Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: misconceptions

79 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar

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Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

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78 Mathematical Anxiety and Misconceptions in Algebra of Grade Vii Students in General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School

Authors: Nessa-Amie T. Peñaflor, Antonio Cinto

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This is a descriptive research on the level of math anxiety and mathematics misconceptions in algebra. This research is composed of four parts: (1) analysis of the level of anxiety of the respondents; (2) analysis of the common mathematical misconceptions in algebra; (3) relationship of socio-demographic profile in math anxiety and mathematical misconceptions and (4) analysis of the relationship of math anxiety and misconceptions in algebra. Through the demographic profile questionnaire it was found out that most of the respondents were female. Majority had ages that ranged from 13-15. Most of them had parents who finished secondary education. The biggest portion of Grade Seven students where from families with annual family income ranging from PhP 100, 000 to PhP 299, 999. Most of them came from public school. Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Secondary and Senior Secondary School Students (MAS) and set of 10 open-ended algebraic expressions and polynomials were also administered to determine the anxiety level and the common misconceptions in algebra. Data analysis revealed that respondents had high anxiety in mathematics. Likewise, the common mathematical misconceptions of the Grade Seven students were: combining unlike terms; multiplying the base and exponents; regarding the variable x as 0; squaring the first and second terms only in product of two binomials; wrong meaning attached to brackets; writing the terms next to each other but not simplifying in using the FOIL Method; writing the literal coefficient even if the numerical coefficient is 0; and dividing the denominator by the numerator when the numerical coefficient in the numerator is smaller than the numerical coefficient of the denominator. Results of the study show that the socio-demographic characteristics were not related to mathematics anxiety and misconceptions. Furthermore, students from higher section had high anxiety than those students on the lower section. Thus, belonging to higher or lower section may affect the mathematical misconceptions of the respondents.

Keywords: algebra, grade 7 math, math anxiety, math misconceptions

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77 An Investigation of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Perceived the Results of Buoyancy Force

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt, Şükran Erdoğan

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The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers perceive buoyancy force effecting an object in a liquid and identify their misconceptions. Pre-service teachers were interviewed to reveal their understandings of an object's floating, suspending and sinking in a liquid. In addition, they were asked about how an object -given its features- moved when it is provided with an external force and when it is released. The so-called circumstances were questioned in a different planet contexts. For this aim, focused group interview method was used. Six focused groups were formed and video recorded during the interval. Each focused group comprised of five pre-service teachers. It was found out pre-service teachers have common misunderstanding and misconceptions. In order to eliminate this conceptual misunderstandings, conceptual change texts were developed and further suggestions were made.

Keywords: computer simulations, conceptual change texts, physics education, students’ misconceptions in physics

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76 Perception and Knowledge of the Jordanian Society of Occupational Therapy

Authors: Wesam Darawsheh

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Background: there are scarcity of studies done to investigate the level of knowledge and the level of awareness and perception of Jordanians about occupational therapy (OT). Aim: to investigate the level of awareness of lay people, clients receiving services and healthcare professionals of OT, identify the common misconceptions about OT, and to explore ways whereby the knowledge and awareness about OT can be increased. Methodology: a cross sectional design was employed in this study where a survey was distributed in the Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern provinces and the Middle (capital city: Amman) province of Jordan. The survey consisted of eight section and 61 questions that aims to investigate the demographics of participants, self evaluation concerning knowledge and awareness about OT, sources of knowledge about OT, the perception of the aims, fields of practice, OT settings, misconceptions about OT, and suggestion to improve knowledge and awareness about OT. Results: A total of 829 participants were enrolled in this study: 459 lay people, 155 clients who are currently receiving OT services, 215 healthcare professionals. About 57% of the participants did not hear about OT, and 48% of those who reported to hear about OT did not have sufficient knowledge about it. There are several misconceptions associated with OT. The statistical analysis was executed using IBM SPSS software, Version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Conclusion: it is the responsibility of OTRs to increase the knowledge and awareness about OT in Jordan. This is required for the profession to proliferate and to be given its status.

Keywords: knowledge, occupational therapy misconceptions, healthcare professionals, lay people, Jordan

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75 Errors and Misconceptions for Students with Mathematical Learning Disabilities: Quest for Suitable Teaching Strategy

Authors: A. K. Tsafe

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The study investigates the efficacy of Special Mathematics Teaching Strategy (SMTS) as against Conventional Mathematics Teaching Strategy (CMTS) in teaching students identified with Mathematics Learning Disabilities (MLDs) – dyslexia, Down syndrome, dyscalculia, etc., in some junior secondary schools around Sokoto metropolis. Errors and misconceptions in learning Mathematics displayed by these categories of students were observed. Theory of variation was used to provide a prism for viewing the MLDs from theoretical perspective. Experimental research design was used, involving pretest-posttest non-randomized approach. Pretest was administered to the intact class taught using CMTS before the class was split into experimental and control groups. Experimental group of the students – those identified with MLDs was taught with SMTS and later mean performance of students taught using the two strategies was sought to find if there was any significant difference between the performances of the students. A null hypothesis was tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. T-test was used to establish the difference between the mean performances of the two tests. The null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the performance of students, identified with MLDs taught using SMTS was found to be better than their earlier performance taught using CMTS. The study, therefore, recommends amongst other things that teachers should be encouraged to use SMTS in teaching mathematics especially when students are found to be suffering from MLDs and exhibiting errors and misconceptions in the process of learning mathematics.

Keywords: disabilities, errors, learning, misconceptions

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74 Remedying Students' Misconceptions in Learning of Chemical Bonding and Spontaneity through Intervention Discussion Learning Model (IDLM)

Authors: Ihuarulam A. Ikenna

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In the past few decades, the field of chemistry education has grown tremendously and researches indicated that after traditional chemistry instruction students often lacked deep conceptual understanding and failed to integrate their ideas into coherent conceptual framework. For several concepts in chemistry, students at all levels have demonstrated difficulty in changing their initial perceptions. Their perceptions are most often wrong and do not agree with correct scientific concepts. This study explored the effectiveness of intervention discussion sections for a college general chemistry course designed to apply research on students preconceptions, knowledge integration and student explanation. Three interventions discussions lasting three hours on bond energy and spontaneity were done tested and intervention (treatment) students’ performances were compared with that of control group which did not use the experimental pedagogy. Results indicated that this instruction which was capable of identifying students' misconceptions, initial conceptions and integrating those ideas into class discussion led to enhanced conceptual understanding and better achievement for the experimental group.

Keywords: remedying, students’ misconceptions, learning, intervention discussion, learning model

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73 Interactive Lecture Demonstration and Inquiry-Based Instruction in Addressing Students' Misconceptions in Electric Circuits

Authors: Mark Anthony Casimiro, Ivan Culaba, Cornelia Soto

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Misconceptions are the wrong concepts understood by the students which may come up based on what they experience and observe around their environment. This seemed to hinder students’ learning. In this study, six different misconceptions were determined by the researcher from the previous researches. Teachers play a vital role in the classroom. The use of appropriate strategies can contribute a lot in the success of teaching and learning Physics. The current study aimed to compare two strategies- Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD) and Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) in addressing students’ misconceptions in electric circuits. These two strategies are both interactive learning activities and student-centered. In ILD, the teacher demonstrates the activity and the students have their predictions while in IBI, students perform the experiments. The study used the mixed method in which quantitative and qualitative researches were combined. The main data of this study were the test scores of the students from the pretest and posttest. Likewise, an interview with the teacher, observer and students was done before, during and after the execution of the activities. Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric Circuits Test version 2 (DIRECT v.2) was the instrument used in the study. Two sections of Grade 9 students from Kalumpang National High School were the respondents of the study. The two strategies were executed to each section; one class was assigned as the ILD group and the other class was the IBI group. The Physics teacher of the said school was the one who taught and executed the activities. The researcher taught the teacher the steps in doing the two strategies. The Department of Education level of proficiency in the Philippines was adopted in scoring and interpretation. The students’ level of proficiency was used in assessing students’ knowledge on electric circuits. The pretest result of the two groups had a p-value of 0.493 which was greater than the level of significance 0.05 (p >0.05) and it implied that the students’ level of understanding in the topic was the same before the execution of the strategies. The posttest results showed that the p-value (0.228) obtained was greater than the level of significance which is 0.05 (p> 0.05). This implied that the students from the ILD and IBI groups had the same level of understanding after the execution of the two strategies. This could be inferred that either of the two strategies- Interactive Lecture Demonstration and Inquiry-Based Instruction could be used in addressing students’ misconception in electric circuit as both had similar effect on the students’ level of understanding in the topic. The result of this study may greatly help teachers, administration, school heads think of appropriate strategies that can address misconceptions depending on the availability of their materials of their school.

Keywords: inquiry- based instruction, interactive lecture demonstration, misconceptions, mixed method

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72 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu

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The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

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71 Common Misconceptions around Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Rural Uganda: Establishing the Role for Patient Education Leaflets Using Patient and Staff Surveys

Authors: Sara Qandil, Harriet Bothwell, Lowri Evans, Kevin Jones, Simon Collin

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Background: Uganda suffers from high rates of HIV. Misconceptions around HIV are known to be prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Two of the most common misconceptions in Uganda are that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites or from sharing food. The aim of this project was to establish the local misconceptions around HIV in a Central Ugandan population, and identify if there is a role for patient education leaflets. This project was undertaken as a student selected component (SSC) offered by Swindon Academy, based at the Great Western Hospital, to medical students in their fourth year of the undergraduate programme. Methods: The study was conducted at Villa Maria Hospital; a private, rural hospital in Kalungu District, Central Uganda. 36 patients, 23 from the hospital clinic and 13 from the community were interviewed regarding their understanding of HIV and by what channels they had obtained this understanding. Interviews were conducted using local student nurses as translators. Verbal responses were translated and then transcribed by the researcher. The same 36 patients then undertook a 'misconception' test consisting of 35 questions. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and results were scored based on three components of 'transmission knowledge', 'prevention knowledge' and 'misconception rejection'. Each correct response to a question was scored one point, otherwise zero e.g. correctly rejecting a misconception scored one point, but answering ‘yes’ or ‘don’t know’ scored zero. Scores ≤ 27 (the average score) were classified as having ‘poor understanding’. Mean scores were compared between participants seen at the HIV clinic and in the community, and p-values (including Fisher’s exact test) were calculated using Stata 2015. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Interviews with 7 members of staff working in the HIV clinic were undertaken to establish what methods of communication are used to educate patients. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis undertaken. Results: The commonest misconceptions which failed to be rejected included transmission of HIV by kissing (78%), mosquitoes (69%) and touching (36%). 33% believed HIV may be prevented by praying. The overall mean scores for transmission knowledge (87.5%) and prevention knowledge (81.1%) were better than misconception rejection scores (69.3%). HIV clinic respondents did tend to have higher scores, i.e. fewer misconceptions, although there was statistical evidence of a significant difference only for prevention knowledge (p=0.03). Analysis of the qualitative data is ongoing but several patients expressed concerns about not being able to read and therefore leaflets not having a helpful role. Conclusions: Results from this paper identified that a high proportion of the population studied held misconceptions about HIV. Qualitative data suggests that there may be a role for patient education leaflets, if pictorial-based and suitable for those with low literacy skill.

Keywords: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, misconceptions, patient education, Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda

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70 Detecting Major Misconceptions about Employment in ICT: A Study of the Myths about ICT Work among Females

Authors: Eneli Kindsiko, Kulno Türk

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The purpose of the current article is to reveal misconceptions about ICT occupations that keep females away from the field. The study focuses on the three phases in one’s career life cycle: pre-university, university and workplace with the aim of investigating how to attract more females into an ICT-related career. By studying nearly 300 secondary school graduates, 102 university students and 18 female ICT specialists, the study revealed six myths that influence the decision-making process of young girls in pursuing an ICT-related education and career. Furthermore, discriminating conception of ICT as a primarily man’s world is developed before the university period. Stereotypical barriers should be brought out to the public debate, so that a remarkable proportion of possible employees (women) would not stay away from the tech-related fields. Countries could make a remarkable leap in efficiency, when turning their attention to the gender-related issues in the labour market structure.

Keywords: ICT, women, stereotypes, computer

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69 Relativity in Toddlers' Understanding of the Physical World as Key to Misconceptions in the Science Classroom

Authors: Michael Hast

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Within their first year, infants can differentiate between objects based on their weight. By at least 5 years children hold consistent weight-related misconceptions about the physical world, such as that heavy things fall faster than lighter ones because of their weight. Such misconceptions are seen as a challenge for science education since they are often highly resistant to change through instruction. Understanding the time point of emergence of such ideas could, therefore, be crucial for early science pedagogy. The paper thus discusses two studies that jointly address the issue by examining young children’s search behaviour in hidden displacement tasks under consideration of relative object weight. In both studies, they were tested with a heavy or a light ball, and they either had information about one of the balls only or both. In Study 1, 88 toddlers aged 2 to 3½ years watched a ball being dropped into a curved tube and were then allowed to search for the ball in three locations – one straight beneath the tube entrance, one where the curved tube lead to, and one that corresponded to neither of the previous outcomes. Success and failure at the task were not impacted by weight of the balls alone in any particular way. However, from around 3 years onwards, relative lightness, gained through having tactile experience of both balls beforehand, enhanced search success. Conversely, relative heaviness increased search errors such that children increasingly searched in the location immediately beneath the tube entry – known as the gravity bias. In Study 2, 60 toddlers aged 2, 2½ and 3 years watched a ball roll down a ramp and behind a screen with four doors, with a barrier placed along the ramp after one of four doors. Toddlers were allowed to open the doors to find the ball. While search accuracy generally increased with age, relative weight did not play a role in 2-year-olds’ search behaviour. Relative lightness improved 2½-year-olds’ searches. At 3 years, both relative lightness and relative heaviness had a significant impact, with the former improving search accuracy and the latter reducing it. Taken together, both studies suggest that between 2 and 3 years of age, relative object weight is increasingly taken into consideration in navigating naïve physical concepts. In particular, it appears to contribute to the early emergence of misconceptions relating to object weight. This insight from developmental psychology research may have consequences for early science education and related pedagogy towards early conceptual change.

Keywords: conceptual development, early science education, intuitive physics, misconceptions, object weight

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68 Knowledge Transfer and the Translation of Technical Texts

Authors: Ahmed Alaoui

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This paper contributes to the ongoing debate as to the relevance of translation studies to professional practitioners. It exposes the various misconceptions permeating the links between theory and practice in the translation landscape in the Arab World. It is a thesis of this paper that specialization in translation should be redefined; taking account of the fact, that specialized knowledge alone is neither crucial nor sufficient in technical translation. It should be tested against the readability of the translated text, the appropriateness of its style and the usability of its content by end-users to carry out their intended tasks. The paper also proposes a preliminary model to establish a working link between theory and practice from the perspective of professional trainers and practitioners, calling for the latter to participate in the production of knowledge in a systematic fashion. While this proposal is driven by a rather intuitive conviction, a research line is needed to specify the methodological moves to establish the mediation strategies that would relate the components in the model of knowledge transfer proposed in this paper.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, misconceptions, specialized texts, translation theory, translation practice

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67 Identification of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Understand Image Formations through Virtual Objects in the Field of Geometric Optics and Development of a New Material to Exploit Virtual Objects

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt

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The aim of the study is to develop materials for understanding image formations through virtual objects in geometric optics. The images in physics course books are formed by using real objects. This results in mistakes in the features of images because of generalizations which leads to conceptual misunderstandings in learning. In this study it was intended to identify pre-service physics teachers misunderstandings arising from false generalizations. Focused group interview was used as a qualitative method. The findings of the study show that students have several misconceptions such as "the image in a plain mirror is always virtual". However a real image can be formed in a plain mirror. To explain a virtual object's image formation in a more understandable way an overhead projector and episcope and their design was illustrated. The illustrations are original and several computer simulations will be suggested.

Keywords: computer simulations, geometric optics, physics education, students' misconceptions in physics

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66 Assessment of Urban Immunization Practices among Urban Mother's in Sri Lanka

Authors: Kasun U. G. Palihakkara

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Although vaccine coverage in Sri Lanka is close to 100%, with the widely spreading vaccine rejection trend reaching South Asian regions, it is essential to catch on whether Sri Lankans are being misinformed from the common misconceptions regarding vaccines. As the rates of target diseases decrease, parents become less accepting of even minor common adverse events. It is essential to preserve the integrity of immunization programs and protect public health by finding out the prevalence of anti-immunization trends. The primary objective of this study was to assess the immunization practices and prevalence of trends related to anti-immunization among urban community in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study on 323 participants using convenient sampling with 213 self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, 110 online questionnaires were distributed. 31% of the study population does not maintain immunization records for their children. While majority seek information regarding immunization from reliable sources such as the family physician or specialist pediatricians, 30% also refer to unreliable sources such as online communities for their opinion. 31% of study population had not vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis. 73% of the study population had encountered with side effects of vaccination such as fever & 47% believed that such side effects are rare. 52% of the population had hostile attitude regarding the administration of several doses multiple vaccines within a child’s first year. Diseases like polio had been successfully eradicated from Sri Lanka with the help of vigorous vaccination programs. However, majority of the study population believe that there’s no need to keep vaccinating the children for those eradicated diseases and exposing the child for adverse effects of such vaccines. Majority of the population were aware of the existing misconceptions regarding immunization. The most popular misconceptions about vaccines popular among the study population were the MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine being a possible cause leading to autism and bowel disease and children getting infected with the disease even after they get vaccinated, may be due to the inactivated vaccine. Disturbingly 22% of the study population believed that vaccines are useless in preventing diseases nowadays. These data obtained from the urban study population reveals that even though statistically Sri Lankan immunization coverage is 100%, there is a possibility of anti-vaccination trend arising in Sri Lanka due to the prevalence of various misconceptions and rumors related to it. Therefore these data recommend the need for thorough awareness among the mothers.

Keywords: anti-vaccination, immunization, infectious diseases, pediatric health

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65 Human Rights in Islam: A Critique on Critiques

Authors: Miftahuddin Khilji

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The concept of human right is not alien to Islam. The Shari‘ah requires all its followers the sense of responsibility to perform their duties first and then claim their rights. This eventually guarantees the protection of human rights and ensures a peaceful society. The ultimate goal of Shari‘ah is to preserve five basic necessities which are also known as Maqasid ul Shari‘ah or Objectives of Islamic Law. This goal ensures for the members of society their rights without harming public welfare. Despite of the fact that human rights have been fully guaranteed by Islam and their compliance is required by Allah Almighty; not by any legislative body or other sovereign such as kings etc. However, many western writers, organizations and so called liberal thinkers try to create concerns, doubts and misconceptions in minds of the society members. A number of issues are pointed out and people are misguided about the concept of human rights in Islam. This paper aims to discuss main the concept of human rights in the light of perfect and balanced system of laws and principles of Shari‘ah and address those misconceptions and doubts by analyzing them and answering to questions raised about the subject. It would be an effort to prove that human rights are much more significant to Shari‘ah more than any other national or international legislative body.

Keywords: human rights, Islamic law, law, Shariah

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64 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

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The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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63 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo

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As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: historical narratives, old churches, cultural heritage, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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62 Use of Concept Maps as a Tool for Evaluating Students' Understanding of Science

Authors: Aregamalage Sujeewa Vijayanthi Polgampala, Fang Huang

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This study explores the genesis and development of concept mapping as a useful tool for science education and its effectiveness as technique for teaching and learning and evaluation for secondary science in schools and the role played by National College of Education science teachers. Concept maps, when carefully employed and executed serves as an integral part of teaching method and measure of effectiveness of teaching and tool for evaluation. Research has shown that science concept maps can have positive influence on student learning and motivation. The success of concept maps played in an instruction class depends on the type of theme selected, the development of learning outcomes, and the flexibility of instruction in providing library unit that is equipped with multimedia equipment where learners can interact. The study was restricted to 6 male and 9 female respondents' teachers in third-year internship pre service science teachers in Gampaha district Sri Lanka. Data were collected through 15 item questionnaire provided to learners and in depth interviews and class observations of 18 science classes. The two generated hypotheses for the study were rejected, while the results revealed that significant difference exists between factors influencing teachers' choice of concept maps, its usefulness and problems hindering the effectiveness of concept maps for teaching and learning process of secondary science in schools. It was examined that concept maps can be used as an effective measure to evaluate students understanding of concepts and misconceptions. Even the teacher trainees could not identify, key concept is on top, and subordinate concepts fall below. It is recommended that pre service science teacher trainees should be provided a thorough training using it as an evaluation instrument.

Keywords: concept maps, evaluation, learning science, misconceptions

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61 The Cut, the Blood and Her Stained Femininity- an Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation

Authors: Indu Poornima

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This paper aims at understanding the Socio-historical, political and economic dimensions of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. After throwing light on the definition of FGM and scrutinizing the misconceptions associated with it, the paper progresses to analyze the following questions. a) How do communities performing FGM rationalize their act? b) Are the victims (women) themselves the strongest proponents of FGM ? and c) Are legislations against FGM by international organizations counter-productive?

Keywords: female genital mutilation, Africa, rationalizing the act, international legislations

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60 A Multi-Site Knowledge Attitude and Practice Survey of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria

Authors: Ilyasu G., Ogoina D., Otu AA, Muhammed FD, Ebenso B., Otokpa D., Rotifa S., Tuduo-Wisdom O., Habib AG

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Background: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was characterized by fear, misconceptions and irrational behaviors. We conducted a knowledge attitude and practice survey of EVD in Nigeria to inform the institution of effective control measures. Methods: Between July 30th and September 30th 2014, a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was undertaken among adults of the general population and healthcare workers (HCW) in three states of Nigeria, including Kano, Cross River and Bayelsa states. Demographic information and data on KAP were obtained using a self-administered standardized questionnaire. The percentage KAP scores were categorized as good and poor. Independent predictors of good knowledge of EVD were ascertained using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Out of 1035 study participants with a median age of 32 years, 648 (62.6%) were males, 846 (81.7%) had tertiary education and 441 (42.6%) were HCW. There were 218, 239 and 578 respondents from Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, and Kano states, respectively. The overall median percentage KAP scores and interquartile ranges (IQR) were 79.46% (15.07%), 95.0% (33.33%), and 49.95% (37.50%), respectively. Out of the 1035 respondents, 470 (45.4%), 544(52.56%), and 252 (24.35%) had good KAP of EVD defined using 80%, 90%, and 70% score cut-offs, respectively. Independent predictors of good knowledge of EVD were a HCW (Odds Ratio-OR-2.89, 95% Confidence interval-CI of 1.41-5.90), reporting ‘moderate to high fear of EVD’ (OR-2.15, 95% CI-1.47-3.13) and ‘willingness to modify habit’ (OR-1.68, 95% CI-1.23-2.30). Conclusion: Our results reveal suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among adults in Nigeria. To effectively control future outbreaks of EVD in Nigeria, there is a need to institute public sensitization programs that improve understanding of EVD and address EVD-related myths and misconceptions, especially among the general population.

Keywords: Ebola, health care worker, knowledge, attitude

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59 Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Insights from the Philippine Context

Authors: Arlene Villarama, Micol Grace Guanzon, Zenaida Ramos

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This paper provides insights into teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Philippines. The authors reviewed relevant theories and literature, and provide an analysis of the issues in teaching English in the Philippine setting in the light of these theories. The authors made an investigation in Bagong Barrio National High School (BBNHS) - a public school in Caloocan City. The institution has a population of nearly 3,000 students. The performances of randomly chosen 365 respondents were scrutinised. The study regarding the success of teaching English as a foreign language to Filipino children were highlighted. This includes the respondents’ family background, surroundings, way of living, and their behavior and understanding regarding education. The results show that there is a significant relationship between demonstrative, communal, and logical areas that touch the efficacy of introducing English as a foreign Dialectal. Filipino children, by nature, are adventurous and naturally joyful even for little things. They are born with natural skills and capabilities to discover new things. They highly consider activities and work that ignite their curiosity. They love to be recognised and are inspired the most when given the assurance of acceptance and belongingness. Fun is the appealing influence to ignite and motivate learning. The magic word is excitement. The study reveals the many facets of the accumulation and transmission of erudition, in introduction and administration of English as a foreign phonological; it runs and passes through different channels of diffusion. Along the way, there are particles that act as obstructions in protocols where knowledge are to be gathered. Data gained from the respondents conceals a reality that is beyond one’s imagination. One significant factor that touches the inefficacy of understanding and using English as a foreign language is an erroneous outset gained from an old belief handed down from generation to generation. This accepted perception about the power and influence of the use of language, gives the novices either a negative or a positive notion. The investigation shows that a higher number of dislikes in the use of English can be tracked down from the belief of the story on how the English language came into existence. The belief that only the great and the influential have the right to use English as a means of communication kills the joy of acceptance. A significant notation has to be examined so as to provide a solution or if not eradicate the misconceptions that lie behind the substance of the matter. The result of the authors’ research depicts a substantial correlation between the emotional (demonstrative), social (communal), and intellectual (logical). The focus of this paper is to bring out the right notation and disclose the misconceptions with regards to teaching English as a foreign language. This will concentrate on the emotional, social, and intellectual areas of the Filipino learners and how these areas affect the transmittance and accumulation of learning. The authors’ aim is to formulate logical ways and techniques that would open up new beginnings in understanding and acceptance of the subject matter.

Keywords: accumulation, behaviour, facets, misconceptions, transmittance

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58 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Difficulties about Gravitational Force: The Case of the Free Fall Bodies

Authors: A. Metioui

Abstract:

Research related to the student’s conceptual difficulties in sciences, particularly in the field of physics, are relatively numerous. In this work, we will analyze the results of qualitative research conducted with 80 elementary preservice teachers from Quebec in Canada on their understandings after studying the free fall bodies. First, we will illustrate the paper-pencil questionnaire built for this purpose. Then we will give the analysis of the experimental data. The results show that, even though there is a continuing physics education, many misconceptions persist despite the teaching provided.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, elementary school, conceptual difficulties, free fall bodies

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57 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

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The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

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56 Determination of the Needs for Development of Infertility Psycho-Educational Program and the Design of a Website about Infertility for University Students

Authors: Bahar Baran, Şirin Nur Kaptan, D.Yelda Kağnıcı, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M Siyez

Abstract:

It is known that some factors associated with infertility have preventable characteristics and that young people's knowledge levels in this regard are inadequate, but very few studies focus on effective prevention studies on infertility. Psycho-educational programs have an important place for infertility prevention efforts. Nowadays, considering the households' utilization rates from technology and the Internet, it seems that young people have applied to websites as a primary source of information related to a health problem they have encountered. However, one of the prerequisites for the effectiveness of websites or face-to-face psycho-education programs is to consider the needs of participants. In particular, it is expected that these programs will be appropriate to the cultural infrastructure and the diversity of beliefs and values in society. The aim of this research is to determine what university students want to learn about infertility and fertility and examine their views on the structure of the website. The sample of the research consisted of 9693 university students who study in 21 public higher education programs in Turkey. 51.6 % (n = 5002) were female and 48.4% (n = 4691) were male. The Needs Analysis Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used as data collection tool in the research. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analysis was conducted in SPSS software. According to the findings, among the topics that university students wanted to study about infertility and fertility, the first topics were 'misconceptions about infertility' (94.9 %), 'misconceptions about sexual behaviors' (94.6 %), 'factors affecting infertility' (92.8 %), 'sexual health and reproductive health' (92.5 %), 'sexually transmitted diseases' (92.7 %), 'sexuality and society' (90.9 %), 'healthy life (help centers)' (90.4 %). In addition, the questions about how the content of the website should be designed for university students were analyzed descriptively. According to the results, 91.5 % (n = 8871) of the university students proposed to use frequently asked questions and their answers, 89.2 % (n = 8648) stated that expert video should be included, 82.6 % (n = 8008) requested animations and simulations, 76.1 % (n = 7380) proposed different content according to sex and 66 % (n = 6460) proposed different designs according to sex. The results of the research indicated that the findings are similar to the contents of the program carried out in other countries in terms of the topics to be studied. It is suggested to take into account the opinions of the participants during the design of website.

Keywords: infertility, prevention, psycho-education, web based education

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55 Investigating Students’ Cognitive Processes in Solving Stoichiometric Problems and its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Larkins A. Trinidad

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The present study investigated collegiate students’ problem solving strategies and misconceptions in solving stoichiometric problems and later on formulate a teaching framework from the result of the study. The study found out that the most prominent strategies among students are the mole method and the proportionality method, which are both algorithmic by nature. Misconception was also noted as some students rely on Avogadro’s number in converting between moles. It is suggested therefore that the teaching of stoichiometry should not be confined to demonstration. Students should be involved in the process of thinking of ways to solve the problem.

Keywords: stoichiometry, Svogadro’s number, mole method, proportionality method

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
54 Sex Positions Decisions and Negotiations of Sexual Pleasure and Gender in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Chimaraoke O. Izugbara

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Based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men, the paper explores how knowing more about the factors that trigger sex positions decisions advance knowledge of male and female sexuality, and how these translate into higher levels of female sexual negotiations in Ghana. Findings demonstrated that the willingness to perform sex positions or not were gendered and derive, at least in part, from differences in demographic profiles (such as age, gender, and marriage), beliefs associated with sexual practices (such as anal sex), the desire to maximize sexual pleasure, and sexual myths and misconceptions e.g. fear of infecundity. The women were not passive to sex positions decisions and engaged in a dialogical sexual encounter with men including threats of sexual refusal in negotiating sex.

Keywords: sexual positions, sexual pleasure, masculinity, femininity, Ghana

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53 Engaging Teacher Inquiry via New Media in Traditional and E-Learning Environments

Authors: Daniel A. Walzer

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As the options for course delivery and development expand, plenty of misconceptions still exist concerning e-learning and online course delivery. Classroom instructors often discuss pedagogy, methodologies, and best practices regarding teaching from a singular, traditional in-class perspective. As more professors integrate online, blended, and hybrid courses into their dossier, a clearly defined rubric for gauging online course delivery is essential. The transition from a traditional learning structure towards an updated distance-based format requires careful planning, evaluation, and revision. This paper examines how new media stimulates reflective practice and guided inquiry to improve pedagogy, engage interdisciplinary collaboration, and supply rich qualitative data for future research projects in media arts disciplines.

Keywords: action research, inquiry, new media, reflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
52 The Deprivation of Human Rights Experienced by African Children with Disabilities

Authors: Anna Wiltshire, Rebecca Markham

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Over the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that children with disabilities are often amongst the most excluded and vulnerable in society. The World Bank estimates that 20% of those living in poverty in developing countries are disabled which means that those with the least bear the greatest burden. Furthermore, children with disabilities in Africa have to face a multitude of difficulties ranging from the physical to the psychological. Misconceptions and cultural beliefs are used to justify violence against, or complete shunning of these individuals and their families. In addition, discrimination can prevent access to both education and health services, further compromising these individuals. All children, irrespective of their disability should be able to enjoy human rights without discrimination, but this is often not the case. This poster explores how and why children with disabilities in Africa are subject to violations of their human rights, and suggests ways of addressing these problems.

Keywords: Africa, children, disability, discrimination, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
51 Constructing a Two-Tier Test about Source Current to Diagnose Pre-Service Elementary School Teacher’ Misconceptions

Authors: Abdeljalil Metioui

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The purpose of this article is to present the results of two-stage qualitative research. The first involved the identification of the alternative conceptions of 80 elementary pre-service teachers from Quebec in Canada about the operation of simple electrical circuits. To do this, they completed a two-choice questionnaire (true or false) with justification. Data analysis identifies many conceptual difficulties. For example, for their majority, whatever the electrical device that composes an electrical circuit, the current source (power supply), and the generated electrical power is constant. The second step was to develop a double multiple-choice questionnaire based on the identified designs. It allows teachers to quickly diagnose their students' conceptions and take them into account in their teaching.

Keywords: development, electrical circuits, two-tier diagnostic test, secondary and high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
50 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary

Abstract:

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 87