Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: superparamagnetic

42 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: anisotropy, superparamagnetic, nanoparticle, magnetization

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41 Preparation of Superparamagnetic Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetically Separable Catalysis

Authors: Priya Arora, Jaspreet K. Rajput

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Superparamagnetism has accelerated the research and use of more economical and ecological magnetically separable catalysts due to their more efficient isolation by response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetite nanomaterials coated by SiO2 shell have received a great deal of focus in the last decades as it provides high stability and also easy further surface functionalization depending upon the application. In this protocol, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation combined with sonication method. Further, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized by various moieties to serve as efficient catalysts for multicomponent reactions. The functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The as prepared nanocatalysts can be reused for several times without any significant loss in its activity. The utilization of magnetic nanoparticles as catalysts for this reaction is one approach i.e. green, inexpensive, facile and widely applicable.

Keywords: functionalized, magnetite, multicomponent reactions, superparamagnetic

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40 The Using of Hybrid Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- Graphene Oxide Functionalized Surface with Collagen, to Target the Cancer Stem Cell

Authors: Ahmed Khalaf Reyad Raslan

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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) describe a class of pluripotent cancer cells that behave analogously to normal stem cells in their ability to differentiate into the spectrum of cell types observed in tumors. The de-differentiation processes, such as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), are known to enhance cellular plasticity. Here, we demonstrate a new hypothesis to use hybrid superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- graphene oxide functionalized surface with Collagen to target the cancer stem cell as an early detection tool for cancer. We think that with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the new hybrid system would be possible to track the cancer stem cells.

Keywords: hydrogel, alginate, reduced graphene oxide, collagen

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
39 Phosphate Capture from Sewage by Hafnium-Modified Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Adsorption Capacity, Selectivity, Reusability Analysis and Mechanistic Insights

Authors: Qian Zhao

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With global increasing demand for phosphorus and intensively depleting reserves, it is urgent need to explore innovative approaches towards capturing phosphate from sewage, which is also an effective way to reduce phosphate contamination and avoid eutrophication of water bodies. In the present article, the superparamagnetic nano-sorbents containing Fe₃O₄ core and hafnium-modified MgAl/MgFe layered double hydroxides shell (abbreviated as MgAlHf-NP and MgFeHf-NP) was developed using a simple and low-cost synthesis protocol. The obtained Hf-coated nano-materials showed well-defined crystal structure and sufficient saturation magnetization and exhibited higher adsorption capacity for phosphate. Meanwhile, high selectivity was also confirmed since coexisting foreign anions and biomacromolecules showed little competitive effect on phosphate adsorption. The enhancement via doping with Hf should be explained by the stronger ligand complexation built by the pair of hard acid Hf ion and hard base phosphate that matched up the bonding preferences. Sufficient OH⁻ concentration and clear pH shift during the desorption/regeneration allowed for regeneration rate of higher than 90% after 5 cycles of adsorption desorption. This article attempts to provide a competitive candidate for phosphate-capture, which is highly effective, easily separable and repeatedly usable.

Keywords: phosphate recovery, nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, adsorption, reusability

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38 Remote Controlled of In-Situ Forming Thermo-sensitive Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Hyperthermia Therapy Application: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Elbadawy A. Kamoun

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Magnetically responsive hydrogel nanocomposite (NCH) based on composites of superparamagnetic of Fe3O4 nano-particles and temperature responsive hydrogel matrices were developed. The nanocomposite hydrogel system based on the temperature sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol)-400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA) incorporating with chitosan derivative, was synthesized and characterized. Likewise, the NCH system was synthesized by visible-light free radical photopolymerization, using carboxylated camphorquinone-amine system to avoid the common risks of the use of UV-light especially in hyperthermia treatment. Superparamagnetic of iron oxide nanoparticles were introduced into the hydrogel system by polymerizing mixture technique and monomer solution. FT-IR with Raman spectroscopy and Wide angle-XRD analysis were utilized to verify the chemical structure of NCH and exfoliation reaction for nanoparticles, respectively. Additionally, morphological structure of NCH was investigated using SEM and TEM photographs. The swelling responsive of the current nanocomposite hydrogel system with different crosslinking conditions, temperature, magnetic field efficiency, and the presence effect of magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated. Notably, hydrolytic degradation of this system was proved in vitro application. While, in-vivo release profile behavior is under investigation nowadays. Moreover, the compatibility and cytotoxicity tests were previously investigated in our studies for photoinitiating system. These systems show promised polymeric material candidate devices and are expected to have a wide applicability in various biomedical applications as mildly.

Keywords: hydrogel nanocomposites, tempretaure-responsive hydrogel, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia therapy

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37 Surfactant Free Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: M. Sneha, N. Meenakshi Sundaram

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In recent times, magnetic hyperthermia is used for cancer treatment as a tool for active targeting of delivering drugs to the targeted site. It has a potential advantage over other heat treatment because there is no systemic buildup in organs and large doses are possible. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable magnetic biomaterial that can destroy the cancer cells as well as induce bone regeneration. In this work, the composite material was synthesized in two-steps. First, porous iron oxide nano needles were synthesized by hydrothermal process. Second, the hydroxyapatite, were synthesized from natural calcium (i.e., egg shell) and inorganic phosphorous source using wet chemical method. The crystalline nature is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thermal analysis and the surface area of the material is studied by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett and Teller (BET) technique. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the particles have nanoneedle-like morphology. The magnetic property is studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique which confirms the superparamagnetic behavior. This paper presents a simple and easy method for synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites materials.

Keywords: iron oxide nano needles, hydroxyapatite, superparamagnetic, hyperthermia

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36 Lipid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Frequency Triggered Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen

Abstract:

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) have become increasingly important materials for separation of specific bio-molecules, drug delivery vehicle, contrast agent for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is emerging as an alternative cancer treatment to the conventional radio- and chemo-therapy, which have harmful side effects. When subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the magnetic energy of SPIONs is converted into thermal energy due to movement of particles. The ability of SPIONs to generate heat and potentially kill cancerous cells, which are more susceptible than the normal cells to temperatures higher than 41 °C forms the basis of hyerpthermia treatement. The amount of heat generated depends upon the magnetic properties of SPIONs which in turn is affected by their properties such as size and shape. One of the main problems associated with SPIONs is particle aggregation which limits their employability in in vivo drug delivery applications and hyperthermia cancer treatments. Coating the iron oxide core with thermally responsive lipid based nanostructures tend to overcome the issue of aggregation as well as improve biocompatibility and can enhance drug loading efficiency. Herein we report suitability of SPIONs and silica coated core-shell SPIONs, which are further, coated with various lipids for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia applications. The synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out using the established methods reported in the literature with some modifications. The nanoparticles are characterised using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under alternating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of alternating magnetic field. The results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the alternating magnetic field. Thus, the results demonstrate that lipid coated SPIONs exhibit potential as drug delivery vehicles for magnetic hyperthermia based cancer therapy.

Keywords: drug delivery, hyperthermia, lipids, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS)

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35 Superparamagnetic Sensor with Lateral Flow Immunoassays as Platforms for Biomarker Quantification

Authors: M. Salvador, J. C. Martinez-Garcia, A. Moyano, M. C. Blanco-Lopez, M. Rivas

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Biosensors play a crucial role in the detection of molecules nowadays due to their advantages of user-friendliness, high selectivity, the analysis in real time and in-situ applications. Among them, Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) are presented among technologies for point-of-care bioassays with outstanding characteristics such as affordability, portability and low-cost. They have been widely used for the detection of a vast range of biomarkers, which do not only include proteins but also nucleic acids and even whole cells. Although the LFIA has traditionally been a positive/negative test, tremendous efforts are being done to add to the method the quantifying capability based on the combination of suitable labels and a proper sensor. One of the most successful approaches involves the use of magnetic sensors for detection of magnetic labels. Bringing together the required characteristics mentioned before, our research group has developed a biosensor to detect biomolecules. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) together with LFIAs play the fundamental roles. SPMNPs are detected by their interaction with a high-frequency current flowing on a printed micro track. By means of the instant and proportional variation of the impedance of this track provoked by the presence of the SPNPs, quantitative and rapid measurement of the number of particles can be obtained. This way of detection requires no external magnetic field application, which reduces the device complexity. On the other hand, the major limitations of LFIAs are that they are only qualitative or semiquantitative when traditional gold or latex nanoparticles are used as color labels. Moreover, the necessity of always-constant ambient conditions to get reproducible results, the exclusive detection of the nanoparticles on the surface of the membrane, and the short durability of the signal are drawbacks that can be advantageously overcome with the design of magnetically labeled LFIAs. The approach followed was to coat the SPIONs with a specific monoclonal antibody which targets the protein under consideration by chemical bonds. Then, a sandwich-type immunoassay was prepared by printing onto the nitrocellulose membrane strip a second antibody against a different epitope of the protein (test line) and an IgG antibody (control line). When the sample flows along the strip, the SPION-labeled proteins are immobilized at the test line, which provides magnetic signal as described before. Preliminary results using this practical combination for the detection and quantification of the Prostatic-Specific Antigen (PSA) shows the validity and consistency of the technique in the clinical range, where a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL is the established upper normal limit. Moreover, a LOD of 0.25 ng/mL was calculated with a confident level of 3 according to the IUPAC Gold Book definition. Its versatility has also been proved with the detection of other biomolecules such as troponin I (cardiac injury biomarker) or histamine.

Keywords: biosensor, lateral flow immunoassays, point-of-care devices, superparamagnetic nanoparticles

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34 Superparamagnetic Core Shell Catalysts for the Environmental Production of Fuels from Renewable Lignin

Authors: Cristina Opris, Bogdan Cojocaru, Madalina Tudorache, Simona M. Coman, Vasile I. Parvulescu, Camelia Bala, Bahir Duraki, Jeroen A. Van Bokhoven

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The tremendous achievements in the development of the society concretized by more sophisticated materials and systems are merely based on non-renewable resources. Consequently, after more than two centuries of intensive development, among others, we are faced with the decrease of the fossil fuel reserves, an increased impact of the greenhouse gases on the environment, and economic effects caused by the fluctuations in oil and mineral resource prices. The use of biomass may solve part of these problems, and recent analyses demonstrated that from the perspective of the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxide, its valorization may bring important advantages conditioned by the usage of genetic modified fast growing trees or wastes, as primary sources. In this context, the abundance and complex structure of lignin may offer various possibilities of exploitation. However, its transformation in fuels or chemicals supposes a complex chemistry involving the cleavage of C-O and C-C bonds and altering of the functional groups. Chemistry offered various solutions in this sense. However, despite the intense work, there are still many drawbacks limiting the industrial application. Thus, the proposed technologies considered mainly homogeneous catalysts meaning expensive noble metals based systems that are hard to be recovered at the end of the reaction. Also, the reactions were carried out in organic solvents that are not acceptable today from the environmental point of view. To avoid these problems, the concept of this work was to investigate the synthesis of superparamagnetic core shell catalysts for the fragmentation of lignin directly in the aqueous phase. The magnetic nanoparticles were covered with a nanoshell of an oxide (niobia) with a double role: to protect the magnetic nanoparticles and to generate a proper (acidic) catalytic function and, on this composite, cobalt nanoparticles were deposed in order to catalyze the C-C bond splitting. With this purpose, we developed a protocol to prepare multifunctional and magnetic separable nano-composite [email protected]@Fe3O4 catalysts. We have also established an analytic protocol for the identification and quantification of the fragments resulted from lignin depolymerization in both liquid and solid phase. The fragmentation of various lignins occurred on the prepared materials in high yields and with very good selectivity in the desired fragments. The optimization of the catalyst composition indicated a cobalt loading of 4wt% as optimal. Working at 180 oC and 10 atm H2 this catalyst allowed a conversion of lignin up to 60% leading to a mixture containing over 96% in C20-C28 and C29-C37 fragments that were then completely fragmented to C12-C16 in a second stage. The investigated catalysts were completely recyclable, and no leaching of the elements included in the composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

Keywords: superparamagnetic core-shell catalysts, environmental production of fuels, renewable lignin, recyclable catalysts

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33 Magnetic Carriers of Organic Selenium (IV) Compounds: Physicochemical Properties and Possible Applications in Anticancer Therapy

Authors: E. Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, P. Suchocki, P. C. Morais

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Despite the significant progress in cancer treatment, there is a need to search for new therapeutic methods in order to minimize side effects. Chemotherapy, the main current method of treating cancer, is non-selective and has a number of limitations. Toxicity to healthy cells is undoubtedly the biggest problem limiting the use of many anticancer drugs. The problem of how to kill cancer without harming a patient can be solved by using organic selenium (IV) compounds. Organic selenium (IV) compounds are a new class of materials showing a strong anticancer activity. They are first organic compounds containing selenium at the +4 oxidation level and therefore they eliminate the multidrug-resistance for all tumor cell lines tested so far. These materials are capable of selectively killing cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones. They are obtained by the incorporation of selenous acid (H2SeO3) into molecules of fatty acids of sunflower oil and therefore, they are inexpensive to manufacture. Attaching these compounds to magnetic carriers enables their precise delivery directly to the tumor area and the simultaneous application of the magnetic hyperthermia, thus creating a huge opportunity to effectively get rid of the tumor without any side effects. Polylactic-co-glicolic acid (PLGA) nanocapsules loaded with maghemite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and organic selenium (IV) compounds are successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method. In vitro antitumor activity of the nanocapsules were evidenced using murine melanoma (B16-F10), oral squamos carcinoma (OSCC) and murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) breast lines. Further exposure of these cells to an alternating magnetic field increased the antitumor effect of nanocapsules. Moreover, the nanocapsules presented antitumor effect while not affecting normal cells. Magnetic properties of the nanocapsules were investigated by means of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The nanocapsules presented a typical superparamagnetic behavior around room temperature manifested itself by the split between zero field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC/FC) magnetization curves and the absence of hysteresis on the field-dependent magnetization curve above the blocking temperature. Moreover, the blocking temperature decreased with increasing applied magnetic field. The superparamagnetic character of the nanocapsules was also confirmed by the occurrence of a maximum in temperature dependences of both real ′(T) and imaginary ′′ (T) components of the ac magnetic susceptibility, which shifted towards higher temperatures with increasing frequency. Additionally, upon decreasing the temperature the ESR signal shifted to lower fields and gradually broadened following closely the predictions for the ESR of superparamagnetoc nanoparticles. The observed superparamagnetic properties of nanocapsules enable their simple manipulation by means of magnetic field gradient, after introduction into the blood stream, which is a necessary condition for their use as magnetic drug carriers. The observed anticancer and superparamgnetic properties show that the magnetic nanocapsules loaded with organic selenium (IV) compounds should be considered as an effective material system for magnetic drug delivery and magnetohyperthermia inductor in antitumor therapy.

Keywords: cancer treatment, magnetic drug delivery system, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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32 Magneto-Luminescent Biocompatible Complexes Based on Alloyed Quantum Dots and Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Matiushkina, A. Bazhenova, I. Litvinov, E. Kornilova, A. Dubavik, A. Orlova

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Magnetic-luminescent complexes based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been recognized as a new class of materials that have high potential in modern medicine. These materials can serve for theranostics of oncological diseases, and also as a target agent for drug delivery. They combine the qualities characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles, that is, magneto-controllability and the ability to local heating under the influence of an external magnetic field, as well as phosphors, due to luminescence of which, for example, early tumor imaging is possible. The complexity of creating complexes is the energy transfer between particles, which quenches the luminescence of QDs in complexes with SPIONs. In this regard, a relatively new type of alloyed (CdₓZn₁₋ₓSeᵧS₁₋ᵧ)-ZnS QDs is used in our work. The presence of a sufficiently thick gradient semiconductor shell in alloyed QDs makes it possible to reduce the probability of energy transfer from QDs to SPIONs in complexes. At the same time, Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a perfect instrument to confirm the formation of complexes based on QDs and different-type energy acceptors. The formation of complexes in the aprotic bipolar solvent dimethyl sulfoxide is ensured by the coordination of the carboxyl group of the stabilizing QD molecule (L-cysteine) on the surface iron atoms of the SPIONs. An analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra has shown that a sequential increase in the SPIONs concentration in the samples is accompanied by effective quenching of the luminescence of QDs. However, it has not confirmed the formation of complexes yet, because of a decrease in the PL intensity of QDs due to reabsorption of light by SPIONs. Therefore, a study of the PL kinetics of QDs at different SPIONs concentrations was made, which demonstrates that an increase in the SPIONs concentration is accompanied by a symbatic reduction in all characteristic PL decay times. It confirms the FRET from QDs to SPIONs, which indicates the QDs/SPIONs complex formation, rather than a spontaneous aggregation of QDs, which is usually accompanied by a sharp increase in the percentage of the QD fraction with the shortest characteristic PL decay time. The complexes have been studied by the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy that allows one to estimate the response of magnetic material to the applied magnetic field and also can be useful to check SPIONs aggregation. An analysis of the MCD spectra has shown that the complexes have zero residual magnetization, which is an important factor for using in biomedical applications, and don't contain SPIONs aggregates. Cell penetration, biocompatibility, and stability of QDs/SPIONs complexes in cancer cells have been studied using HeLa cell line. We have found that the complexes penetrate in HeLa cell and don't demonstrate cytotoxic effect up to 25 nM concentration. Our results clearly demonstrate that alloyed (CdₓZn₁₋ₓSeᵧS₁₋ᵧ)-ZnS QDs can be successfully used in complexes with SPIONs reached new hybrid nanostructures, which combine bright luminescence for tumor imaging and magnetic properties for targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia of tumors. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation, goszadanie no. 2019-1080 and was financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08.

Keywords: alloyed quantum dots, magnetic circular dichroism, magneto-luminescent complexes, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

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31 Synthesis of Size-Tunable and Stable Iron Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Ambika Selvaraj

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Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO) of < 20nm (superparamagnetic) become promising tool in cancer therapy, and integrated nanodevices for cancer detection and screening. The obstacles include particle heterogeneity and cost. It can be overcome by developing monodispersed nanoparticles in economical approach. We have successfully synthesized < 7 nm IO by low temperature controlled technique, in which Fe0 is sandwiched between stabilizer and Fe2+. Size analysis showed the excellent size control from 31 nm at 33°C to 6.8 nm at 10°C. Resultant monodispersed IO were found to be stable for > 50 reuses, proved its applicability in biomedical applications.

Keywords: low temperature synthesis, hybrid iron nanoparticles, cancer therapy, biomedical applications

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30 Enhancement Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based MRI Contrast Agent at Different Concentrations and Magnetic Field Strengths

Authors: Bimali Sanjeevani Weerakoon, Toshiaki Osuga, Takehisa Konishi

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents (MRI-CM) are significant in the clinical and biological imaging as they have the ability to alter the normal tissue contrast, thereby affecting the signal intensity to enhance the visibility and detectability of images. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, coated with dextran or carboxydextran are currently available for clinical MR imaging of the liver. Most SPIO contrast agents are T2 shortening agents and Resovist (Ferucarbotran) is one of a clinically tested, organ-specific, SPIO agent which has a low molecular carboxydextran coating. The enhancement effect of Resovist depends on its relaxivity which in turn depends on factors like magnetic field strength, concentrations, nanoparticle properties, pH and temperature. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of field strength and different contrast concentrations on enhancement effects of Resovist. The study explored the MRI signal intensity of Resovist in the physiological range of plasma from T2-weighted spin echo sequence at three magnetic field strengths: 0.47 T (r1=15, r2=101), 1.5 T (r1=7.4, r2=95), and 3 T (r1=3.3, r2=160) and the range of contrast concentrations by a mathematical simulation. Relaxivities of r1 and r2 (L mmol-1 Sec-1) were obtained from a previous study and the selected concentrations were 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mmol/L. T2-weighted images were simulated using TR/TE ratio as 2000 ms /100 ms. According to the reference literature, with increasing magnetic field strengths, the r1 relaxivity tends to decrease while the r2 did not show any systematic relationship with the selected field strengths. In parallel, this study results revealed that the signal intensity of Resovist at lower concentrations tends to increase than the higher concentrations. The highest reported signal intensity was observed in the low field strength of 0.47 T. The maximum signal intensities for 0.47 T, 1.5 T and 3 T were found at the concentration levels of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that, the concentrations higher than the above, the signal intensity was decreased exponentially. An inverse relationship can be found between the field strength and T2 relaxation time, whereas, the field strength was increased, T2 relaxation time was decreased accordingly. However, resulted T2 relaxation time was not significantly different between 0.47 T and 1.5 T in this study. Moreover, a linear correlation of transverse relaxation rates (1/T2, s–1) with the concentrations of Resovist can be observed. According to these results, it can conclude that the concentration of SPIO nanoparticle contrast agents and the field strengths of MRI are two important parameters which can affect the signal intensity of T2-weighted SE sequence. Therefore, when MR imaging those two parameters should be considered prudently.

Keywords: Concentration, resovist, field strength, relaxivity, signal intensity

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29 Preparation and Quality Control of a New Radiolabelled Complex of Spion

Authors: H. Yousefnia, SJ. Ahmadi, S. Sajadi, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Bagherzadeh

Abstract:

Nowadays, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as the multitask agents have showed advantageous characteristics. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 153Sm-DTPA-DA-SPION complex. Samarium-153 was produced by neutron irradiation of the enriched 152Sm2O3 in a research reactor for 5 d. For radiolabeling purposes, 8 mg of the ligand was added to the vial containing 153SmCl3 and the mixture was sonicated 30 min, while pH was adjusted to 7-8. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method using NH4OH:MeOH:H2O (0.2:2:4) as the mobile phase. This new radiolabeled complex was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 98% in 30 min at the optimized condition. The complex was kept at room temperature and in human serum at 37 °C for 48 h, showed no loss of 153Sm from the complex. Considering all of these features, this new radiolabeled complex can be considered as a good therapeutic agent; however, further studies on its biological behavior are still needed.

Keywords: iron nanoparticles, preparation, quality control, 153Sm

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28 Application of Nanoparticles in Biomedical and MRI

Authors: Raziyeh Mohammadi

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At present, nanoparticles are used for various biomedical applications where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics and therapeutics. The performance of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is often assessed by their narrow size distribution, suitable magnetic saturation, and low toxicity effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have received great attention due to their applications as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. (Processes in the tissue where the blood brain barrier is intact in this way shielded from the contact to this conventional contrast agent and will only reveal changes in the tissue if it involves an alteration in the vasculature. This technique is very useful for detecting tumors and can even be used for detecting metabolic functional alterations in the brain, such as epileptic activity.SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Unlike bulk iron, SPIONs do not have remnant magnetization in the absence of the external magnetic field; therefore, a precise remote control over their action is possible.

Keywords: nanoparticles, MRI, biomedical, iron oxide, spions

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27 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal

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Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.

Keywords: nano hollow sphere, tartrate modification, multiple fluorescence, catalytic property

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26 Phase Transition in Iron Storage Protein Ferritin

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferritin is a protein which present in the blood of mammals. It maintains the need of iron inside the body. It has an antiferromagnetic iron core, 7-8 nm in size, which is encapsulated inside a protein cage. The thickness of this protein shell is about 2-3 nm. This protein shell reduces the interaction among particles and make ferritin a model superparamagnet. The major composition of ferritin core is mineral ferrihydrite. The molecular formula of ferritin core is (FeOOH)8[FeOOPO3H2]. In this study, we discuss the phase transition of ferritin. We characterized ferritin using x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron micrograph, thermogravimetric analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that ferritin core is amorphous in nature with average particle size of 8 nm. The thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis curves shows mass loss at different temperatures. We heated ferritin at these temperatures. It is found that ferritin core starts decomposing after 390^o C. At 1020^o C, the ferritin core is finally converted to alpha phase of iron oxide. Magnetization behavior of final sample clearly shows the iron oxyhydroxide core is completely converted to alpha iron oxide.

Keywords: Antiferromagnetic, Ferritin, Phase, Superparamagnetic

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25 Effect of Changing Iron Content and Excitation Frequency on Magnetic Particle Imaging Signal: A Comparative Study of Synomag® Nanoparticles

Authors: Kalthoum Riahi, Max T. Rietberg, Javier Perez y Perez, Corné Dijkstra, Bennie ten Haken, Lejla Alic

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Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used to facilitate magnetic particle imaging (MPI) which has the potential to become the leading diagnostic instrument for biomedical imaging. This comparative study assesses the effects of changing iron content and excitation frequency on point-spread function (PSF) representing the effect of magnetization reversal. PSF is quantified by features of interest for MPI: i.e., drive field amplitude and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A superparamagnetic quantifier (SPaQ) is used to assess differential magnetic susceptibility of two commercially available MNPs: Synomag®-D50 and Synomag®-D70. For both MNPs, the signal output depends on increase in drive field frequency and amount of iron-oxide, which might be hampering the sensitivity of MPI systems that perform on higher frequencies. Nevertheless, there is a clear potential of Synomag®-D for a stable MPI resolution, especially in case of 70 nm version, that is independent of either drive field frequency or amount of iron-oxide.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, differential magnetic susceptibility, DMS, magnetic particle imaging, MPI, magnetic relaxation, Synomag®-D

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24 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, magnetic properties, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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23 Light-Emitting Diode Assisted Synthesis of [email protected] Nanoparticles and Their Application in Magnetic and Photothermal Hyperthermia Therapy

Authors: Pei-Wen Lin, Ta-I Yang

Abstract:

Cancer has been one of the leading causes of human death for centuries. Considerable effort has been devoted to developing new treatments to reduce and control cancers. Magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy are the promising strategies to treat cancers due to its effectiveness with only mild side effects. This study focused on synthesizing magnetic [email protected] nanoparticles applicable for both of magnetic hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The hydrophilic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) polymer was utilized to prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4 clusters and to promote silver nanoparticles grown on Fe3O4 surfaces, obtaining [email protected] nanoparticles. The morphology (shape and dimension) of Ag nanoparticles was subsequently tailored using commercial LED lights. Therefore, the resulting [email protected] nanoparticles can absorb specific wavelength of light ranging from 400 nm to 800 nm by adjusting the wavelength of LED lights and the free silver ions in reaction solution. Heating performance tests confirmed that the synthesized [email protected] nanoparticles show appreciable heating capability for both of magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The findings in this study could provide new ideas to design functional materials to treat cancers.

Keywords: light-emitting diode assisted synthesis, magnetic particles, photothermal materials, hyperthermia

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22 Investigation of Optical, Film Formation and Magnetic Properties of PS Lates/MNPs Composites

Authors: Saziye Ugur

Abstract:

In this study, optical, film formation, morphological and the magnetic properties of a nanocomposite system, composed of polystyrene (PS) latex polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented. Nine different mixtures were prepared by mixing of PS latex dispersion with different amount of MNPs in the range of (0- 100 wt%). PS/MNPs films were prepared from these mixtures on glass substrates by drop casting method. After drying at room temperature, each film sample was separately annealed at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C for 10 min. In order to monitor film formation process, the transmittance of these composites was measured after each annealing step as a function of MNPs content. Below a critical MNPs content (30 wt%), it was found that PS percolates into the MNPs hard phase and forms an interconnected network upon annealing. The transmission results showed above this critical value, PS latexes were no longer film forming at all temperatures. Besides, the PS/MNPs composite films also showed excellent magnetic properties. All composite films showed superparamagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) first increased up to 0.014 emu in the range of (0-50) wt% MNPs content and then decreased to 0.010 emu with increasing MNPs content. The highest value of Ms was approximately 0.020 emu and was obtained for the film filled with 85 wt% MNPs content. These results indicated that the optical, film formation and magnetic properties of PS/MNPs composite films can be readily tuned by varying loading content of MNPs nanoparticles.

Keywords: composite film, film formation, magnetic nanoparticles, ps latex, transmission

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21 Antibody-Conjugated Nontoxic Arginine-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Circulating Tumor Cells Separation

Authors: F. Kashanian, M. M. Masoudi, A. Akbari, A. Shamloo, M. R. Zand, S. S. Salehi

Abstract:

Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.

Keywords: tumor tissue, antibody, magnetic nanoparticle, CTCs capturing

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20 Preparation of Magnetothermally Responsive Polymer Multilayer Films for Controlled Release Applications from Surfaces

Authors: Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe

Abstract:

Externally triggered and effective release of therapeutics from polymer nanoplatforms is one of the key issues in cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to prepare polymer multilayer films which are stable at physiological conditions (little or no drug release) but release drug molecules at acidic pH and via application of AC magnetic field. First, novel stimuli responsive diblock copolymers composed of pH- and temperature-responsive blocks were synthesized. Then, block copolymer micelles with pH-responsive core and temperature responsive coronae will be obtained via pH-induced self-assembly of these block copolymers in aqueous environment. A model anticancer drug, e.g. Doxorubicin will be loaded in the micellar cores. Second, superparamagnetic nanoparticles will be synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles and drug loaded block copolymer micelles will be used as building blocks to construct the multilayers. To mimic the acidic nature of the tumor tissues, Doxorubicin release from the micellar cores will be induced at acidic conditions. Moreover, Doxorubicin release from the multilayers will be facilitated via magnetothermal trigger. Application of AC magnetic field will induce the heating of magnetic nanoparticles resulting in an increase in the temperature of the polymer platform. This increase in temperature is expected to trigger conformational changes on the temperature-responsive micelle coronae and facilitate the release of Doxorubicin from the surface. Such polymer platform may find use in biomedical applications.

Keywords: layer-by-layer films, magnetothermal trigger, smart polymers, stimuli responsive

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19 Immobilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Stem Cell Reconstruction in Magnetic Particle Imaging

Authors: Kolja Them, Johannes Salamon, Harald Ittrich, Michael Kaul, Tobias Knopp

Abstract:

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are nanoscale magnets which can be biologically functionalized for biomedical applications. Stem cell therapies to repair damaged tissue, magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer therapy and targeted drug delivery based on SPIONs are prominent examples where the visualization of a preferably low concentrated SPION distribution is essential. In 2005 a new method for tomographic SPION imaging has been introduced. The method named magnetic particle imaging (MPI) takes advantage of the nanoparticles magnetization change caused by an oscillating, external magnetic field and allows to directly image the time-dependent nanoparticle distribution. The SPION magnetization can be changed by the electron spin dynamics as well as by a mechanical rotation of the nanoparticle. In this work different calibration methods in MPI are investigated for image reconstruction of magnetically labeled stem cells. It is shown that a calibration using rotationally immobilized SPIONs provides a higher quality of stem cell images with fewer artifacts than a calibration using mobile SPIONs. The enhancement of the image quality and the reduction of artifacts enables the localization and identification of a smaller number of magnetically labeled stem cells. This is important for future medical applications where low concentrations of functionalized SPIONs interacting with biological matter have to be localized.

Keywords: biomedical imaging, iron oxide nanoparticles, magnetic particle imaging, stem cell imaging

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18 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: anisotropy, magnetization, nanoparticles, superparamagnetism

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17 Core-Shell Type Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been widely explored as biocatalysts, contrast agents, and drug delivery systems. However, some of the challenges associated with these particles are agglomeration and biocompatibility, which lead to concern of toxicity of the particles, especially for drug delivery applications. Coating the particles with biocompatible materials such as lipids and peptides have shown to improve the mentioned issues. Thus, these core-shell type nanoparticles are emerging as the new class of nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, various types of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are prepared and characterized using techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under oscillating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of oscillating field. The results suggest that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although, coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the oscillating magnetic field. Thus, the results strongly indicate the suitability of the prepared core-shell type nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles and their potential in magnetic hyperthermia applications and for hyperthermia cancer therapy.

Keywords: core-shell, hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
16 The Effect of Reaction Time on the Morphology and Phase of Quaternary Ferrite Nanoparticles (FeCoCrO₄) Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat Olabisi Abdulwahab, Mohammad Azad Malik, Paul O'Brien, Grigore Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe₂O₄ (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn e.t.c) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Here in, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O₂CᵗBu)₆(HO₂CᵗBu)₃] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at 260 °C. The effect of reaction time on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained after one hour was pure phase of cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles were obtained after one hour. Magnetic measurements revealed that the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis, monodisperse, reaction time, single source precursor, quaternary ferrite nanoparticles

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15 Monodisperse Quaternary Cobalt Chromium Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat O. Abdulwahab, Mohammad A. Malik, Paul O’Brien, Grigore A. Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn etc.) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O2CtBu)6(HO2CtBu)3] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at its boiling point (260°C). The effect of concentration on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained at both concentrations were matched with cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles of average diameter 4.0 ± 0.4 nm were obtained at higher precursor concentration. Magnetic measurements revealed that all the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: quaternary ferrite nanoparticles, single source precursor, monodisperse, cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis

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14 Evaluation of the Heating Capability and in vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández, Javier Sánchez

Abstract:

Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfill more efficiently the requirements that demand the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45°C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is close to zero. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.

Keywords: ferrites, heating capability, hemolysis, nanoparticles, sol-gel

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13 Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics

Authors: C. F. Alegretti, F. R. Cunha, R. G. Gontijo

Abstract:

This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.

Keywords: boundary layer detachment, ferrofluid, ferrohydrodynamics, magnetization, sudden expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 145