Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Mahmut Özacar

22 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

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21 Valonea Tannin Supported AgCl/ZnO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite, a Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance under Visible Light Irradiation

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


In the past few decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the photocatalysts for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. Many novel nanostructured photocatalysts for wastewater treatment have been investigated, such as TiO2 and, CdS, ZnO and silver halides (AgX, X = Cl, Br, I). The silver halides are photosensitive materials which can absorb photons in the visible region to produce electron–hole pairs. Silver halides are expensive that restricts their applications in large-scale photocatalytic processes. Tannin contains hydroxyl functional groups, it was employed as a modifier to improve the surface properties and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon towards the metal cations uptake. In this work, we designed a new structure of magnetically separable photocatalyst that combines AgCl/ZnO nanoparticles with Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on tannin, which was denoted as (AgI/ZnO)-Fe3O4/Tannin. The as-prepared products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalyst exhibited high activity degrading a textile dye under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

Keywords: AgI/ZnO-Fe3O4/Tannin, visible light, magnetically separable, photocatalyst

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20 The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control and Historical Realities

Authors: Nuray Ocakli


19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.

Keywords: Mahmudiyye anthem, musical code, national anthem, Ottoman Empire, royal anthem

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19 Levels of Self-Efficiency and Participation Restrictions in Individuals Y and Z Generations

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran


It is aimed to examine the self-efficacy and participation restrictions of the generations of Y and Z in the study. The participants were assessed with the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Participation Scale. There were 23 female and 17 male with a mean age of 29,17 ± 4,14 on the Y generation and 15 female and 25 male with a mean age of 13 ± 3,78 on the Z generation. The mean self-efficacy scores of the Y generation was 63.65 ± 11.01; and 65.80 ± 9.12 in the Z generation. There was no statistically significant difference between self-efficacy averages of Y and Z individuals (p > 0,05). The mean score indicating the participation limitations of the individuals on the Y generation was 11.28 ± 10.55; and 53,70 ± 18,05 in participants with Z generation. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the participation restriction of Y and Z individuals (p < 0,001). The high level of participation restrictions on the Z generation suggests that these individuals are influenced by the situations such as family (financial resources, get permission) and school environment (exams, friends, adolescence period). This is reason it is believed that the planning and development of occupational therapy interventions would be beneficial to increase the participation of individuals in this population.

Keywords: environment, participation restriction, self efficiency, Y and Z generations

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18 Determining of Importance Level of Factors Affecting Job Selection with the Method of AHP

Authors: Nurullah Ekmekci, Ömer Akkaya, Kazım Karaboğa, Mahmut Tekin


Job selection is one of the most important decisions that affect their lives in the name of being more useful to themselves and the society. There are many criteria to consider in the job selection. The amount of criteria in the job selection makes it a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In this study; job selection has been discussed as multi-criteria decision-making problem and has been solved by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), one of the multi-criteria decision making methods. A survey, contains 5 different job selection criteria (finding a job friendliness, salary status, job , social security, work in the community deems reputation and business of the degree of difficulty) within many job selection criteria and 4 different job alternative (being academician, working at the civil service, working at the private sector and working at in their own business), has been conducted to the students of Selcuk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. As a result of pairwise comparisons, the highest weighted criteria in the job selection and the most coveted job preferences were identified.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, job selection, multi-criteria, decision making

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17 Frequency Recognition Models for Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs)

Authors: Zeki Oralhan, Mahmut Tokmakçı


SSVEP based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have been preferred, because of high information transfer rate (ITR) and practical use. ITR is the parameter of BCI overall performance. For high ITR value, one of specification BCI system is that has high accuracy. In this study, we investigated to recognize SSVEP with shorter time and lower error rate. In the experiment, there were 8 flickers on light crystal display (LCD). Participants gazed to flicker which had 12 Hz frequency and 50% duty cycle ratio on the LCD during 10 seconds. During the experiment, EEG signals were acquired via EEG device. The EEG data was filtered in preprocessing session. After that Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Multiset CCA (MsetCCA), phase constrained CCA (PCCA), and Multiway CCA (MwayCCA) methods were applied on data. The highest average accuracy value was reached when MsetCCA was applied.

Keywords: brain computer interface, canonical correlation analysis, human computer interaction, SSVEP

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16 Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line

Authors: Mahmut Genc, Seda Genc


Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.

Keywords: carbon footprint, exergy analysis, exergy destruction footprint, white wine

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15 Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream (Lithognathus mormyrus)

Authors: Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Oguz Tasbozan, Celal Erbas, Zafer Akpinar, S. Surhan Tabakoglu, Mehmet Celik, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu


This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 252,75 ± 36,78 g and 193,0 ± 32 g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). Amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5073.

Keywords: striped sea bream, Litognathus mormyrus, proximate composition, fatty acid profile

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14 Experimental Study on Post-Fire Mechanical Properties of S235 Steel

Authors: Mahyar Maali, Merve Sagiroglu, Mahmut Kilic, Abdulkadir Cuneyt Aydin


In order to evaluate the residual strength of S235 (St37) steel structures after the fire, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the post-fire mechanical properties. Tensile coupons taken from S235 sheets were exposed to varying temperatures as 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800 °C. The samples were then allowed to cool down to ambient temperature before they were tested to failure. To obtain the mechanical properties of steels; tensile tests are performed, and the post-fire stress-strain curves are evaluated. The microstructures of the heat-treated specimens were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is seen that morphology and size of the precipitates in the specimens change, as the heat increases. The modulus of elasticity decreases, and deformation increases with temperature. Energy dissipation decreases due to lower stress according to the stress-strain curves of the specimens. Especially, the mechanical properties were decreased compared with the pre-fire ones. As a result of the post-fire and pre-fire behavior of S235, a set of equations is evaluated to predict the mechanical properties after the fire. These types of equations may allow the structural and/or fire engineers to predict accurately the post-fire behavior of the buildings constructed with S235 type steel.

Keywords: post-fire behavior, stress-strain curves, experimental study, S235 steel

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13 Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes

Authors: Mehmet Celik, Celal Erbas, Mehtap Baykal, Aygül Kucukgulmez, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu


In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2015-3830.

Keywords: sea bream, sea bass, meat yield, proximate composition, different weight

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12 Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)

Authors: Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Hipolito Fernández-Palacios, Dominique Schuchardt, Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Celal Erbaş, Oğuz Taşbozan


This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.

Keywords: Seriola rivoliana, meagre, sperm quality, motility, motility duration

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11 Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Authors: Ceren Kaya, Okan Erkaymaz, Orhan Ayar, Mahmut Özer


Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, discrete wavelet transform, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, video-oculography (VOG)

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10 Implementing 3D Printed Structures as the Newest Textile Form

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın


From the oldest production methods with yarns used to weave, knit, braid and knot to the newest production methods with fibres used to stitch, bond or structures of innovative technologies, laminates, nanoparticles, composites or 3D printing systems, textile industry advanced through materials, processes and context mostly within the last five decades. The creative momentum of fabric like 3D printed structures have come to the point of transforming as for the newest form of textile applications. Moreover, pioneering studies on the applications of 3D Printing Technology and Additive Manufacturing have been focusing on fashion and apparel sector from the last two decades beginning with fashion designers. After the advent of chain-mail like structures and flexible micro or meso structures created by SLS rapid manufacturing a more textile-like behavior is achieved. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to discuss the most important properties of traditional fabrics that are to be expected of future fabrics. For this reason, this study deals primarily with the physical properties like softness, hand, flexibility, drapability and wearability of 3D Printed structures necessary to identify the possible ways in which it can be used instead of contemporary textile structures, namely knitted and woven fabrics. The aim of this study is to compare the physical properties of 3D printed fabrics regarding different rapid manufacturing methods (FDM and SLS). The implemented method was Material Driven Design (MDD), which comprise the use of innovative materials according to the production techniques such as 3D printing system. As a result, advanced textile processes and materials enable to the creation of new types of fabric structures and rapid solutions in the field of textiles and 3D fabrics on the other hand, are to be used in this regard.

Keywords: 3D printing technology, FDM, SLS, textile structure

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9 Experimental Model of the Behaviour of Bolted Angles Connections with Stiffeners

Authors: Abdulkadir Cuneyt Aydin, Mahyar Maali, Mahmut Kılıç, Merve Sağıroğlu


The moment-rotation curves of semi-rigid connections are the visual expressions of the actual behaviour discovered in beam-to-column connections experiments. This research was to determine the behaviour of the connection using full-scale experiments under statically loaded. The stiffeners which are typically attached to beams web or flanges to control local buckling and to increase shear capacity in a beam web are almost always used in modern designs. They must also provide sufficient moment of inertia to control out of plane deformations. This study was undertaken to analyse the influence of stiffeners in the angles and beams on the behaviour of the beam-to-column joints. In addition, the aim was to provide necessary data to improve the Eurocode 3. The main parameters observed are the evolution of the resistance, the stiffness, the rotation capacity, the ductility of a joint and the Energy Dissipation. Experimental tests show that the plastic flexural resistance and the energy dissipation increased when thickness of stiffener beam, thickness of stiffener angles were increased in the test specimens. And also, while stiffness of joints, the bending moment capacity and the maximum bending moment increased with the increasing thickness of stiffener beam, these values decreased with the increasing thickness of stiffener angles. So, it is observed that the beam stiffener of angles are important in improving resistance moment of beam-to-column semi-rigid joints.

Keywords: bolted angles connection, semi-rigid joints, ductility of a joint, angles and beams stiffeners

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8 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun


A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

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7 2D Numerical Analysis for Determination of the Effect of Bored Piles Constructed against the Landslide near Karabuk University Stadium

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Burak Turk, Mahmut Candan


Landslides cause remarkable damage and loss of human life every year around the world. They may be made more likely by factors such as earthquakes, heavy precipitation, and incorrect construction activities near or on slopes. The stadium of Karabük University is located at the bottom of a very high slope. After construction of the stadium, severe deformations were observed on the social activity area surrounding the stadium. Some inclinometers were placed behind the stadium to detect the possible landslide activity. According to measurements of the inclinometers, irregular soil movements were detected at depths between 20 m and 45 m. Also, significant heaves and settlements were observed behind the stadium walls located at the toe of the slope. The heaves indicate that the stadium walls were under threat of a significant landslide. After inclinometer readings and field observations, the potential failure geometry was estimated. The protection system was designed based on numerous numerical analysis performed by 2-D Plaxis software. After the design was completed, protective geotechnical work was started. Before the geotechnical work began, new inclinometers were installed to monitor earth movement during the work and afterward. The total horizontal length of the possible failure surface is 220 m. Geotechnical work included two-row-pile construction and three-row-pile construction on the slope. The bored piles were 120 cm in diameter for two-row-pile construction, and 150 cm in diameter for three-row-pile construction. Pile length is 31.30 m for two-row-pile construction and 31.40 m for three-row-pile construction. The distance between two-row-pile and three-row-pile construction is 60 m. With these bored piles, the landslide was divided into three parts. In this way, the earth's pressure was reduced. After a number of inclinometer readings, it was seen that deformation continued during the work, but after the work was done, the movement reversed, and total deformation stayed in mm dimension. It can be said that the protection work eliminated the possible landslide.

Keywords: landslide, landslide protection, inclinometer measurement, bored piles

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6 The Joint Attention Training as Early Occupational Therapy Intervention in Children with Autism

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Sema Gul Turk, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran


The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of joint attention training on communication skills and visual perception skills in autistic children. Eight children between 4 and six years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form, Social Communication Questionnaire, Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 4 (MVPT-4) were applied to the participants before intervention and after the intervention. Joint attention training was given three times a week for six weeks in total 18 sessions. Four of the children with autism who participate in the study (50%) were male, four (50%) were female and the mean age was 5,25±0,70. The Social Communication Scale score for children with autism was 13.62 ± 3.73 before the joint attention training and 11.37 ± 4.10 after the training. It was observed that social communication skills improved, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Pre-education autistic children's Autism Behavioral Control score was 55,37 ± 9,94, whereas it was 40,12 ± 15,57 after training. There was a statistically significant improvement in sensory, relationship building, body and object use, language skills, social and self-care skills of autistic children in the autistic behavior checklist subscale after joint attention training (p < 0.05). MVPT 4 score before intervention in children with autism was 14.62 ± 6.65; and 19,50 ± 5,18 after the intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in visual perceptual skills without a motor in children with autism after the intervention (p < 0.05). This abstract is the pilot study of the joint attention training involving planned long-term (12 weeks) and more autistic children. A greater number of autistic children for longer period suggest that joint attention training will also lead to statistically significant improvements in social communication skills. It is thought that the joint attention training that is applied for a longer period in early childhood occupational therapy in children with autism will be beneficial for social communication, self-care skills and visual perception skills of autistic children.

Keywords: autism, joint attention, social communication, visual perception

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5 Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan: Spatial Distribution, Mineralization Control and Sources

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Harold Wilson Tumwitike Mapoma, Syed Zahid Aziz, Mahmut Ince


This study investigated the spatial variations of groundwater chemistry used by communities in Lahore city with emphasis on arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) levels. A total of 472 tubewell samples were collected from 7 towns and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, HCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, F- and As. There were significant spatial variations observed for total hardness, TDS, HCO3, NO3 and As. In general, the south-east of the city displayed higher TH and HCO3 while the north-east showed significantly higher As concentrations attributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer and industrial activities. In most cases, As was higher than WHO limit value. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and commercial wastewater into River Ravi is the cause of elevated NO3 observed in the north-west compared to other places in the area. Investigation of the groundwater type revealed facies in the order: Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4-Cl > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3. The plausible mineralization control mechanism seems to be that of carbonate weathering, although silicate weathering is probable. Moreover, PHREEQC model results showed that the groundwater was under saturated with respect to evaporites (anhydrite, fluorite, gypsum and halite) while generally equilibrium to saturated with respect to aragonite, calcite and dolomite. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that pH significantly affected As, F, NO3 and NO2 while HCO3 contributing most to the observed TDS values in Lahore. It is concluded that inherent mineral dissolution/ precipitation, pH, oxic conditions, anthropogenic activities, atmospheric transport/ wet deposition, microbial activities and surface soil characteristics play their significant roles in elevating both As and F in the city's groundwater.

Keywords: Lahore, arsenic, fluoride, groundwater

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4 Defining the Customers' Color Preference for the Apparel Industry in Terms of Chromaticity Coordinates

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın


Fashion designers create lots of dresses, suits, shoes, and other clothing and accessories, which are purchased every year by consumers. Fashion trends, sketches of designs, accessories affect the apparel goods, but colors make the finishing touches to an outfit. In all fields of apparel men's, women's, and children's wear, including casual wear, suits, sportswear, formal wear, outerwear, maternity, and intimate apparel, color sells. Thus, specialization in color in apparel is a basic concern each season. The perception of color is the key to sales for every sector in textile business. Mechanism of color perception, cognition in brain and color emotion are unique subjects, which scientists have been investigating for many years. The parameters of color may not be corresponding to visual scales since human emotions induced by color are completely subjective. However, with a very few exception each manufacturer concern their top selling colors for each season through seasonal sales reports of apparel companies. This paper examines sensory and instrumental methods for quantifying color of fabrics and investigates the relationship between fabric color and sale numbers. 5 top selling colors for each season from 10 leading apparel companies in the same segment are taken. The compilation is based according to the sales of the companies for 5 to 10 years. The research’s main concern is the corelation with the magnitude of seasonal color selling figures and the CIE chromaticity coordinates. The colors are chosen from the globally accepted Pantone Textile Color System and the three-dimentional measurement system CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is used, L* representing the degree of lightness of color, a* the degree of color ranging from magenta to green, and b* the degree of color ranging from blue to yellow. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of relating color perceptance to a laboratory instrument yielding measurements in the CIELAB system. Our approach is to obtain a total of a hundred reference fabrics to be measured on a laboratory spectrophotometer calibrated to the CIELAB color system. Relationships between the CIE tristimulus (X, Y, Z) and CIELAB (L*, a*, b*) are examined and are reported herein.

Keywords: CIELAB, CIE tristimulus, color preference, fashion

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3 Fillet Chemical Composition of Sharpsnout Seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) from Wild and Cage-Cultured Conditions

Authors: Oğuz Taşbozan, Celal Erbaş, Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Mahmut Ali Gökçe


Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and particularly the levels and ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are important for biological functions in humans and recognized as essential components of human diet. According to the terms of many different points of view, the nutritional composition of fish in culture conditions and caught from wild are wondered by the consumers. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cage-cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream which has been preferred by the consumers as an economical important fish species in Turkey. The fish were caught from wild and obtained from cage-cultured commercial companies. Eight fish were obtained for each group, and their average weights of the samples were 245.8±13.5 g for cultured, 149.4±13.3 g for wild samples. All samples were stored in freezer (-18 °C) and analyses were carried out in triplicates, using homogenized boneless fish fillets. Proximate compositions (protein, ash, moisture and lipid) were determined. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by a GC Clarous 500 with auto sampler (Perkin–Elmer, USA). Proximate compositions of cage-cultured and wild samples of sharpsnout seabream were found statistical differences in terms of proximate composition between the groups. The saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and PUFA amounts of cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream were significantly different. ω3/ω6 ratio was higher in the cultured group. Especially in protein level and lipid level of cultured samples was significantly higher than wild counterparts. One of the reasons for this, cultured species exposed to continuous feeding. This situation had a direct effect on their body lipid content. The fatty acid composition of fish differs depending on a variety of factors including species, diet, environmental factors and whether they are farmed or wild. The higher levels of MUFA in the cultured fish may be explained with the high content of monoenoic fatty acids in the feed of cultured fish as in some other species. The ω3/ω6 ratio is a good index for comparing the relative nutritional value of fish oils. In our study, the cultured sharpsnout seabream appears to be better nutritious in terms of ω3/ω6. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5780.

Keywords: Diplodus puntazo, cage cultured, PUFA, fatty acid

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2 The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Mediated Cardiotoxicity

Authors: Mahmut Sozmen, Alparslan Kadir Devrim, Yonca Betil Kabak, Tuba Devrim


Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of deaths in the worldwide. Mature cardiomyocytes do not have the ability to regenerate instead fibrous tissue proliferate and granulation tissue to fill out. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration for the cardiomyocyte regeneration in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The experiment was performed on 84 male rats (6 months old) in 4 group each contains 21 rats. Saline applied subcutaneously (1 ml/kg) two times with 24 hours intervals to the rats in control group (Group 1). Recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally in group 2 on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. days on same dates in group 4. Isoproterenol dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally (85mg/kg/day) two times with 24 hours intervals to the groups 3 and 4. Rats in group 4 further received recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline intraperitoneally starting one day after the final isoproterenol administration on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Following the final application of periostin rats continued to feed routinely with pelleted chow and water ad libitum for further seven days. At the end of 7th day rats sacrificed, blood and heart tissue samples collected for the immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Angiogenesis in response to tissue damage, is a highly dynamic process regulated by signals from the surrounding extracellular matrix and blood serum. In this project, VEGF, ANGPT, bFGF, TGFβ are the key factors that contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between mitosis and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, PCNA, Ki-67, Phopho-Histone H3), cell cycle activators and inhibitors (Cyclin D1, D2, A2, Cdc2), the origin of regenerating cells (cKit and CD45) were examined. Present results revealed that periostin stimulated cardiomyocye cell-cycle re-entry in both normal and MCA damaged cardiomyocytes and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin contributes to cardiomyocyte regeneration during the healing period following myocardial infarction which provides a better understanding of its role of this mechanism, improving recovery rates and it is expected to contribute the lack of literature on this subject. Acknowledgement: This project was financially supported by Turkish Scientific Research Council- Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Research Support Group (TUBİTAK-TOVAG; Project No: 114O734), Ankara, TURKEY.

Keywords: cardiotoxicity, immunohistochemistry, isoproterenol, periostin

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1 Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning

Authors: Tuba Denkceken, Ayse Nur Sarı, Volkan Ihsan Tore, Mahmut Denkceken


The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).

Keywords: motorized spectroscopy, phantom, scanning system, tissue scanning

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