Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5586

Search results for: mechanical stress

5586 Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: Erhan Çetin, Ali Kurşun, Şafak Aksoy, Merve Tunay Çetin

Abstract:

The closed form study deal with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and termomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.

Keywords: bi-material discs, elastic stress analysis, mechanical loads, rotating discs

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5585 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang

Abstract:

The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
5584 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim

Abstract:

Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5583 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
5582 Photoelastic Analysis of the Proximal Femur in Deviations of the Mechanical Axis of the Lower Limb

Authors: S. F. Fakhouri, M.M. Shimano, D. Maranho, C. A. Araújo, M. V. Guimarães, A. C. Shimano, J. B. Volpon

Abstract:

Pathological deviations of the mechanical axis of the lower limbs deeply alter the stress distributions on the femur and tibia and the hip, knee, and ankle articulations. The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of pathological deviations in different levels of the lower limbs in the distribution of stress in the proximal femur region using photoelasticity of plane transmission. For most of the types of deviations studied, the results showed that the internal stress was generally higher in the calcar region than in the trochanteric region, followed by the third distal of the femur head. This study allowed for the development of better criteria for the correction of angular deviations and helped identify the deviations that are most harmful to the mechanical axis in terms of the effects on the bone and the articular effort of the lower limbs. These results will lead to future improvements in studies on prostheses.

Keywords: alignment, deviations, inferior limbs, mechanical axis, photoelasticity, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5581 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju

Abstract:

316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
5580 Bi-Axial Stress Effects on Barkhausen-Noise

Authors: G. Balogh, I. A. Szabó, P.Z. Kovács

Abstract:

Mechanical stress has a strong effect on the magnitude of the Barkhausen-noise in structural steels. Because the measurements are performed at the surface of the material, for a sample sheet, the full effect can be described by a biaxial stress field. The measured Barkhausen-noise is dependent on the orientation of the exciting magnetic field relative to the axis of the stress tensor. The sample inhomogenities including the residual stress also modifies the angular dependence of the measured Barkhausen-noise. We have developed a laboratory device with a cross like specimen for bi-axial bending. The measuring head allowed performing excitations in two orthogonal directions. We could excite the two directions independently or simultaneously with different amplitudes. The simultaneous excitation of the two coils could be performed in phase or with a 90 degree phase shift. In principle this allows to measure the Barkhausen-noise at an arbitrary direction without moving the head, or to measure the Barkhausen-noise induced by a rotating magnetic field if a linear superposition of the two fields can be assumed.

Keywords: Barkhausen-noise, bi-axial stress, stress measuring, stress dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
5579 A Two-Dimensional Problem Micropolar Thermoelastic Medium under the Effect of Laser Irradiation and Distributed Sources

Authors: Devinder Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with the deformation of micropolar generalized thermoelastic solid subjected to thermo-mechanical loading due to a thermal laser pulse. Laplace transform and Fourier transform techniques are used to solve the problem. Thermo-mechanical laser interactions are taken as distributed sources to describe the application of the approach. The closed form expressions of normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are obtained in the domain. Numerical inversion technique of Laplace transform and Fourier transform has been implied to obtain the resulting quantities in the physical domain after developing a computer program. The normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are depicted graphically to show the effect of relaxation times. Some particular cases of interest are deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: pulse laser, integral transform, thermoelastic, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
5578 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
5577 Influence of Chemical Processing Treatment on Handle Properties of Worsted Suiting Fabric

Authors: Priyanka Lokhande, Ram P. Sawant, Ganesh Kakad, Avinash Kolhatkar

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the influence of chemical processing on low-stress mechanical properties and fabric hand of worsted cloth, eight worsted suiting fabric samples of balance plain and twill weave were studied. The Kawabata KES-FB system has been used for the measurement of low-stress mechanical properties of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics. Primary hand values and Total Hand Values (THV) of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics were calculated using the KES-FB test data. Upon statistical analysis, it is observed that chemical processing has considerable influence on the low-stress mechanical properties and thereby on handle properties of worsted suiting fabrics. Improvement in the Total Hand Values (THV) after chemical processing is experienced in most of fabric samples.

Keywords: low stress mechanical properties, plain and twill weave, total hand value (THV), worsted suiting fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
5576 Stress Corrosion Cracking, Parameters Affecting It, Problems Caused by It and Suggested Methods for Treatment: State of the Art

Authors: Adnan Zaid

Abstract:

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) may be defined as a degradation of the mechanical properties of a material under the combined action of a tensile stress and corrosive environment of the susceptible material. It is a harmful phenomenon which might cause catastrophic fracture without a sign of prior warning. In this paper, the stress corrosion cracking, SCC, process, the parameters affecting it, and the different damages caused by it are given and discussed. Utilization of shot peening as a mean of enhancing the resistance of materials to SCC is given and discussed. Finally, a method for improving materials resistance to SCC by grain refining its structure by some refining elements prior to usage is suggested.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, parameters, damages, treatment methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5575 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
5574 Prediction of Fracture Aperture in Fragmented Rocks

Authors: Hossein Agheshlui, Stephan Matthai

Abstract:

In fractured rock masses open fractures tend to act as the main pathways of fluid flow. The permeability of a rock fracture depends on its aperture. The change of aperture with stress can cause a many-orders-of-magnitude change in the hydraulic conductivity at moderate compressive stress levels. In this study, the change of aperture in fragmented rocks is investigated using finite element analysis. A full 3D mechanical model of a simplified version of an outcrop analog is created and studied. A constant initial aperture value is applied to all fractures. Different far field stresses are applied and the change of aperture is monitored considering the block to block interaction. The fragmented rock layer is assumed to be sandwiched between softer layers. Frictional contact forces are defined at the layer boundaries as well as among contacting rock blocks. For a given in situ stress, the blocks slide and contact each other, resulting in new aperture distributions. A map of changed aperture is produced after applying the in situ stress and compared to the initial apertures. Subsequently, the permeability of the system before and after the stress application is compared.

Keywords: fractured rocks, mechanical model, aperture change due to stress, frictional interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5573 The Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of DC-Electrodeposited Ni-Mn Alloy Coating with Low Internal Stress

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kuan-Hui Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu

Abstract:

The nickel-manganese (Ni-Mn) alloy coating prepared from DC electrodeposition process in sulphamate bath was studied. The effects of process parameters, such as current density and electrolyte composition, on the cathodic current efficiency, microstructure, internal stress and mechanical properties were investigated. Because of its crucial effect on the application to the electroforming of microelectronic components, the development of low internal stress coating with high leveling power was emphasized. It was found that both the coating’s manganese content and the cathodic current efficiency increased with the raise in current density. In addition, the internal stress of the deposited coating showed compressive nature at low current densities while changed to tensile one at higher current densities. Moreover, the metallographic observation, X-ray diffraction measurement, transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, and polarization curve measurement were conducted. It was found that the Ni-Mn coating consisted of nano-sized columnar grains and the maximum hardness of the coating was associated with (111) preferred orientation in the microstructure. The grain size was refined along with the increase in the manganese content of the coating, which accordingly, raised its hardness and mechanical tensile strength. In summary, the Ni-Mn coating prepared at lower current density of 1-2 A/dm2 had low internal stress, high leveling power, and better corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Ni-Mn coating, DC plating, internal stress, leveling power

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5572 Micromechanical Investigation on the Influence of Thermal Stress on Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Authors: Arber Sejdiji, Jan Schmitz-Huebsch, Christian Mittelstedt

Abstract:

Due to its use in a broad range of temperatures, the prediction of elastic properties of fiber composite materials under thermal load is significant. Especially the transversal stiffness dominates the potential of use for fiber-reinforced composites (FRC). A numerical study on the influence of thermal stress on transversal stiffness of fiber-reinforced composites is presented. In the numerical study, a representative volume element (RVE) is used to estimate the elastic properties of a unidirectional ply with finite element method (FEM). For the investigation, periodic boundary conditions are applied to the RVE. Firstly, the elastic properties under pure mechanical load are derived numerically and compared to results, which are obtained by analytical methods. Thereupon thermo-mechanical load is implemented into the model to investigate the influence of temperature change with low temperature as a key aspect. Regarding low temperatures, the transversal stiffness increases intensely, especially when thermal stress is dominant over mechanical stress. This paper outlines the employed numerical methods as well as the derived results.

Keywords: elastic properties, micromechanics, thermal stress, representative volume element

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5571 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
5570 The Effect of Combined Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Stretch on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Daphne Meza, Louie Abejar, David A. Rubenstein, Wei Yin

Abstract:

Endothelial cell (ECs) morphology and function is highly impacted by the mechanical stresses these cells experience in vivo. Any change in the mechanical environment can trigger pathological EC responses. A detailed understanding of EC morphological response and function upon subjection to individual and simultaneous mechanical stimuli is needed for advancement in mechanobiology and preventive medicine. To investigate this, a programmable device capable of simultaneously applying physiological fluid shear stress (FSS) and cyclic strain (CS) has been developed, characterized and validated. Its validation was performed both experimentally, through tracer tracking, and theoretically, through the use of a computational fluid dynamics model. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated through EC morphology changes under mechanical loading conditions. Changes in cell morphology were evaluated through: cell and nucleus elongation, cell alignment and junctional actin production. The results demonstrated that the combined FSS-CS stimulation induced visible changes in EC morphology. Upon simultaneous fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain stimulation, cells were elongated and generally aligned with the flow direction, with stress fibers highlighted along the cell junctions. The concurrent stimulation from shear stress and biaxial cyclic stretch led to a significant increase in cell elongation compared to untreated cells. This, however, was significantly lower than that induced by shear stress alone, indicating that the biaxial tensile strain may counteract the elongating effect of shear stress to maintain the shape of ECs. A similar trend was seen in alignment, where the alignment induced by the concurrent application of shear stress and cyclic stretch fell in between that induced by shear stress and tensile stretch alone, indicating the opposite role shear stress and tensile strain may play in cell alignment. Junctional actin accumulation was increased upon shear stress alone or simultaneously with tensile stretch. Tensile stretch alone did not change junctional actin accumulation, indicating the dominant role of shear stress in damaging EC junctions. These results demonstrate that the shearing-stretching device is capable of applying well characterized dynamic shear stress and tensile strain to cultured ECs. Using this device, EC response to altered mechanical environment in vivo can be characterized in vitro.

Keywords: cyclic stretch, endothelial cells, fluid shear stress, vascular biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
5569 Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Rotating Disks Containing 3D Semi-Elliptical Cracks

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Initiation and propagation of cracks may cause catastrophic failures in rotating disks, and hence determination of fracture parameter in rotating disks under the different working condition is very important issue. In this paper, a comprehensive study of stress intensity factors in rotating disks containing 3D semi-elliptical cracks under the different working condition is investigated. In this regard, after verification of modeling and analytical procedure, the effects of mechanical properties, rotational velocity, and orientation of cracks on Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) in rotating disks under centrifugal loading are investigated. Also, the effects of using composite patch in reduction of SIF in rotating disks are studied. By that way, the effects of patching design variables like mechanical properties, thickness, and ply angle are investigated individually.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, semi-elliptical crack, rotating disk, finite element analysis (FEA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5568 Identification of High Stress Regions in Proximal Femur During Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: Hossein Kheirollahi, Yunhua Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
5567 Stability of the Wellhead in the Seabed in One of the Marine Reservoirs of Iran

Authors: Mahdi Aghaei, Saeid Jamshidi, Mastaneh Hajipour

Abstract:

Effective factors on the mechanical wellbore stability are divided in to two categories: 1) Controllable factors, 2) Uncontrollable factors. The purpose of geo-mechanical modeling of wells is to determine the limit of controlled parameters change based on the stress regime at each point and by solving the governing equations the pore-elastic environment around the well. In this research, the mechanical analysis of wellbore stability was carried out for Soroush oilfield. For this purpose, the geo-mechanical model of the field is made using available data. This model provides the necessary parameters for obtaining the distribution of stress around the wellbore. Initially, a basic model was designed to perform various analysis, based on obtained data, using Abaqus software. All of the subsequent sensitivity analysis such as sensitivity analysis on porosity, permeability, etc. was done on the same basic model. The results obtained from these analysis gives various result such as: with the constant geomechanical parameters, and sensitivity analysis on porosity permeability is ineffective. After the most important parameters affecting the wellbore stability and instability are geo-mechanical parameters.

Keywords: wellbore stability, movement, stress, instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
5566 Stress Concentration Trend for Combined Loading Conditions

Authors: Aderet M. Pantierer, Shmuel Pantierer, Raphael Cordina, Yougashwar Budhoo

Abstract:

Stress concentration occurs when there is an abrupt change in geometry, a mechanical part under loading. These changes in geometry can include holes, notches, or cracks within the component. The modifications create larger stress within the part. This maximum stress is difficult to determine, as it is directly at the point of the minimum area. Strain gauges have yet to be developed to analyze stresses at such minute areas. Therefore, a stress concentration factor must be utilized. The stress concentration factor is a dimensionless parameter calculated solely on the geometry of a part. The factor is multiplied by the nominal, or average, stress of the component, which can be found analytically or experimentally. Stress concentration graphs exist for common loading conditions and geometrical configurations to aid in the determination of the maximum stress a part can withstand. These graphs were developed from historical data yielded from experimentation. This project seeks to verify a stress concentration graph for combined loading conditions. The aforementioned graph was developed using CATIA Finite Element Analysis software. The results of this analysis will be validated through further testing. The 3D modeled parts will be subjected to further finite element analysis using Patran-Nastran software. The finite element models will then be verified by testing physical specimen using a tensile testing machine. Once the data is validated, the unique stress concentration graph will be submitted for publication so it can aid engineers in future projects.

Keywords: stress concentration, finite element analysis, finite element models, combined loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5565 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana

Abstract:

Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5564 A Study on Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Denim Fabric for Hand Evaluation

Authors: S. P. Raut, S. K. Soni, A. W. Kolhatkar

Abstract:

Denim is widely used by every age of people all over the world. As the use of denim is increasing progressively, till now the handle properties of denim fabric not reported at significant level. In the present study, five commercial denim fabric samples were used. Denim samples, weighing from 8.5oz/sq yds to 14.5 oz/sq yds, were processed as per standard commercial procedure for denim finishing. These finished denim samples were tested on Kawabata Evaluation System(KES) for low stress mechanical properties. The results of KES values are used for calculation of Total Hand value(THV) using equation for summer suit. The obtained result for THV using equation for summer suit for denim samples is in the range from 1.62 to 3.30. These values of low stress mechanical properties values given by KES, can be used to engineer the denim fabric for bottom wear.

Keywords: denim, handle value, Kawabata evaluation system, objective evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5563 Experimental Study on Post-Fire Mechanical Properties of S235 Steel

Authors: Mahyar Maali, Merve Sagiroglu, Mahmut Kilic, Abdulkadir Cuneyt Aydin

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the residual strength of S235 (St37) steel structures after the fire, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the post-fire mechanical properties. Tensile coupons taken from S235 sheets were exposed to varying temperatures as 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800 °C. The samples were then allowed to cool down to ambient temperature before they were tested to failure. To obtain the mechanical properties of steels; tensile tests are performed, and the post-fire stress-strain curves are evaluated. The microstructures of the heat-treated specimens were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is seen that morphology and size of the precipitates in the specimens change, as the heat increases. The modulus of elasticity decreases, and deformation increases with temperature. Energy dissipation decreases due to lower stress according to the stress-strain curves of the specimens. Especially, the mechanical properties were decreased compared with the pre-fire ones. As a result of the post-fire and pre-fire behavior of S235, a set of equations is evaluated to predict the mechanical properties after the fire. These types of equations may allow the structural and/or fire engineers to predict accurately the post-fire behavior of the buildings constructed with S235 type steel.

Keywords: post-fire behavior, stress-strain curves, experimental study, S235 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
5562 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
5561 Stress Analysis of a Pressurizer in a Pressurized Water Reactor Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Tanvir Hasan, Minhaz Uddin, Anwar Sadat Anik

Abstract:

A pressurizer is a safety-related reactor component that maintains the reactor operating pressure to guarantee safety. Its structure is usually made of high thermal and pressure resistive material. The mechanical structure of these components should be maintained in all working settings, including transient to severe accidents conditions. The goal of this study is to examine the structural integrity and stress of the pressurizer in order to ensure its design integrity towards transient situations. For this, the finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the mechanical stress on pressurizer components in this research. ANSYS MECHANICAL tool was used to analyze a 3D model of the pressurizer. The material for the body and safety relief nozzle is selected as low alloy steel i.e., SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.2. The model was put into ANSYS WORKBENCH and run under the boundary conditions of (internal Pressure, -17.2 MPa, inside radius, -1348mm, the thickness of the shell, -127mm, and the ratio of the outside radius to an inside radius, - 1.059). The theoretical calculation was done using the formulas and then the results were compared with the simulated results. When stimulated at design conditions, the findings revealed that the pressurizer stress analysis completely fulfilled the ASME standards.

Keywords: pressurizer, stress analysis, finite element method, nuclear reactor

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5560 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
5559 Promotion of Lipid Syntheses of Microalgae by Microfluidic-Assisted Membrane Distortion

Authors: Seul Ki Min, Gwang Heum Yoon, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Cellular membrane distortion is known as a factor to change intracellular signaling. However, progress of relevant studies is difficult because there are no facilities that can control membrane distortion finely. In this study, we developed microfluidic device which can inflict mechanical stress on cell membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using regular height of the channels. And cellular physiological changes were analyzed from cells cultured in the device. Excessive calcium ion influx through into cytoplasm was induced from mechanical stress. The results revealed that compressed cells had up-regulated Mat3 mRNA which regulates cell size and cell cycle from a prolonged G1 phase. Additionally, TAG used for the production of biodiesel was raised rapidly from 4 h after compression. Taken together, membrane distortion can be considered as an attractive inducer for biofuel production.

Keywords: mechanical stress, membrane distortion, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, deflagellation, cell cycle, lipid metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
5558 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir

Abstract:

This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems. Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plate, crack, failure

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5557 A Comparative Study of the Effects of Vibratory Stress Relief and Thermal Aging on the Residual Stress of Explosives Materials

Authors: Xuemei Yang, Xin Sun, Cheng Fu, Qiong Lan, Chao Han

Abstract:

Residual stresses, which can be produced during the manufacturing process of plastic bonded explosive (PBX), play an important role in weapon system security and reliability. Residual stresses can and do change in service. This paper mainly studies the influence of vibratory stress relief (VSR) and thermal aging on residual stress of explosives. Firstly, the residual stress relaxation of PBX via different physical condition of VSR, such as vibration time, amplitude and dynamic strain, were studied by drill-hole technique. The result indicated that the vibratory amplitude, time and dynamic strain had a significant influence on the residual stress relief of PBX. The rate of residual stress relief of PBX increases first and then decreases with the increase of dynamic strain, amplitude and time, because the activation energy is too small to make the PBX yield plastic deformation at first. Then the dynamic strain, time and amplitude exceed a certain threshold, the residual stress changes show the same rule and decrease sharply, this sharply drop of residual stress relief rate may have been caused by over vibration. Meanwhile, the comparison between VSR and thermal aging was also studied. The conclusion is that the reduction ratio of residual stress after VSR process with applicable vibratory parameters could be equivalent to 73% of thermal aging with 7 days. In addition, the density attenuation rate, mechanical property, and dimensional stability with 3 months after VSR process was almost the same compared with thermal aging. However, compared with traditional thermal aging, VSR only takes a very short time, which greatly improves the efficiency of aging treatment for explosive materials. Therefore, the VSR could be a potential alternative technique in the industry of residual stress relaxation of PBX explosives.

Keywords: explosives, residual stresses, thermal aging, vibratory stress relief, VSR

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