Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: ferrofluid

12 Thermomagnetic Convection of a Ferrofluid in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field Induced a Current Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Peter Woodfield, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao


Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed and experimentally tested. To show this phenomenon, the temperature rise of a hot wire, immersed in DIW and Ferrofluid, as a result of joule heating has been measured using a transient hot-wire technique. When current is applied to the wire, a temperature gradient is imposed on the magnetic fluid resulting in non-uniform magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid that results in a non-uniform magnetic body force which makes the ferrofluid flow as a bulk suspension. For the case of the wire immersed in DIW, free convection is the only means of cooling, while for the case of ferrofluid a combination of both free convection and thermomagnetic convection is expected to enhance the heat transfer from the wire beyond that of DIW. Experimental results at different temperatures and for a range of constant currents applied to the wire show that thermomagnetic convection becomes effective for the currents higher than 1.5A at all temperatures. It is observed that the onset of thermomagnetic convection is directly proportional to the current applied to the wire and that the thermomagnetic convection happens much faster than the free convection. Calculations show that a 35% enhancement in heat transfer can be expected for the ferrofluid compared to DIW, for a 3A current applied to the wire.

Keywords: cooling, ferrofluid, thermomagnetic convection, magnetic field

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11 Experimental and Numerical Study of the Thermomagnetic Convection of Ferrofluid Driven by Non-Uniform Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Petere Woodfiel, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao


Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed, numerically studied and experimentally validated. The dependency of the thermomagnetic convection on the current and fluid temperature has been studied. The Nusselt number for a heated 50um diameter wire in the ferrofluid exponentially scales with applied current to the micro-wire. This result is in good agreement with the correlated Nusselt number by curve-fitting the experimental data at different fluid temperatures. It was shown that at low currents, no significance is observed for thermomagnetic convection rather than the buoyancy-driven convection, while the thermomagnetic convection becomes dominant at high currents. Also, numerical simulations showed a promising cooling ability for large scale applications.

Keywords: ferrofluid, non-uniform magnetic field, Nusselt number, thermomagnetic convection

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10 Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Mixing Enhancement by Stimulation of Ferrofluid under Magnetic Field

Authors: Neda Azimi, Masoud Rahimi, Faezeh Mohammadi


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to investigate the effect of ferrofluid stimulation on hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of two immiscible liquid phases in a Y-micromixer. The main purpose of this work was to develop a numerical model that is able to simulate hydrodynamic of the ferrofluid flow under magnetic field and determine its effect on mass transfer characteristics. A uniform external magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The volume of fluid (VOF) approach was used for simulating the multiphase flow of ferrofluid and two-immiscible liquid flows. The geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct) based on piecewise linear interpolation (PLIC) was used for reconstruction of the interface in the VOF approach. The mass transfer rate was defined via an equation as a function of mass concentration gradient of the transported species and added into the phase interaction panel using the user-defined function (UDF). The magnetic field was solved numerically by Fluent MHD module based on solving the magnetic induction equation method. CFD results were validated by experimental data and good agreements have been achieved, which maximum relative error for extraction efficiency was about 7.52 %. It was showed that ferrofluid actuation by a magnetic field can be considered as an efficient mixing agent for liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer in microdevices.

Keywords: CFD modeling, hydrodynamic, micromixer, ferrofluid, mixing

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9 Magnetoviscous Effects on Axi-Symmetric Ferrofluid Flow over a Porous Rotating Disk with Suction/Injection

Authors: Vikas Kumar


The present study is carried out to investigate the magneto-viscous effects on incompressible ferrofluid flow over a porous rotating disc with suction or injection on the surface of the disc subjected to a magnetic field. The flow under consideration is axi-symmetric steady ferrofluid flow of electrically non-conducting fluid. Karman’s transformation is used to convert the governing boundary layer equations involved in the problem to a system of non linear coupled differential equations. The solution of this system is obtained by using power series approximation. The flow characteristics i.e. radial, tangential, axial velocities and boundary layer displacement thickness are calculated for various values of MFD (magnetic field dependent) viscosity and for different values of suction injection parameter. Besides this, skin friction coefficients are also calculated on the surface of the disk. Thus, the obtained results are presented numerically and graphically in the paper.

Keywords: axi-symmetric, ferrofluid, magnetic field, porous rotating disk

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8 Simulation of Focusing of Diamagnetic Particles in Ferrofluid Microflows with a Single Set of Overhead Permanent Magnets

Authors: Shuang Chen, Zongqian Shi, Jiajia Sun, Mingjia Li


Microfluidics is a technology that small amounts of fluids are manipulated using channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers. At present, this significant technology is required for several applications in some fields, including disease diagnostics, genetic engineering, and environmental monitoring, etc. Among these fields, manipulation of microparticles and cells in microfluidic device, especially separation, have aroused general concern. In magnetic field, the separation methods include positive and negative magnetophoresis. By comparison, negative magnetophoresis is a label-free technology. It has many advantages, e.g., easy operation, low cost, and simple design. Before the separation of particles or cells, focusing them into a single tight stream is usually a necessary upstream operation. In this work, the focusing of diamagnetic particles in ferrofluid microflows with a single set of overhead permanent magnets is investigated numerically. The geometric model of the simulation is based on the configuration of previous experiments. The straight microchannel is 24mm long and has a rectangular cross-section of 100μm in width and 50μm in depth. The spherical diamagnetic particles of 10μm in diameter are suspended into ferrofluid. The initial concentration of the ferrofluid c₀ is 0.096%, and the flow rate of the ferrofluid is 1.8mL/h. The magnetic field is induced by five identical rectangular neodymium−iron− boron permanent magnets (1/8 × 1/8 × 1/8 in.), and it is calculated by equivalent charge source (ECS) method. The flow of the ferrofluid is governed by the Navier–Stokes equations. The trajectories of particles are solved by the discrete phase model (DPM) in the ANSYS FLUENT program. The positions of diamagnetic particles are recorded by transient simulation. Compared with the results of the mentioned experiments, our simulation shows consistent results that diamagnetic particles are gradually focused in ferrofluid under magnetic field. Besides, the diamagnetic particle focusing is studied by varying the flow rate of the ferrofluid. It is in agreement with the experiment that the diamagnetic particle focusing is better with the increase of the flow rate. Furthermore, it is investigated that the diamagnetic particle focusing is affected by other factors, e.g., the width and depth of the microchannel, the concentration of the ferrofluid and the diameter of diamagnetic particles.

Keywords: diamagnetic particle, focusing, microfluidics, permanent magnet

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7 Numerical Investigation of Hybrid Ferrofluid Unsteady Flow through Porous Channel

Authors: Wajahat Hussain Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The viscous, two-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar time-dependent heat transfer flow through a ferromagnetic fluid is considered in this paper. Flow takes place in a channel between two porous walls under the influence of the magnetic field located beyond the channel. It is assumed that there are no electric field effects and the variation in the magnetic field vector that could occur within the F

Keywords: hybrid ferrofluid, heat transfer, magnetic field, porous channel

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6 Magnetic Solvent Extraction Using Nanoparticles Coated by Oleic Acid

Authors: Natália C. C. Lobato, Ângela M. Ferreira, Marcelo B. Mansur


In solvent extraction operations, large sedimentation areas in the mixer-settler are required when the disengagement of the aqueous and the organic phases is slow and/or difficult. The use of a magnetic organic liquid (also known as ferrofluid), consisting of magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleic acid dispersed in the organic diluent, has proven successful to speed up phase disengagement. The method, however, has never been used industrially; therefore, the aim of this study is to raise its main limitations. Tests were carried out using a ferrofluid containing 30 g/l of magnetite dissolved in commercial aliphatic kerosene Exxsol D80. The efficiency of cobalt extraction ([Co] = 1 g/l) with 10% v/v Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) at changing pH of the aqueous phase (2 to 7) was found unaffected in the conditions studied. However, the chemical resistance of the ferrofluid in contact with deionized water at changing acidity (from 10-7 to 2 mol/l) revealed that the nanoparticles are not resistant when contacted to aqueous solutions with a pH ≤ 2. Such result represents a serious limitation to the applicability of the method mainly to hydrometallurgical systems because solvent extraction operations are normally done in acid conditions, therefore more effective strategies to coat the particles are required.

Keywords: magnetic solvent extraction, oleic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, cyanex 272

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5 Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics

Authors: C. F. Alegretti, F. R. Cunha, R. G. Gontijo


This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.

Keywords: boundary layer detachment, ferrofluid, ferrohydrodynamics, magnetization, sudden expansion

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4 Magnetofluidics for Mass Transfer and Mixing Enhancement in a Micro Scale Device

Authors: Majid Hejazian, Nam-Trung Nguyen


Over the past few years, microfluidic devices have generated significant attention from industry and academia due to advantages such as small sample volume, low cost and high efficiency. Microfluidic devices have applications in chemical, biological and industry analysis and can facilitate assay of bio-materials and chemical reactions, separation, and sensing. Micromixers are one of the important microfluidic concepts. Micromixers can work as stand-alone devices or be integrated in a more complex microfluidic system such as a lab on a chip (LOC). Micromixers are categorized as passive and active types. Passive micromixers rely only on the arrangement of the phases to be mixed and contain no moving parts and require no energy. Active micromixers require external fields such as pressure, temperature, electric and acoustic fields. Rapid and efficient mixing is important for many applications such as biological, chemical and biochemical analysis. Achieving fast and homogenous mixing of multiple samples in the microfluidic devices has been studied and discussed in the literature recently. Improvement in mixing rely on effective mass transport in microscale, but are currently limited to molecular diffusion due to the predominant laminar flow in this size scale. Using magnetic field to elevate mass transport is an effective solution for mixing enhancement in microfluidics. The use of a non-uniform magnetic field to improve mass transfer performance in a microfluidic device is demonstrated in this work. The phenomenon of mixing ferrofluid and DI-water streams has been reported before, but mass transfer enhancement for other non-magnetic species through magnetic field have not been studied and evaluated extensively. In the present work, permanent magnets were used in a simple microfluidic device to create a non-uniform magnetic field. Two streams are introduced into the microchannel: one contains fluorescent dye mixed with diluted ferrofluid to induce enhanced mass transport of the dye, and the other one is a non-magnetic DI-water stream. Mass transport enhancement of fluorescent dye is evaluated using fluorescent measurement techniques. The concentration field is measured for different flow rates. Due to effect of magnetic field, a body force is exerted on the paramagnetic stream and expands the ferrofluid stream into non-magnetic DI-water flow. The experimental results demonstrate that without a magnetic field, both magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid and the fluorescent dye solely rely on molecular diffusion to spread. The non-uniform magnetic field, created by the permanent magnets around the microchannel, and diluted ferrofluid can improve mass transport of non-magnetic solutes in a microfluidic device. The susceptibility mismatch between the fluids results in a magnetoconvective secondary flow towards the magnets and subsequently the mass transport of the non-magnetic fluorescent dye. A significant enhancement in mass transport of the fluorescent dye was observed. The platform presented here could be used as a microfluidics-based micromixer for chemical and biological applications.

Keywords: ferrofluid, mass transfer, micromixer, microfluidics, magnetic

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3 Revolving Ferrofluid Flow in Porous Medium with Rotating Disk

Authors: Paras Ram, Vikas Kumar


The transmission of Malaria with seasonal were studied through the use of mathematical models. The data from the annual number of Malaria cases reported to the Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand during the period 1997-2011 were analyzed. The transmission of Malaria with seasonal was studied by formulating a mathematical model which had been modified to describe different situations encountered in the transmission of Malaria. In our model, the population was separated into two groups: the human and vector groups, and then constructed a system of nonlinear differential equations. Each human group was divided into susceptible, infectious in hot season, infectious in rainy season, infectious in cool season and recovered classes. The vector population was separated into two classes only: susceptible and infectious vectors. The analysis of the models was given by the standard dynamical modeling.

Keywords: ferrofluid, magnetic field, porous medium, rotating disk, Neuringer-Rosensweig Model

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2 Thermal Analysis for Darcy Forchheimer Effect with Hybrid Ferro Fluid Flow

Authors: Behzad Ali Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The article analyzes the Darcy Forchheimer 2D Hybrid ferrofluid. The flow of a Hybrid ferrofluid is made due to an unsteady porous channel. The classical liquid water is treated as a based liquid. The flow in the permeable region is characterized by the Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Heat transfer phenomena are studied during the flow. The transformation of a partial differential set of equations into a strong ordinary differential frame is formed through appropriate variables. The numerical Shooting Method is executed for solving the simplified set of equations. In addition, a numerical analysis (ND-Solve) is utilized for the convergence of the applied technique. The influence of some flow model quantities like Pr (Prandtle number), r (porous medium parameter), F (Darcy-porous medium parameter), Re (Reynolds number), Pe (Peclet number) on velocity and temperature field are scrutinized and studied through sketches. Certain physical factors like f ''(η) (skin friction coefficient) and θ^'(η) (rate of heat transfer) are first derived and then presented through tables.

Keywords: darcy forcheimer, hybrid ferro fluid, porous medium, porous channel

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1 Sorption Properties of Biological Waste for Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Lucia Rozumová, Ivo Šafařík, Jana Seidlerová, Pavel Kůs


Biosorption by biological waste materials from agriculture industry could be a cost-effective technique for removing metal ions from wastewater. The performance of new biosorbent systems, consisting of the waste matrixes which were magnetically modified by iron oxide nanoparticles, for the removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution was tested. The use of low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods. This article deals with the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by modified waste products - orange peels, sawdust, peanuts husks, used tea leaves and ground coffee sediment. Magnetically modified waste materials were suspended in methanol and then was added ferrofluid (magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). This modification process gives the predictions for the formation of the smart materials with new properties. Prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and pore size analyzer. Studies were focused on the sorption and desorption properties. The changes of iron content in magnetically modified materials after treatment were observed as well. Adsorption process has been modelled by adsorption isotherms. The results show that magnetically modified materials during the dynamic sorption and desorption are stable at the high adsorbed amount of lead ions. The results of this study indicate that the biological waste materials as sorbent with new properties are highly effective for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: biological waste, sorption, metal ions, ferrofluid

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