal Activity of Natural Compounds

Authors: Valeria Velasco, Ana M. Bonilla, José L. Vergara, Alcides Lofa, Jorge Campos, Pedro Rojas-García

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is both commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen that can cause different diseases in humans and can rapidly develop antimicrobial resistance. Since this bacterium has the ability to colonize the nares and skin of humans and animals, there is a risk of contamination of food in different steps of the food chain supply. Emerging strains have been detected in food-producing animals and meat, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and oxacillin susceptibility of S. aureus in the pork chain supply in Chile and to suggest some natural antimicrobials for control. A total of 487 samples were collected from pigs (n=332), carcasses (n=85), and retail pork meat (n=70). Presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated by selective enrichment and culture media. The confirmation was carried out by biochemical testing (Api® Staph) and molecular technique PCR (detection of nuc and mecA genes, associated with S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively). The oxacillin (β-lactam antibiotic that replaced methicillin) susceptibility was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the Epsilometer test (Etest). A preliminary assay was carried out to test thymol, carvacrol, oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.), Maqui or Chilean wineberry extract (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) as anti-staphylococcal agents using the disc diffusion method at different concentrations. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork chain supply reached 33.9%. A higher prevalence of S. aureus was determined in carcasses (56.5%) than in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) (P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence of S. aureus in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) was higher than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) (P ≤ 0.05). The contamination of no packaged meat with S. aureus (43.1%) was higher than in packaged meat (5.3%) (P ≤ 0.05). The mecA gene was not detected in S. aureus strains isolated in this study. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin resistance (MIC ≥ 4µg/mL). Anti-staphylococcal activity was detected in solutions of thymol, carvacrol, and oregano essential oil at all concentrations tested. No anti-staphylococcal activity was detected in Maqui extract. Finally, S. aureus is present in the pork chain supply in Chile. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin resistance was found in S. aureus and could be attributed to another resistance mechanism. Thymol, carvacrol, and oregano essential oil could be used as anti-staphylococcal agents at low concentrations. Research project Fondecyt No. 11140379.

Keywords: antimicrobials, mecA gen, nuc gen, oxacillin susceptibility, pork meat

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
54 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Fang Li, Jiazhao Wang, Jianmin Ma

Abstract:

The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, strong chemical interaction, long-term stability, Li-S batteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
53 Blood Clot Emulsification via Ultrasonic Thrombolysis Device

Authors: Sun Tao, Lou Liang, Tan Xing Haw Marvin, Gu Yuandong Alex

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Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness. To treat blood clots, clinicians presently have two options. The first involves drug therapy to thin the blood and thus reduce the clot. The second choice is to invasively remove the clot using a plastic tube called a catheter. Both approaches carry a high risk of bleeding, and invasive procedures, such as catheter intervention, can also damage the blood vessel wall and cause infection. Ultrasonic treatment as a potential alternative therapy to break down clots is attracting growing interests due to the reduced adverse effects. To demonstrate the concept, in this investigation a microfabricated ultrasonic device was electrically packaged with printed circuit board to treat healthy human blood. The red blood cells could be broken down after 3-hour ultrasonic treatment.

Keywords: microfabrication, blood clot, ultrasonic thrombolysis device, ultrasonic device

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
52 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

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Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
51 Rurality in Flux: A Perspective on Changing Face of Rural Tourism Enterprise

Authors: Gunjan Saxena

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This paper presents case insights from India and Mexico to illustrate how tourism can work as a tool for bringing about peace and prosperity in disadvantaged communities living in peripheral rural localities. A reordering of rural space, given the slow but definite shift from production-oriented activities towards more complex and contested blends of production, consumption and protection indicates clearly that rurality is in flux. Whilst on one hand, there is a predominance of urban interests in the countryside, on the other rurality is boxed and presented for consumption in urban localities. Qualitative data, collected using semi-structured interviews and participant observation, is used in illustrating how creative enterprise is bringing about innovative use of rural ethos and space in response to consumer demands. Overall, this work seeks to contribute to debates on how rurality no longer represents a fixed space of tradition, but is packaged and promoted in a multi-faceted manner to creatively perform for and access tourism markets.

Keywords: rural tourism, creative enterprise, India, Mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
50 Effect pH on Chemical and Physical Properties of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on chemical, structural, and functional properties of Fetta cheese, and to relate changes in structure to changes in cheese unctionality. Fetta cheese was obtained from a cheese-production facility and stored at 4°C. Ten days after manufacture, the cheese was cut into blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 4 d at 4°C. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected one, three, or five times with a 20% (wt/wt) glucono-δ-lactone solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. Cheese blocks were then analyzed after 40 d of storage at 4°C. Acidulant injection decreased cheese pH from 5.3 in the uninjected cheese to 4.7 after five injections. Decreased pH increased the content of soluble calcium and slightly decreased the total calcium content of cheese. At the highest level, injection of acidulant promoted syneresis. Thus, after five injections, the moisture content of cheese decreased from 34 to 31%, which esulted in decreased cheese weight. Lowered cheese pH, 4.7 compared with 5.3, also resulted in contraction of the protein matrix. Acidulant injection decreased cheese hardness and cohesiveness, and the cheese became more crumbly.

Keywords: calcium, high-pressure injection, protein matrix, syneresis

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
49 Petai Chips as an Antioxidant Chips from Indonesia

Authors: R. S. Fisca, Y. R. Elox, L. Umi, U. Z. Luttfia, Kun Harismah

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Petai (Parkia speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. Petai contains a lot of chemical compounds that are beneficial for health, including antioxidants, Vitamin B6 0,9mg, energy 142 g. cal, 10.4 g protein. 2 g fat, 22 g carbohydrates, 95 mg calcium, phosphorus 115 mg, 1 mg iron, 200 IU of vitamin A, vitamin B1 0.17 mg, 36 mg of vitamin C that can resolve various health problems. These chips are the result of innovation from petai packaged in such a way becomes a tasty snack chips and can be enjoyed by many people to relax and also nutritious for health. In the manufacture of petai chips require several steps of them start by boiling, flating, drying and the last frying. In introducing the products widely we sell petai chips with several methods. Some of these methods include direct sales, delivery order, online/social media, and open some booth at a few places and the car free day in Solo every sunday. Opportunity in selling petai chips is very wide because there is no competitors with similar business. With the innovation of petai chips become healthy snacks can be introduced to the public and can even be exported out of the country as one of the extraordinary snacks from Indonesia.

Keywords: antioxidants, chips, healty, petai

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
48 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 345