Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

48 Possible Protective Role of Angiotensin II Antagonist on Bacterial Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury: Morphological Study on Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Mohamed Bakry Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Ehab El-Din Mustafa, Joseph Naiem Sabet Aziz, Sarah Mahmoud Ali Kaooh

Abstract:

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the major challenges in intensive care medicine. The most common extrapulmonary cause of ALI is sepsis, accounting more than 30% of the cases in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has gained wide acceptance as a clinically relevant model of ALI. Lipopolysaccharide is a glycoprotein forming the major constituent of bacterial endotoxin. Losartan is angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists. It is widely used for management of hypertension. It was recently suggested that losartan protects against septic ALI. It would thereby prevent LPS-induced ALI. Aim of the work and design of the experiment: This work investigated the injurious effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ALI on adult male albino rat at 24 hours and 14 days of LPS administration and the possible protective role of losartan pretreatment. LPS has deteriorated animal survival and behavior. It increased lung weight and induced lung histological damage. These changes could be much reduced by the losartan pretreatment. Conclusion: Administration of losartan before LPS could largely reduce these LPS/ ALI induced short and long term alterations. It could be recommended that patients susceptible to developing ALI, as in ICU, should receive a protective dose of angitensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker as losartan.

Keywords: acute lung injury (ALI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), losartan

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47 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: broiler chickens, Echinacea purporea, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide

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46 Effects of β-Glucan on the Release of Nitric Oxide by RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

Authors: Eun Young Choi, So Hui Choe, Jin Yi Hyeon, Ji Young Jin, Bo Ram Keum, Jong Min Lim, Hyung Rae Cho, Kwang Keun Cho, In Soon Choi

Abstract:

This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of inflammatory mediator in macrophagocyte, which was processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia, a pathogen related to allergy. The incubated layer was used for nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of NF-κB was measured using ELISA-based kit. In RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by E.coli LPS, β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO. β-glucan increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cell that was stimulated by E.coli LPS, and HO-1 activation was inhibited by SnPP. This shows that NO production induced by LPS is related to the inhibition effect of β-glucan. The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by LPS were not influenced by β-glucan, and IκB-α decomposition was not influenced either. Instead, β-glucan remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 that was induced by E.coli LPS. Overall, β-glucan inhibited the production of NO in macrophagocyte that was vitalized by E.coli LPS through HO-1 induction and STAT1 pathways inhibition in this research. As the host inflammation reaction control by β-glucan weakens the progress of allergy, β-glucan can be used as an effective treatment method.

Keywords: β-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), nitric oxide (NO), RAW264.7 cells, STAT1

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45 Lipopolysaccharide Induced Avian Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed, with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: differential expression, heterophils, cytokines, defensin, TLR

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44 Mannose-Functionalized Lipopolysaccharide Nanoparticles for Macrophage-Targeted Dual Delivery of Rifampicin and Isoniazid

Authors: Mumuni Sumaila, Viness Pillay, Yahya E. Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Pierre P. Kondiah

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious challenge to public health globally, despite every effort put together to curb the disease. Current TB therapeutics available have proven to be inefficient due to a multitude of drawbacks that range from serious adverse effects/drug toxicity to inconsistent bioavailability, which ultimately contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant TB. An effective ‘cargo’ system designed to cleverly deliver therapeutic doses of anti-TB drugs to infection sites and in a sustained-release manner may provide a better therapeutic choice towards winning the war against TB. In the current study, we investigated mannose-functionalized lipopolysaccharide hybrid nanoparticles for safety and efficacy towards macrophage-targeted simultaneous delivery of the two first-line anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RF) and isoniazid (IS). RF-IS-loaded lipopolysaccharide hybrid nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent injection technique (SIT), incorporating soy lecithin (SL) and low molecular weight chitosan (CS) as the lipid and polysaccharide components, respectively. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles were obtained through the reaction of the aldehyde group of mannose with free amine functionality present at the surface of the nanoparticles. The functionalized nanocarriers were spherical with average particle size and surface charge of 107.83 nm and +21.77 mV, respectively, and entrapment efficiencies (EE) were 53.52% and 69.80% for RF and IS, respectively. FTIR spectrum revealed high-intensity bands between 1663 cm⁻¹ and 1408 cm⁻¹ wavenumbers (absent in non-functionalized nanoparticles), which could be attributed to the C=N stretching vibration produced by the formation of Schiff’s base (–N=CH–) during the mannosylation reaction. In vitro release studies showed a sustained-release profile for RF and IS, with less than half of the total payload released over a 48-hour period. The nanocarriers were biocompatible and safe, with more than 80% cell viability achieved when incubated with RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations 30 to 500 μg/mL over a 24-hour period. Cellular uptake studies (after a 24-hour incubation period with the murine macrophage cells, RAW 264.7) revealed a 13- and a 9-fold increase in intracellular accumulation of RF and IS, respectively, when compared with the unformulated RF+IS solution. A 6- and a 3-fold increase in intracellular accumulation of RF and IS, respectively, were observed when compared with the non-functionalized nanoparticles. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy images showed nanoparticle internalization and accumulation within the RAW 264.7 cells, which was more significant in the mannose-functionalized system compared to the non-functionalized nanoparticles. The overall results suggested that the fabricated mannose-functionalized lipopolysaccharide nanoparticles are a safe and promising platform for macrophage-targeted delivery of anti-TB therapeutics. However, in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies are required to further substantiate the therapeutic efficacy of the nanosystem.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis therapeutics, hybrid nanosystem, lipopolysaccharide nanoparticles, macrophage-targeted delivery

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43 The Role of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Mediator in BV2 Microglial Cells

Authors: Nootchanat Mairuae, Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effect, the anti-inflammatory effects, and the molecular mechanisms of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The BV2 cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of okra. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 was detected by Western blot assay. Treatment of BV2 microglia cells with okra was found to significantly suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator NO as well as ROS compared to untreated cells. The levels of LPS-induced NF-kB p65 phosphorylation were significantly decreased following okra treatment too. These results show that okra exerts anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. This suggests okra might be a valuable agent for treatment of anti-neuroinflammatory diseases mediated by microglial cells.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Linn, microglia, neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen spicy

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42 Simultaneous Targeting of MYD88 and Nur77 as an Effective Approach for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

Authors: Uzma Saqib, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) has long been considered a central player in the inflammatory pathway. Recent studies clearly suggest that it is an important therapeutic target in inflammation. On the other hand, a recent study on the interaction between the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) and p38α, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammatory response, suggests this binary complex as a therapeutic target. In this study, we have designed inhibitors that can inhibit both MYD88 and Nur77 at the same time. Since both MYD88 and Nur77 are an integral part of the pathways involving lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation, we tried to target both proteins with the same library in order to retrieve compounds having dual inhibitory properties. To perform this, we developed a homodimeric model of MYD88 and, along with the crystal structure of Nur77, screened a virtual library of compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database containing ~61,000 compounds. We analyzed the resulting hits for their efficacy for dual binding and probed them for developing a common pharmacophore model that could be used as a prototype to screen compound libraries as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal dual-target inhibitors. Thus, our study explores the identification of novel leads having dual inhibiting effects due to binding to both MYD88 and Nur77 targets.

Keywords: drug design, Nur77, MYD88, inflammation

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41 Let-7 Mirnas Regulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Bovine Endometrial Cells after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge by Targeting TNFα

Authors: S. Ibrahim, D. Salilew-Wondim, M. Hoelker, C. Looft, E. Tholen, C. Grosse-Brinkhaus, K. Schellander, C. Neuhoff, D. Tesfaye

Abstract:

Bovine endometrial cells appear to have a key role in innate immune defense of the female genital tract. A better understanding of molecular changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes expression may identify reliable prognostic indicators for cows that will resolve inflammation and resume cyclicity. In the current study, we hypothesized that let-7 miRNAs family has a primary role in the innate immune defence of the endometrium tissue against bacterial infection, which is partly achieved via regulating mRNA stability of pro-inflammatory cytokines at the post-transcriptional level. Therefore, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, primary bovine endometrial cells were challenged with clinical (3.0 μg/ml) and sub-clinical (0.5 μg/ml) doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h. In the 2nd experiment, we have investigated the potential role of let-7 miRNAs (let-7a and let-7f) using gain and loss of function approaches. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1 (TGFB1I1) and serum deprivation response (SDPR) genes were validated using reporter assay. Here we addressed for the first time that let-7 miRNAs have a precise role in bovine endometrium, where LPS dysregulated let-7 miRNAs family expression was associated with an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine level by directly/indirectly targeting the TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), TGFβ1I1 and SDPR genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that TNFα, TGFβ1I1 and SDPR were identified and validated as novel let-7 miRNAs targets and could have a distinct role in inflammatory immune response of LPS challenged bovine endometrial cells. Our data represent a new finding by which uterine homeostasis is maintained through functional regulation of let-7a by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNFα and IL6) at the mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that LPS serves as a negative regulator of let-7 miRNAs expression and provides a mechanism for the persistent pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is a hallmark of bovine subclinical endometritis.

Keywords: bovine endometrial cells, let-7, lipopolysaccharide, pro-inflammatory cytokines

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40 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin

Authors: Dibyendu Das, Santanu Kumar Pal

Abstract:

Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.

Keywords: endotoxin, interface, lactoferrin, lipopolysaccharide

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39 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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38 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: LPS, liver damage, magnesium, septicemia

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37 Biochemical and Cellular Correlates of Essential Oil of Pistacia Integerrima against in vitro and Murine Models of Bronchial Asthma

Authors: R. L. Shirole, N. L. Shirole, R. B. Patil, M. N. Saraf

Abstract:

The present investigation aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of antiasthmatic action of essential oil of Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis galls (EOPI). EOPI was investigated for its potential antiasthmatic action using in vitro antiallergic assays mast cell degranulation and soyabean lipoxidase enzyme activit, and spasmolytic action using isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. In vivo studies included lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial inflammation in rats and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs using spirometry. Data was analysed by GraphPad Prism 5.01 and results were expressed as means ± SEM. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. EOPI inhibits 5-lipoxidase enzyme activity, DPPH scavenging activity and erythropoietin- induced angiogenesis. It showed dose dependent anti-allergic activity by inhibiting compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. The finding that essential oil induced inhibition of transient contraction of acetylcholine in calcium free medium, and relaxation of S-(-)-Bay 8644-precontracted isolated guinea pig ileum jointly suggest that suggesting that the L-subtype Cav channel is involved in spasmolytic action of EOPI. Treatment with EOPI dose dependently (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited lipopolysaccharide- induced increased in total cell count, neutrophil count, nitrate-nitrite, total protein, albumin levels in bronchoalveolar fluid and myeloperoxidase levels in lung homogenates. Mild diffused lesions involving focal interalveolar septal, intraluminal infiltration of neutrophils were observed in EOPI (7.5 &15 mg/kg) pretreated while no abnormality was detected in EOPI (30 mg/kg) and roflumilast (1mg/kg) pretreated rats. Roflumilast was used as standard. EOPI reduced the respiratory flow due to gasping in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of EOPI in bronchial asthma possibly related to its ability to inhibit L-subtype Cav channel, mast cell stabilization, antioxidant, angiostatic and through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Keywords: asthma, lipopolysaccharide, spirometry, Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis, essential oil

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36 Anti-Melanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Opuntia humifusa

Authors: Yonghwa Lee, Yoon Suk Kim, Yongsub Yi

Abstract:

This study was to confirm the effects of anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects from Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts. A potent anti-oxidant activity was shown from the leaf extract at IC50 value of 38.33±1.07 μg/mL and fruit extract at IC50 value of 40.23±2.21 μg/mL by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Also, phenolic contents were confirmed total phenolic assay by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fraction of taxifolin from leaf extract was identified using HPLC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extracts of Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem were confirmed about toxicity effect in B16 F1 by cell viability. Melanin contents were decreased. Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts had a positive effect of melanin synthesis inhibition for skin whitening. In investigating the anti-inflammatory activities of Opuntia humifusa, the results of cell viability indicated that taxifolin did not show cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 cells at 500 μM of concentration. The results show that taxifolin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of Nitrite oxide (NO). In addition, taxifolin indicated the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α and interleukin (IL) -6 productions by cytokine assay and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression by western blot analysis, meaning that taxifolin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Our results suggested that taxifolin from Opuntia humifusa has anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: anti-melanogenesis, anti-inflammatory, Opuntia humifusa, taxifolin

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35 Contribution of NLRP3 Inflammasome to the Protective Effect of 5,14-HEDGE, A 20-HETE Mimetic, against LPS-Induced Septic Shock in Rats

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Mahesh P. Paudyal, John R. Falck, Kafait U. Malik

Abstract:

We hypothesized that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) mimetics such as N-(20-hydroxyeicosa-5[Z],14[Z]-dienoyl)glycine (5,14-HEDGE) may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aims to assess the effect of 5,14-HEDGE on the LPS-induced changes in nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg) or LPS (10 mg/kg) at time 0. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. 5,14-HEDGE (30 mg/kg) was administered to rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were isolated for measurement of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, and β-actin proteins as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Blood pressure decreased by 33 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. In the LPS-treated rats, tissue protein expression of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, and ASC in addition to IL-1β levels were increased. 5,14-HEDGE prevented the LPS-induced changes. Our findings suggest that inhibition of renal, cardiac, and vascular formation/activity of NLRP3/ASC/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome involved in the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE on LPS-induced septic shock in rats. This work was financially supported by the Mersin University (2015-AP3-1343) and USPHS NIH (PO1 HL034300).

Keywords: 5, 14-HEDGE, lipopolysaccharide, NLRP3, inflammasome, septic shock

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34 The Role of the STAT3 Signaling for Melatonergic Synthetic Pathway in the Rat Pineal Gland

Authors: Simona Moravcova, Jiri Novotny, Zdenka Bendova

Abstract:

The pineal gland of the vertebrate brain is a circumventricular organ which serves as a major neuroendocrine gland with the primary function of rhythmic secretion of neurohormone melatonin under the control of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Soon after the onset of the darkness, the activity of the key rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), raises due to the increased release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons terminating on the parenchymal cells where it binds to β-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin codes the length of the night, and it is well recognized for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the effect of the immune system on the melatonin biosynthesis and the precise role of the STAT3 in the signaling pathway leading to the expression of AANAT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the essential component in the outer surface membrane of gram-negative bacteria and acts as a strong stimulator of natural and innate immunity. STAT3 acts as an important factor in immune response. Here we investigated the effect of LPS on the components of the melatonergic synthetic pathway in the pineal gland. The experiments were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The changes in AANAT activity were determined by radioenzymatic assay. PCR analyses were carried out to detect aa-nat, icer, spi-3 and stat3 gene expression. From our results, it is apparent that the high basal level of phosphorylated forms of STAT3 can be elevated after systemic as well as in vitro administration of LPS. Our experiments have shown that LPS reduces melatonin synthesis, nevertheless, the activity of AANAT was increased. Moreover, the basal level of phosphorylated STAT3 counteracts β-adrenergic receptor-mediated aa-nat gene expression and sustains its own and spi-3 gene expression. In conclusion, LPS can affect immunomodulators such as melatonin in the pineal gland.

Keywords: AANAT, lipopolysaccharide, pineal gland, rat, STAT3

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33 Peptidoglycan Vaccine-On-Chip against a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Experimental Sepsis Model

Authors: Katerina Bakela, Ioanna Zerva, Irene Athanassakis

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression (incretion of MDSCs cells and Tregs, imbalance of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines) and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the protective role of Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan (PG) pre-activated vaccine-on chip in endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2mg/g LPS. Such protocol allowed longer survival, necessary in the prospect of the therapeutic treatment application. The so-called vaccine-on-chip consists of a 3-dimensional laser micro-texture Si-scaffold loaded with BALB/c mouse macrophages and activated in vitro with 1μg/ml PG, which exert its action upon subcutaneous implantation. The LPS treatment significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+, CD3z+, and CD19+ cells, while increasing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), CD25+, and Foxp3+ cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and production of IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-18 while acquiring severe sepsis phenotype as defined by the murine sepsis scoring. The in vivo application of PG pre-activated vaccine-on chip significantly decreased the percent of CD11b+, Gr1+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, while decreasing IL-6 and TNF-a in the serum, allowing survival to all animals tested and rescuing the severity of sepsis phenotype. In conclusion, these results reveal a promising mode of action of PG pre-activated vaccine-on chip in LPS endotoxemia, strengthening; thus, the use of treatment is septic patients.

Keywords: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, peptidoglycan, sepsis, Si-scaffolds

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32 Inflammatory Changes Caused by Lipopolysaccharide in Odontoblasts

Authors: Virve Pääkkönen, Heidi M. Cuffaro, Leo Tjäderhane

Abstract:

Objectives: Odontoblasts are the outermost cell layer of dental pulp and form the dentin. Importance of bacterial products, e.g. lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, have been indicated in the pathogenesis of pulpitis. Gram-positive bacteria are more prevalent in superficial carious lesion while the amount gram-negative is higher in the deep lesions. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of these bacterial products on inflammatory response of pulp tissue. Interleukins (IL) were of special interest. Various ILs have been observed in the dentin-pulp complex of carious tooth in vivo. Methods: Tissue culture method was used for testing the effect of LTA and LPS on human odontoblasts. Enzymatic isolation technique was used to extract living odontoblasts for cell cultures. DNA microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to characterize the changes in the expression profile of the tissue cultured odontoblasts. Laser microdissection was used to cut healthy and affected dentin and odontoblast layer directly under carious lesion for experiments. Cytokine array detecting 80 inflammatory cytokines was used to analyze the protein content of conditioned culture media as well as dentin and odontoblasts from the carious teeth. Results: LPS caused increased gene expression IL-1α, and -8 and decrease of IL-1β, 12 , -15 and -16 after 1h treatment, while after 24h treatment decrease of IL-8, -11 and 23 mRNAs was observed. LTA treatment caused cell death in the tissue cultured odontoblasts but in in the cell culture but not in cell culture. Cytokine array revealed at least 2-fold down-regulation of IL-1β, -10 and -12 in response to LPS treatment. Cytokine array of odontoblasts of carious teeth, as well as LPS-treated tissue-cultured odontoblasts, revealed increased protein amounts of IL-16, epidermal growth factor (EGF), angiogenin and IGFBP-1 as well as decreased amount of fractalkine. In carious dentin, increased amount of IL-1β, EGF and fractalkine was observed, as well as decreased level of GRO-1 and HGF. Conclusion: LPS caused marked changes in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in odontoblasts. Similar changes were observed in the odontoblasts cut directly under the carious lesion. These results help to shed light on the inflammatory processes happening during caries.

Keywords: inflammation, interleukin, lipoteichoic acid, odontoblasts

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31 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristic Acid through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Authors: Hyun Ji Hyun, Hyo Sun Suh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Byung-Mu Lee

Abstract:

Scope: This study is focused on the effect of myristic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods and results: For the experiment, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used. Results showed that treatment with myristic acid can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, myristic acid significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators and down-regulating UVB-induced intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, myristic acid reduced the expression of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α and ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the myristic acid could reduce LPS-induced inflammation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region

Keywords: anti-inflammation, myristic acid, ROS, ultraviolet light

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30 Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils in Response to LPS

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover, this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: differential expression, heterophils, cytokines, defensin, TLR

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29 Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)-Differentiated THP-1 Monocytes as a Validated Microglial-Like Model in Vitro

Authors: Amelia J. McFarland, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

Abstract:

Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS), contributing to both innate and adaptive immune response, and brain homeostasis. Activation of microglia occurs in response to a multitude of pathogenic stimuli in their microenvironment; this induces morphological and functional changes, resulting in a state of acute neuroinflammation which facilitates injury resolution. Adequate microglial function is essential for the health of the neuroparenchyma, with microglial dysfunction implicated in numerous CNS pathologies. Given the critical role that these macrophage-derived cells play in CNS homeostasis, there is a high demand for microglial models suitable for use in neuroscience research. The isolation of primary human microglia, however, is both difficult and costly, with microglial activation an unwanted but inevitable result of the extraction process. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative experimental models which exhibit morphological, biochemical and functional characteristics of human microglia without the difficulties associated with primary cell lines. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes would display microglial-like qualities following an induced differentiation, and, therefore, be suitable for use as surrogate microglia. To achieve this aim, THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes from acute monocytic leukaemia were differentiated with a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (50-200 nM) using two different protocols: a 5-day continuous PMA exposure or a 3-day continuous PMA exposure followed by a 5-day rest in normal media. In each protocol and at each PMA concentration, microglial-like cell morphology was assessed through crystal violet staining and the presence of CD-14 microglial / macrophage cell surface marker. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (055: B5) was then added at a range of concentrations from 0-10 mcg/mL to activate the PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Functional microglial-like behavior was evaluated by quantifying the release of prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α using mediator-specific ELISAs. Furthermore, production of global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined fluorometrically using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) respectively. Following PMA-treatment, it was observed both differentiation protocols resulted in cells displaying distinct microglial morphology from 10 nM PMA. Activation of differentiated cells using LPS significantly augmented IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 release at all LPS concentrations under both differentiation protocols. Similarly, a significant increase in DCFH-DA and DAF-2-DA fluorescence was observed, indicative of increases in ROS and NO production. For all endpoints, the 5-day continuous PMA treatment protocol yielded significantly higher mediator levels than the 3-day treatment and 5-day rest protocol. Our data, therefore, suggests that the differentiation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with PMA yields a homogenous microglial-like population which, following stimulation with LPS, undergo activation to release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with microglial activation. Thus, the use of PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells represents a suitable microglial model for in vitro research.

Keywords: differentiation, lipopolysaccharide, microglia, monocyte, neuroscience, THP-1

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28 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Büyüksırıt, H. Kuleaşan

Abstract:

Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, yeast, toxic protein, glycoprotein

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27 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bioactive Compounds Derived from Thunbergia laurifolia Aqueous Leave Extract

Authors: Marasri Junsi, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Chutha Takahashi Yupanqui, Worrapong Usawakesmanee

Abstract:

Thunbergia laurifolia has been used for folklore medicine purposes and consumed in the form of herbal tea in Thailand since ancient times. To evaluate the bioactive compounds of aqueous leave extract possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activities were examined by total extractable phenolic content (TPC), total extractable flavonoid content (TFC), ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP reducing antioxidant power expressed as mg of gallic acid trolox and caffeic acid for the equivalents. Results indicated that the extract had high TPC and antioxidant activities. In addition, the HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of caffeic acid and rutin as bioactive compounds. Exposure of cells with the extract using nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly reduced NO production and increased cell proliferation. The obtained results demonstrated that the extract contains a high potential to be used as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities, RAW264.7

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26 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

Abstract:

Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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25 Novel Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Macrophage Phenotypic Polarization

Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Anjali Roy, Dongfang Liu, Deepak Bhatnagar, Ravinder Ravinder, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Macrophages polarize to proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 states with distinct physiological functions. This transition within the M1 to M2 phenotypes decides the nature, duration, and severity of an inflammatory response. However, inspite of a substantial understanding of the fate of these phenotypes, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have investigated the role of Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) mediated regulation of Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in macrophages as a critical effector of macrophage phenotypic change. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins. We determined that NOS1-derived nitric oxide (NO) facilitate Fos and jun interaction which induces IL12 & IL23 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 inhibits Fos and jun interaction but increases ATF2 and Fos dimerization. Switching of Fos and jun dimer to ATF2 and jun dimerization switches phenotype from IL–12high IL-23high IL-10low to IL–12low IL-23lowIL-10high phenotype, respectively. Together, these findings highlight a key role of the TLR4-NOS1-AP1 signaling axis in regulating macrophage polarization.

Keywords: inflammation, macrophage, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, activator protein 1 (AP-1), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1)

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24 Punica granatum (Pomegranate) of a Libyan Variety Exhibits in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Authors: Lamees A. Ben Saad, Kah Hwi Kim, Chin Chew Quah, Mustafa Shahimi

Abstract:

Background: Punica granatum (pomegranate) was used as a traditional medicine in different parts of the world. It has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate pomegranate fraction (EtOAc) by determination of its inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX2) release from RAW264.7cells. Methods: The inhibitory effect of EtOAc was evaluated on (LPS) induced NO production, PGE2, and IL-6 quantified by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit. COX2 production is an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity and was estimated by Western blotting. Results: EtOAc potentially inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and IL-6 production. With these findings, it was evident that the EtOAc could reduce the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Western blotting. Conclusion: The results emphasize potential therapeutic applications of Punica granatum in the treatment of inflammation.

Keywords: inflammation, Punica granatum, cytotoxicity, cytokines

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23 Ethanol Extract of Potentilla pradoxa Nutt Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses via NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation

Authors: Hae-Jun Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

Potentilla species (Rosasease) have been used in traditional medicine to treat different ailment, disease or malady. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of NUTT (EPP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. EPP suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, EPP reduced the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by downregulation of their promoter activities. EPP inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at production and mRNA levels. Molecularly, EPP attenuated the LPS-induced transcriptional activity, and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this was associated with a decrease of translocation and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB by inhibiting the inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) degradation and IκB kinase-α/β (IKK-α/β) phosphorylation. Furthermore, EPP suppressed the LPS-induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in nuclear. EPP also reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), such as p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK). In a sepsis model, pretreatment with EPP reduced the LPS-induced lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of EPP were associated with the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, activator protein-1, nuclear factor κB, Potentilla paradoxa Nutt

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22 The Role of Inflammasomes for aβ Microglia Phagocytosis in Alzheimer Disease

Authors: Francesca La Rosa , Marina Saresella, Mario Clerici, Michael Heneka

Abstract:

Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the modulation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Microglia, the main immune effector of the brain, are able to migrate to sites of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition to eliminate Aβ phagocytosis upon activation by multiple receptors: Toll like receptors and scavenger receptors. The issue of whether microglia are able to eliminate pathological lesions such as neurofibrillary tangles or senile plaques from AD brain still remains the matter of controversy. Recent data suggest that the Nod Like Receptor 3 (NLRP3), multiprotein inflammasome complexes, plays a role in AD, as its activation in the microglia by Aβ triggers. IL-1β is produced as a biologically inactive pro-form and requires caspase-1 for activation and secretion. Caspase-1 activity is controlled by inflammasomes. We investigate about the importance of inflammasomes complex in the Aβ phagocytosis and its degradation. The preliminary results of phagocytosis assay and immunofluorescent experiment on primary Microglia cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) an Aβ exposure show that a previous treatment with LPS reduce Aβ phagocytosis. Different results were obtained in Primary Microglia wild type, NLRP3 and ASC Knockout suggesting a real inflammasomes involvement in Alzheimer's pathology. Inflammasomes inactivation reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines prolonging the protective activity of microglia and Aβ clearance, featuring a typical microglia phenotype of the early stage of AD disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, innate immunity, neuroinflammation, NLRP3

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21 The Mechanism of Parabacteroides goldsteinii on Immune Modulation and Anti-Obsogenicity

Authors: Yu-Ling Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, Eric Wu, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Tzu-Lung Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai

Abstract:

It is urgent that novel anti-obesity measures that are safe, effective and widely available are developed for counteracting the rapidly growing obesity epidemics. In the present study, we show that a probiotic bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii screened through culture under the high molecular weight polysaccharides prepared from two iconic medicinal fungi, the Ganoderma lucidum and the Hirsutella sinensis, reduced body weight by ca. 20% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The bacterium also decreased intestinal permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. Notably, oral administration of live, but not high temperature-killed, P. goldsteinii to HFD fed mice considerably reduces weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. A three months feeding of the mice with P. goldsteinii did not show any aberrant side effects, indicating the safety of this bacterium. Transcriptome analysis indicated that P. goldsteinii enhances immunity in resting dendritic cells, but reduces inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dendritic cells. On top, Naïve T-cells were skewed towards regulatory T-cells after encountering with dendritic cells (DCs) pretreated with P. goldsteinii. These results indicated P. goldsteinii showed anti-inflammatory effects and can work as a potential probiotic ameliorating obesogenicity and related metabolic syndromes.

Keywords: Parabacteroides goldsteinii, gut microbiome, obesity, immune modulation

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20 Suppression of Immunostimulatory Function of Dendritic Cells and Prolongation of Skin Allograft Survival by Dryocrassin

Authors: Hsin-Lien Lin, Ju-Hui Fu

Abstract:

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major professional antigen-presenting cells for the development of optimal T-cell immunity. DCs can be used as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of harmful immune responses, such as transplantation rejection. Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai (Aspiadaceae) is used for traditional herbal medicine in the region of East Asia. The root of this fern plant has been listed for treating inflammatory diseases. Dryocrassin is the tetrameric phlorophenone component derived from Dryopteris. Here, we tested the immunomodulatory potential of dryocrassin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro and in skin allograft transplantation in vivo. Results demonstrated that dryocrassin reduced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also blocked by dryocrassin. Moreover, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was lessened by dryocrassin. In addition, dryocrassin inhibited LPS-induced activation of IϰB kinase, JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as the translocation of NF-ϰB. Treatment with dryocrassin obviously diminished 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene- induced delayed-type hypersensitivity and prolonged skin allograft survival. Dryocrassin may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents for transplant rejection through the destruction of DC maturation and function.

Keywords: dryocrassin, dendritic cells, immunosuppression, skin allograft

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19 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

Abstract:

Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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