Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Nuray Güy

16 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk

Abstract:

In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

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15 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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14 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber

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13 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar

Abstract:

Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

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12 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek

Abstract:

Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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11 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

Abstract:

The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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10 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran

Abstract:

The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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9 Valonea Tannin Supported AgCl/ZnO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite, a Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance under Visible Light Irradiation

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar

Abstract:

In the past few decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the photocatalysts for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. Many novel nanostructured photocatalysts for wastewater treatment have been investigated, such as TiO2 and, CdS, ZnO and silver halides (AgX, X = Cl, Br, I). The silver halides are photosensitive materials which can absorb photons in the visible region to produce electron–hole pairs. Silver halides are expensive that restricts their applications in large-scale photocatalytic processes. Tannin contains hydroxyl functional groups, it was employed as a modifier to improve the surface properties and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon towards the metal cations uptake. In this work, we designed a new structure of magnetically separable photocatalyst that combines AgCl/ZnO nanoparticles with Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on tannin, which was denoted as (AgI/ZnO)-Fe3O4/Tannin. The as-prepared products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalyst exhibited high activity degrading a textile dye under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

Keywords: AgI/ZnO-Fe3O4/Tannin, visible light, magnetically separable, photocatalyst

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8 [Keynote Talk]: Morphological Analysis of Continuous Graphene Oxide Fibers Incorporated with Carbon Nanotube and MnCl₂

Authors: Nuray Ucar, Pelin Altay, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek

Abstract:

Graphene oxide fibers have recently received increasing attention due to their excellent properties such as high specific surface area, high mechanical strength, good thermal properties and high electrical conductivity. They have shown notable potential in various applications including batteries, sensors, filtration and separation and wearable electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties and can be used together with graphene oxide fibers for several application areas such as lithium ion batteries, wearable electronics, etc. Metals salts that can be converted into metal ions and metal oxide can be also used for several application areas such as battery, purification natural gas, filtration, absorption. This study investigates the effects of CNT and metal complex compounds (MnCl₂, metal salts) on the morphological structure of graphene oxide fibers. The graphene oxide dispersion was manufactured by modified Hummers method, and continuous graphene oxide fibers were produced with wet spinning. The CNT and MnCl₂ were incorporated into the coagulation baths during wet spinning process. Produced composite continuous fibers were analyzed with SEM, SEM-EDS and AFM microscopies and as spun fiber counts were measured.

Keywords: continuous graphene oxide fiber, Hummers' method, CNT, MnCl₂

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7 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-[[4-(Dimethylamino)Benzylidene] Amino]Phenol) in Organic Medium: Investigation of Thermal Stability, Conductivity, and Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Nuray Yilmaz Baran, Mehmet Saçak

Abstract:

Schiff base polymers are one class of conjugated polymers, also called as poly(azomethines). They have drawn the attention of researchers in recent years due to their some properties such as, optoelectronic, semiconductive, and photovoltaic, antimicrobial activities and high thermal stability. In this study, Poly(2-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino] phenol) P(2-DBAP), which is a Schiff base polymer, was synthesized by an oxidative polycondensation reaction of -[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (2-DBAP) with oxidants NaOCl, H₂O₂ and O₂ in various organic medium. At the end of the polymerizations carried out at various temperatures and time, maximum conversion of the monomer to the polymer could be obtained as around 93.7 %. The structures of the monomer and polymer were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and ¹HNMR techniques. Thermal analysis of the polymer was identified by TG-DTG and DTA techniques, and the thermal degradation behavior was supported by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymer were found to be 26337, 9860 g/mol 2.67, respectively. The change of electrical conductivity value of the P(2-DBAP) doped with iodine vapor at different temperatures and time was investigated its maximum was measured by increasing 10¹⁰ fold as 2 x10⁻⁴ Scm⁻¹ after doping for 48 h at 60 °C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of P(2-DBAP) Schiff base and its polymer were also investigated against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

Keywords: conductive properties, polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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6 Optimization of DLLME Extraction Parameters for Pesticides Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Ezgi Altiparmak, Emine Yilmaz, Filiz Dadaser-Celik, Nuray Ates

Abstract:

Pesticides have been used widely all over the world for centuries to increase agricultural production and to combat harmful pests. Pesticides used for agriculture, household, and public health sectors eventually reach water bodies, posing a risk to human health and the environment even in micro concentrations. Each country legally sets its own maximum allowable limits to regulate pesticides residues. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor pesticide residues in water resources, especially if they are used for drinking water purposes. With the technological developments, nowadays, sensitive analytical instruments employing complex analysis methods such as GC/MS and LC/MS have been used to analyze pesticides. Pesticide residues must be concentrated by different extraction methods before HPLC analysis to be able to detect them in micro levels with high precision and low detection limits. The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for the analysis of metolachlor and acetochlor pesticides by HPLC instrument with dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method. In order to determine optimum conditions for DLLME extraction method, extraction solvent type (chloroform, dichloromethane, and 1,2 dichloroethane), dispersive solvent type (acetonitrile, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol), flowrate (1, 1.2, and 1.5 ml/min), oven temperature (20°C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C), the volume of extraction solvent (300, 350 and 400 µl), and mobile phase mixture (60/40, 70/30 and 80/20 acetonitrile/water in v/v) were comprehensively investigated with Taguchi experimental design. The optimized conditions were obtained as extraction solvent of 1,2-dichloroethane, the dispersive solvent of methanol, extraction solvent volume of 350 µL, the dispersive volume of 1 ml, the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, the temperature of 40 °C, and mobile phase mixture of 70/30 v/v.

Keywords: analysis, DLLME, HPLC, optimization, pesticides, taguchi experimental design

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5 A Qualitative Exploration into Australian Muslims Emerging into Adulthood

Authors: Nuray Okcum, Jenny Sharples

Abstract:

While the scrutinization towards marginalized groups throughout the globe has been existent for decades, prejudice towards Muslims in Western countries has been increasing dramatically. The vicious attacks across the globe by perpetrators who identify with Islam as well as popular political discourse by politicians in Western countries claiming and portraying Muslims as being dangerous, oppressed, or lacking the ability to assimilate into the community, adds to the exclusion and lack of belonging Muslims living in Western countries experience. The early stages of adulthood which have recently been conceptualized as emerging adulthood is a critical and socially ambiguous transition. For a young Muslim emerging into adulthood in a Western country, a variety of different challenges and demands that can exceed their coping abilities can arise. While in search for their identity and in a bid to structure themselves with their past childhood experiences together with their newly forming values, the emerging adult may attempt to direct or change the way in which they are viewed by others. This can be done to gain approval from others and to feel a sense of belonging. A change in the emerging adult’s interpersonal interactions and relationships, the way in which they view themselves and others, their sense of belonging, and their identity, also occurs during this developmental stage. To explore the manner in which Muslims emerging into adulthood carve their identity, their experiences, and representation of their Muslim identity, social identification, and their sense of belonging in Australia, an interpretative phenomenological methodology was utilized. This allowed participants to offer their own subjective experiences. A total of eight emerging adults took part in the study whilst four adults who work with emerging adults took part. Adult participants who work with emerging adults took part in the study to bring forth their insight and experiences. Common experiences were organized into themes. Themes included identifying as a Muslim, social identification, and belonging. Identification included visual identification and name, discrimination and resilience. Findings clearly indicated that Muslims emerging into adulthood in Australia do face various hurdles while they try to retain and represent their religious identity. Despite the unique challenges that they face, they still feel a sense of belonging and identity as being Australian.

Keywords: Muslim, Islam, emerging adulthood, Australia

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4 The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy with Ethernet-Based Videos on Cognition and Apathy in Elderly with Mild Dementia

Authors: Ayse Inel Manav, Nuray Simsek

Abstract:

The number of people with dementia and the problems that are experienced by these people are increasing along with aging world population. This study was carried out to assess the effects of reminiscence therapy using internet videos on the cognitive condition and apathy levels of elderly people who had mild dementia and lived in nursing homes. This randomly controlled experimental study was conducted between 25 May-25 August 2016 in the nursing home, elderly care and rehabilitation centers in Adana and Seyhan, Turkey. A total of 32 individuals participated in this study, 16 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group. Data were collected using a personal information form developed on the basis of the published literature, the Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) and the Apathy Rating Scale (ARS). The Clinical Research Ethics Committee's approval, written institutional permission, and the written consent of the participants were obtained before data collection. The individuals in the experimental group received reminiscence therapy using internet videos for 60 minutes one day a week for three months. During the same period, 25-30 minutes of unstructured interviews on subjects unrelated to reminiscence were carried out with individuals in the control group. The SMMT and ARS were administered before the applications in the experimental group and at the end of the third month. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, and frequencies) as well as Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon's signed ranks test. In this study, the total SMMT post-test scores of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). There was a difference between experimental and control groups' total SMMT post-test scores (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). The experimental group's ARS total post-test scores were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). This study found that group reminiscence therapy using internet videos improved the cognitive functions and apathy levels of elderly individuals with mild dementia.

Keywords: apaty, cognitive testing, dementia, elderly, reminisence threapy

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3 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption

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2 The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control and Historical Realities

Authors: Nuray Ocakli

Abstract:

19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.

Keywords: Mahmudiyye anthem, musical code, national anthem, Ottoman Empire, royal anthem

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1 Analyzing the Websites of Institutions Publishing Global Rankings of Universities: A Usability Study

Authors: Nuray Baltaci, Kursat Cagiltay

Abstract:

University rankings which can be seen as nouveau topic are at the center of focus and followed closely by different parties. Students are interested in university rankings in order to make informed decisions about the selection of their candidate future universities. University administrators and academicians can utilize them to see and evaluate their universities’ relative performance compared to other institutions in terms of including but not limited to academic, economic, and international outlook issues. Local institutions may use those ranking systems, as TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) and YOK (Council of Higher Education) do in Turkey, to support students and give scholarships when they want to apply for undergraduate and graduate studies abroad. When it is considered that the ranking systems are concerned by this many different parties, the importance of having clear, easy to use and well-designed websites by ranking institutions will be apprehended. In this paper, a usability study for the websites of four different global university ranking institutions, namely Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), Times Higher Education, QS and University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), was conducted. User-based approach was adopted and usability tests were conducted with 10 graduate students at Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. Before performing the formal usability tests, a pilot study had been completed to reflect the necessary changes to the settings of the study. Participants’ demographics, task completion times, paths traced to complete tasks, and their satisfaction levels on each task and website were collected. According to the analyses of the collected data, those ranking websites were compared in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction dimensions of usability as pointed in ISO 9241-11. Results showed that none of the selected ranking websites is superior to other ones in terms of overall effectiveness and efficiency of the website. However the only remarkable result was that the highest average task completion times for two of the designed tasks belong to the Times Higher Education Rankings website. Evaluation of the user satisfaction on each task and each website produced slightly different but rather similar results. When the satisfaction levels of the participants on each task are examined, it was seen that the highest scores belong to ARWU and URAP websites. The overall satisfaction levels of the participants for each website showed that the URAP website has highest score followed by ARWU website. In addition, design problems and powerful design features of those websites reported by the participants are presented in the paper. Since the study mainly tackles about the design problems of the URAP website, the focus is on this website. Participants reported 3 main design problems about the website which are unaesthetic and unprofessional design style of the website, improper map location on ranking pages, and improper listing of the field names on field ranking page.

Keywords: university ranking, user-based approach, website usability, design

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