Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1917

Search results for: magnetically controlled MEMS

1917 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin


The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1916 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov


Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1915 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti


MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
1914 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1913 Development of MEMS Based 3-Axis Accelerometer for Hand Movement Monitoring

Authors: Zohra Aziz Ali Manjiyani, Renju Thomas Jacob, Keerthan Kumar


This project develops a hand movement monitoring system, which feeds the data into the computer and gives the 3D image rotation according to the direction of the tilt and hence monitoring the movement of the hand in context to its tilt. Advancement of MEMS Technology has enabled us to get very small and low-cost accelerometer ICs which is based on capacitive principle. Accelerometer based Tilt sensor ADXL335 is used in this paper, based on MEMS technology and the project emphasis on the development of the MEMS-based accelerometer to measure the tilt, interfacing the hardware with the LabVIEW and showing the 3D rotation to the user, which is in his understandable form and tilt data can be saved in the computer. It provides an experience of working on emerging technologies like MEMS and design software like LabVIEW.

Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, tilt sensor ADXL335, LabVIEW simulation, 3D animation

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1912 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
1911 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao, P. Pal


The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: KOH, MEMS, micromachining, silicon, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
1910 A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System

Authors: Tijing Cai, Qimeng Xu, Daijin Zhou


This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.

Keywords: MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit), BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), dual-antenna, integrated navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1909 Dynamic Analysis of the Heat Transfer in the Magnetically Assisted Reactor

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas


The application of magnetic field is essential for a wide range of technologies or processes (i.e., magnetic hyperthermia, bioprocessing). From the practical point of view, bioprocess control is often limited to the regulation of temperature at constant values favourable to microbial growth. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of various types of electromagnetic fields (i.e., static or alternating) on the heat transfer in a self-designed magnetically assisted reactor. The experimental set-up is equipped with a measuring instrument which controlled the temperature of the liquid inside the container and supervised the real-time acquisition of all the experimental data coming from the sensors. Temperature signals are also sampled from generator of magnetic field. The obtained temperature profiles were mathematically described and analyzed. The parameters characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order dynamic system were obtained and discussed. For example, the higher values of the time constant means slow signal (in this case, temperature) increase. After the period equal to about five-time constants, the sample temperature nearly reached the asymptotic value. This dynamical analysis allowed us to understand the heating effect under the action of various types of electromagnetic fields. Moreover, the proposed mathematical description can be used to compare the influence of different types of magnetic fields on heat transfer operations.

Keywords: heat transfer, magnetically assisted reactor, dynamical analysis, transient function

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1908 Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji


Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.

Keywords: MEMS/NEMS devices, paired wire actuators and sensors, dynamical response, fatigue and fracture characterization, Ampere’s force law

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1907 Realization of Autonomous Guidance Service by Integrating Information from NFC and MEMS

Authors: Dawei Cai


In this paper, we present an autonomous guidance service by combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: NFC, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1906 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji


This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1905 Corrosion Study of Magnetically Driven Components in Spinal Implants by Immersion Testing in Simulated Body Fluids

Authors: Benjawan Saengwichian, Alasdair E. Charles, Philip J. Hyde


Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs) have been used to stabilise and correct spinal curvature in children to support non-invasive scoliosis adjustment. Although the encapsulated driving components are intended to be isolated from body fluid contact, in vivo corrosion was observed on these components due to sealing mechanism damage. Consequently, a corrosion circuit is created with the body fluids, resulting in malfunction of the lengthening mechanism. Particularly, the chloride ions in blood plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may corrode the MCGR alloys, possibly resulting in metal ion release in long-term use. However, there is no data available on the corrosion resistance of spinal implant alloys in CSF. In this study, an in vitro immersion configuration was designed to simulate in vivo corrosion of 440C SS-Ti6Al4V couples. The 440C stainless steel (SS) was heat-treated to investigate the effect of tempering temperature on intergranular corrosion (IGC), while crevice and galvanic corrosion were studied by limiting the clearance of dissimilar couples. Tests were carried out in a neutral artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under aeration and deaeration for 2 months. The composition of the passive films and metal ion release were analysed. The effect of galvanic coupling, pH, dissolved oxygen and anion species on corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms are discussed based on quantitative and qualitative measurements. The results suggest that ACSF is more aggressive than PBS due to the combination of aggressive chlorides and sulphate anions, while phosphate in PBS acts as an inhibitor to delay corrosion. The presence of Vivianite on the SS surface in PBS lowered the corrosion rate (CR) more than 5 times for aeration and nearly 2 times for deaeration, compared with ACSF. The CR of 440C is dependent on passive film properties varied by tempering temperature and anion species. Although the CR of Ti6Al4V is insignificant, it tends to release more Ti ions in deaerated ACSF than under aeration, about 6 µg/L. It seems the crevice-like design has more effect on macroscopic corrosion than combining the dissimilar couple, whereas IGC is dominantly observed on sensitized microstructure.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, magnetically controlled growing rods

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1904 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa


MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1903 Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. R. Phadatare, J. V. Meshram, S. H. Pawar


Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe₂O₄) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni₀.₅Zn₀.₅Fe₂O₄). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, surface functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic fluid hyperthermia, specific absorption rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
1902 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath


Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1901 Simscape Library for Large-Signal Physical Network Modeling of Inertial Microelectromechanical Devices

Authors: S. Srinivasan, E. Cretu


The information flow (e.g. block-diagram or signal flow graph) paradigm for the design and simulation of Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based systems allows to model MEMS devices using causal transfer functions easily, and interface them with electronic subsystems for fast system-level explorations of design alternatives and optimization. Nevertheless, the physical bi-directional coupling between different energy domains is not easily captured in causal signal flow modeling. Moreover, models of fundamental components acting as building blocks (e.g. gap-varying MEMS capacitor structures) depend not only on the component, but also on the specific excitation mode (e.g. voltage or charge-actuation). In contrast, the energy flow modeling paradigm in terms of generalized across-through variables offers an acausal perspective, separating clearly the physical model from the boundary conditions. This promotes reusability and the use of primitive physical models for assembling MEMS devices from primitive structures, based on the interconnection topology in generalized circuits. The physical modeling capabilities of Simscape have been used in the present work in order to develop a MEMS library containing parameterized fundamental building blocks (area and gap-varying MEMS capacitors, nonlinear springs, displacement stoppers, etc.) for the design, simulation and optimization of MEMS inertial sensors. The models capture both the nonlinear electromechanical interactions and geometrical nonlinearities and can be used for both small and large signal analyses, including the numerical computation of pull-in voltages (stability loss). Simscape behavioral modeling language was used for the implementation of reduced-order macro models, that present the advantage of a seamless interface with Simulink blocks, for creating hybrid information/energy flow system models. Test bench simulations of the library models compare favorably with both analytical results and with more in-depth finite element simulations performed in ANSYS. Separate MEMS-electronic integration tests were done on closed-loop MEMS accelerometers, where Simscape was used for modeling the MEMS device and Simulink for the electronic subsystem.

Keywords: across-through variables, electromechanical coupling, energy flow, information flow, Matlab/Simulink, MEMS, nonlinear, pull-in instability, reduced order macro models, Simscape

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1900 Sorption Properties of Biological Waste for Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Lucia Rozumová, Ivo Šafařík, Jana Seidlerová, Pavel Kůs


Biosorption by biological waste materials from agriculture industry could be a cost-effective technique for removing metal ions from wastewater. The performance of new biosorbent systems, consisting of the waste matrixes which were magnetically modified by iron oxide nanoparticles, for the removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution was tested. The use of low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods. This article deals with the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by modified waste products - orange peels, sawdust, peanuts husks, used tea leaves and ground coffee sediment. Magnetically modified waste materials were suspended in methanol and then was added ferrofluid (magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). This modification process gives the predictions for the formation of the smart materials with new properties. Prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and pore size analyzer. Studies were focused on the sorption and desorption properties. The changes of iron content in magnetically modified materials after treatment were observed as well. Adsorption process has been modelled by adsorption isotherms. The results show that magnetically modified materials during the dynamic sorption and desorption are stable at the high adsorbed amount of lead ions. The results of this study indicate that the biological waste materials as sorbent with new properties are highly effective for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: biological waste, sorption, metal ions, ferrofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1899 Design and Simulation High Sensitive MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor with Small Size for Glaucoma Treatment

Authors: Yadollah Hezarjaribi, Mahdie Yari Esboi


In this paper, a novel MEMS capacitive pressure sensor with small size and high sensitivity is presented. This sensor has the separated clamped square diaphragm and the movable plate. The diaphragm material is polysilicon. The movable and fixed plates and mechanical coupling are gold. The substrate and diaphragm are pyrex glass and polysilicon, respectively. In capacitive sensor the sensitivity is proportional to deflection and capacitance changes with pressure for this reason with this design is improved the capacitance and sensitivity with small size. This sensor is designed for low pressure between 0-60 mmHg that is used for medical application such as treatment of an incurable disease called glaucoma. The size of this sensor is 350×350 µm2 and the thickness of the diaphragm is 2µm with 1μ air gap. This structure is designed by intellisuite software. In this MEMS capacitive pressure sensor the sensor sensitivity, diaphragm mechanical sensitivity for polysilicon diaphragm are 0.0469Pf/mmHg, 0.011 μm/mmHg, respectively. According to the simulating results for low pressure, the structure with polysilicon diaphragm has more change of the displacement and capacitance, this leads to high sensitivity than other diaphragms.

Keywords: glaucoma, MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, square clamped diaphragm, polysilicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1898 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant


The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1897 Earphone Style Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service with Position Sensing

Authors: Dawei Cai


This paper describes a design of earphone style wearable device that may provide an automatic guidance service for visitors. With both position information and orientation information obtained from NFC and terrestrial magnetism sensor, a high level automatic guide service may be realized. To realize the service, a algorithm for position detection using the packet from NFC tags, and developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensors called as MEMS. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is only move to the object and stands for a moment. The identification program will automatically recognize the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content about the exhibit. This service should be useful for improving the understanding of the exhibition items and bring more satisfactory visiting experience without less burden.

Keywords: wearable device, MEMS sensor, ubiquitous computing, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
1896 Valonea Tannin Supported AgCl/ZnO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite, a Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance under Visible Light Irradiation

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


In the past few decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the photocatalysts for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. Many novel nanostructured photocatalysts for wastewater treatment have been investigated, such as TiO2 and, CdS, ZnO and silver halides (AgX, X = Cl, Br, I). The silver halides are photosensitive materials which can absorb photons in the visible region to produce electron–hole pairs. Silver halides are expensive that restricts their applications in large-scale photocatalytic processes. Tannin contains hydroxyl functional groups, it was employed as a modifier to improve the surface properties and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon towards the metal cations uptake. In this work, we designed a new structure of magnetically separable photocatalyst that combines AgCl/ZnO nanoparticles with Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on tannin, which was denoted as (AgI/ZnO)-Fe3O4/Tannin. The as-prepared products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalyst exhibited high activity degrading a textile dye under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

Keywords: AgI/ZnO-Fe3O4/Tannin, visible light, magnetically separable, photocatalyst

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1895 Microswitches with Sputtered Au, Aupd, Au-on-Aupt, and Auptcu Alloy. Electric Contacts

Authors: Nikolay Konukhov


This paper to report on a new analytic model for predicting microcontact resistance and the design, fabrication, and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches with sputtered bimetallic (i.e., gold (Au)-on-Au-platinum (Pt), (Au-on-Au-(6.3at%)Pt)), binary alloy (i.e., Au-palladium (Pd), (Au-(3.7at%)Pd)), and ternary alloy (i.e., Au-Pt-copper (Cu), (Au-(5.0at%)Pt-(0.5at%)Cu)) electric contacts. The microswitches with bimetallic and binary alloy contacts resulted in contact resistance values between 1–2

Keywords: alloys, electric contacts, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microswitch

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1894 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat


Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1893 Magnetophotonics 3D MEMS/NEMS System for Quantitative Mitochondrial DNA Defect Profiling

Authors: Dar-Bin Shieh, Gwo-Bin Lee, Chen-Ming Chang, Chen Sheng Yeh, Chih-Chia Huang, Tsung-Ju Li


Mitochondrial defects have a significant impact in many human diseases and aging associated phenotypes. The pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are diverse and usually present as heteroplasmic. mtDNA 4977bps deletion is one of the common mtDNA defects, and the ratio of mutated versus normal copy is significantly associated with clinical symptoms thus their quantitative detection has become an important unmet needs for advanced disease diagnosis and therapeutic guidelines. This study revealed a Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) enabled automatic microfluidic chip that only required minimal sample. The system integrated multiple laboratory operation steps into a Lab-on-a-Chip for high-sensitive and prompt measurement. The entire process including magnetic nanoparticle based mtDNA extraction in chip, mutation selective photonic DNA cleavage, and nanoparticle accelerated photonic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All subsystems were packed inside a miniature three-dimensional micro structured system and operated in an automatic manner. Integration of magnetic beads with microfluidic transportation could promptly extract and enrich the specific mtDNA. The near infrared responsive magnetic nanoparticles enabled micro-PCR to be operated by pulse-width-modulation controlled laser pulsing to amplify the desired mtDNA while quantified by fluorescence intensity captured by a complementary metal oxide system array detector. The proportions of pathogenic mtDNA in total DNA were thus obtained. Micro capillary electrophoresis module was used to analyze the amplicone products. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a new magnetophotonic based qPCR MEMS system that successfully detects and quantify specific disease related DNA mutations thus provides a promising future for rapid diagnosis of mitochondria diseases.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, micro-electro-mechanical-system, magnetophotonics, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
1892 Developement of a New Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service

Authors: Dawei Cai


In this paper, we present a new wearable device that provide an automatic guidance servie for visitors. By combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor, the head's direction can be calculated. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: wearable device, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS sensor, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1891 Preparation of Superparamagnetic Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetically Separable Catalysis

Authors: Priya Arora, Jaspreet K. Rajput


Superparamagnetism has accelerated the research and use of more economical and ecological magnetically separable catalysts due to their more efficient isolation by response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetite nanomaterials coated by SiO2 shell have received a great deal of focus in the last decades as it provides high stability and also easy further surface functionalization depending upon the application. In this protocol, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation combined with sonication method. Further, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized by various moieties to serve as efficient catalysts for multicomponent reactions. The functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The as prepared nanocatalysts can be reused for several times without any significant loss in its activity. The utilization of magnetic nanoparticles as catalysts for this reaction is one approach i.e. green, inexpensive, facile and widely applicable.

Keywords: functionalized, magnetite, multicomponent reactions, superparamagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1890 Simplified INS\GPS Integration Algorithm in Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh


Land vehicle navigation is subject of great interest today. Global Positioning System (GPS) is the main navigation system for positioning in such systems. GPS alone is incapable of providing continuous and reliable positioning, because of its inherent dependency on external electromagnetic signals. Inertial Navigation (INS) is the implementation of inertial sensors to determine the position and orientation of a vehicle. The availability of low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) inertial sensors is now making it feasible to develop INS using an inertial measurement unit (IMU). INS has unbounded error growth since the error accumulates at each step. Usually, GPS and INS are integrated with a loosely coupled scheme. With the development of low-cost, MEMS inertial sensors and GPS technology, integrated INS/GPS systems are beginning to meet the growing demands of lower cost, smaller size, and seamless navigation solutions for land vehicles. Although MEMS inertial sensors are very inexpensive compared to conventional sensors, their cost (especially MEMS gyros) is still not acceptable for many low-end civilian applications (for example, commercial car navigation or personal location systems). An efficient way to reduce the expense of these systems is to reduce the number of gyros and accelerometers, therefore, to use a partial IMU (ParIMU) configuration. For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach, we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, IMU, Kalman filter, materials engineering

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1889 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan


The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

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1888 Controlled Growth of Au Hierarchically Ordered Crystals Architectures for Electrochemical Detection of Traces of Molecules

Authors: P. Bauer, K. Mougin, V. Vignal, A. Buch, P. Ponthiaux, D. Faye


Nowadays, noble metallic nanostructures with unique morphology are widely used as new sensors due to their fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties. Among various shapes, dendritic nanostructures have attracted much attention because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity and special texture with sharp tips and nanoscale junctions. Several methods have been developed to fabricate those specific structures such as electrodeposition, photochemical way, seed-mediated growth or wet chemical method. The present study deals with a novel approach for a controlled growth pattern-directed organisation of Au flower-like crystals (NFs) deposited onto stainless steel plates to achieve large-scale functional surfaces. This technique consists in the deposition of a soft nanoporous template on which Au NFs are grown by electroplating and seed-mediated method. Size, morphology, and interstructure distance have been controlled by a site selective nucleation process. Dendritic Au nanostructures have appeared as excellent Raman-active candidates due to the presence of very sharp tips of multi-branched Au nanoparticles that leads to a large local field enhancement and a good SERS sensitivity. In addition, these structures have also been used as electrochemical sensors to detect traces of molecules present in a solution. A correlation of the number of active sites on the surface and the current charge by both colorimetric method and cyclic voltammetry of gold structures have allowed a calibration of the system. This device represents a first step for the fabrication of MEMs platform that could ultimately be integrated into a lab-on-chip system. It also opens pathways to several technologically large-scale nanomaterials fabrication such as hierarchically ordered crystal architectures for sensor applications.

Keywords: dendritic, electroplating, gold, template

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