Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: lactoferrin

5 Prospects of Milk Protein as a Potential Alternative of Natural Antibiotic

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi


Many new and promising treatments for reducing or diminishing the adverse effects of microorganisms are being discovered day by day. On the other hand, the dairy industry is accelerating the economic wheel of Bangladesh. Considering all these facts, new thoughts were developed to isolate milk proteins by the present experiment for opening up a new era of developing natural antibiotics from milk. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein with multifunctional properties, is crucial to strengthening the immune system and also useful for commercial applications. The protein’s iron-binding capacity makes it undoubtedly advantageous to immune system modulation and different bacterial strains. For fulfilling the purpose, 4 of raw and 17 of commercially available milk samples were collected from different farms and stores in Bangladesh (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Cox’s Bazar). Protein quantification by nanodrop technology has confirmed that raw milk samples have better quantities of protein than the commercial ones. All the samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 18 pathogens, where raw milk samples showed a higher percentage of antibacterial activity. In addition to this, SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) was performed to identify lactoferrin in the milk samples. Lactoferrin was detected in 9 samples from which 4 were raw milk samples. Interestingly, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterotoxigenic E. coli significantly displayed sensitivity against lactoferrin collected from raw milk. Only Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, and ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) were susceptible to lactoferrin obtained from a commercial one. This study suggested that lactoferrin might be used as the potential alternative of antibiotics for many diseases and also can be used to reduce microbial deterioration in the food and feed industry.

Keywords: alternative of antibiotics, commercially available milk, lactoferrin, nanodrop technology, pathogens, raw milk

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4 Conservativeness of Functional Proteins in Bovine Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Technology

Authors: Sulhee Lee, Geon Kim, Young-Seo Park


Unlike the traditional milk sterilization methods (LTLT, HTST, or UHT), pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is a non-thermal pasteurization process. This technology minimizes energy required for heat treatment in food processing, changes in sensory properties, and physical losses. In this study, structural changes of bovine milk proteins, the amount of immunoproteins such as IgG, and their storability by PEF treatment were examined. When the changes of protein content in PEF-treated milk were examined using HPLC, the amounts of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin were reduced over 40% each, whereas those of κ-casein and β-casein did not change. The amount of α-casein in HTST milk was reduced to 50%. When PEF was applied to milk at the energy level of 250 kJ, the amounts of IgG, IgA, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin, and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) decreased by 43, 41, 35, 63, and 45%, respectively. When milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the level of 150 kJ, the concentrations of IgG, IgA, β-LG, lactoferrin, and α-LA were 56.6, 10.6, 554, 2.8 and 660.1 μg/mL, respectively. When the bovine milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the energy level of 180 kJ, storability of immunoproteins of milk was the highest and the concentrations of IgG, IgA, and β-LG decreased by 79.5, 6.5, and 134.5 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with the initial concentrations of those proteins. When bovine milk was stored at 4℃ after sterilization through HTST sterilizer followed by PEF process at the energy level of 200 kJ, the amount of lactoferrin decreased 7.3% after 36 days of storage, whereas that of lactoferrin of raw milk decreased 16.4%. Our results showed that PEF treatment did not change the protein structure nor induce protein denaturation in milk significantly when compared with LTLT or HTST sterilization. Also, LTLT or HTST process in combination with PEF were more effective than LTLT only or HTST only process in the conservation of immunoproteins in bovine milk.

Keywords: pulsed electric field, bovine milk, immunoproteins, sterilization

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3 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin

Authors: Dibyendu Das, Santanu Kumar Pal


Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.

Keywords: endotoxin, interface, lactoferrin, lipopolysaccharide

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2 Effect of Wheat Germ Agglutinin- and Lactoferrin-Grafted Catanionic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles on Targeting Delivery of Etoposide to Glioblastoma Multiforme

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, I-Hsin Wang


Catanionic solid lipid nanoparticles (CASLNs) with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and lactoferrin (Lf) were formulated for entrapping and releasing etoposide (ETP), crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and inhibiting the growth of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Microemulsified ETP-CASLNs were modified with WGA and Lf for permeating a cultured monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes and for treating malignant U87MG cells. Experimental evidence revealed that an increase in the concentration of catanionic surfactant from 5 μM to 7.5 μM reduced the particle size. When the concentration of catanionic surfactant increased from 7.5 μM to 12.5 μM, the particle size increased, yielding a minimal diameter of WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs at 7.5 μM of catanionic surfactant. An increase in the weight percentage of BW from 25% to 75% enlarged WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. In addition, an increase in the concentration of catanionic surfactant from 5 to 15 μM increased the absolute value of zeta potential of WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. It was intriguing that the increment of the charge as a function of the concentration of catanionic surfactant was approximately linear. WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs revealed an integral structure with smooth particle contour, displayed a lighter exterior layer of catanionic surfactant, WGA, and Lf and showed a rigid interior region of solid lipids. A variation in the concentration of catanionic surfactant between 5 μM and 15 μM yielded a maximal encapsulation efficiency of ETP ata 7.5 μM of catanionic surfactant. An increase in the concentration of Lf/WGA decreased the grafting efficiency of Lf/WGA. Also, an increase in the weight percentage of ETP decreased its encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, the release rate of ETP from WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs reduced with increasing concentration of catanionic surfactant, and WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs at 12.5 μM of catanionic surfactant exhibited a feature of sustained release. The order in the viability of HBMECs was ETP-CASLNs ≅ Lf-ETP-CASLNs ≅ WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs > ETP. The variation in the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of propidium iodide (PI) was negligible when the concentration of Lf increased. Furthermore, an increase in the concentration of WGA from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/mL insignificantly altered the TEER and permeability of PI. When the concentration of Lf increased from 2.5 to 7.5 μg/mL and the concentration of WGA increased from 2.5 to 5 μg/mL, the enhancement in the permeability of ETP was minor. However, 10 μg/mL of Lf promoted the permeability of ETP using Lf-ETP-CASLNs, and 5 and 10 μg/mL of WGA could considerably improve the permeability of ETP using WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. The order in the efficacy of inhibiting U87MG cells was WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs > Lf-ETP-CASLNs > ETP-CASLNs > ETP. As a result, WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs reduced the TEER, enhanced the permeability of PI, induced a minor cytotoxicity to HBMECs, increased the permeability of ETP across the BBB, and improved the antiproliferative efficacy of U87MG cells. The grafting of WGA and Lf is crucial to control the medicinal property of ETP-CASLNs and WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs can be promising colloidal carriers in GBM management.

Keywords: catanionic solid lipid nanoparticle, etoposide, glioblastoma multiforme, lactoferrin, wheat germ agglutinin

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1 Genetic Variation of Lactoferrin Gene and Its Association with Productive Traits in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Hassan R. Darwish, Amira M. Nowier


Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein involved in economically production traits like milk protein composition and skeletal structure in small ruminants including sheep and goat. So, LF gene - with its genetic polymorphisms associated with production traits - is considered a candidate genetic marker used in marker-assisted selection in goats. This study aimed to identify the different alleles and genotypes of this gene in three Egyptian goat breeds using PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 120 animals belonging to Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus goat breeds. Using specific primers, PCR amplified 247-bp fragments from exon 2 of LF goat gene. The PCR products were subjected to Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The results showed the presence of two genotypes GG and AG in the tested animals. The frequencies of both genotypes varied among the three tested breeds with the highest frequencies of GG genotype in all tested goat breeds. The sequence analysis of PCR products representing these two detected genotypes declared the presence of an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) substitution (G/A) among G and A alleles of this gene. The association between different LF genotypes and milk composition as well as body measurement was estimated. The comparison showed that the animals possess AG genotypes are superior over those with GG genotypes for different parameters of milk protein compositions and skeletal structures. This finding declared that allele A of LF gene is considered the promising marker for the productive traits in goat. In conclusion, the Egyptian goat breeds will be needed to enhance their milk protein composition and growth trait parameters through the increasing of allele A frequency in their herds depending on the superior production traits of this allele in goats.

Keywords: lLactoferrin gene, PCR-SSCP, SNPs, Egyptian goat

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