Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: losartan

5 Possible Protective Role of Angiotensin II Antagonist on Bacterial Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury: Morphological Study on Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Mohamed Bakry Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Ehab El-Din Mustafa, Joseph Naiem Sabet Aziz, Sarah Mahmoud Ali Kaooh


Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the major challenges in intensive care medicine. The most common extrapulmonary cause of ALI is sepsis, accounting more than 30% of the cases in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has gained wide acceptance as a clinically relevant model of ALI. Lipopolysaccharide is a glycoprotein forming the major constituent of bacterial endotoxin. Losartan is angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists. It is widely used for management of hypertension. It was recently suggested that losartan protects against septic ALI. It would thereby prevent LPS-induced ALI. Aim of the work and design of the experiment: This work investigated the injurious effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ALI on adult male albino rat at 24 hours and 14 days of LPS administration and the possible protective role of losartan pretreatment. LPS has deteriorated animal survival and behavior. It increased lung weight and induced lung histological damage. These changes could be much reduced by the losartan pretreatment. Conclusion: Administration of losartan before LPS could largely reduce these LPS/ ALI induced short and long term alterations. It could be recommended that patients susceptible to developing ALI, as in ICU, should receive a protective dose of angitensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker as losartan.

Keywords: acute lung injury (ALI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), losartan

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4 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini


Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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3 Ecotoxicological Test-Battery for Efficiency Assessment of TiO2 Assisted Photodegradation of Emerging Micropolluants

Authors: Ildiko Fekete-Kertesz, Jade Chaker, Sylvain Berthelot, Viktoria Feigl, Monika Molnar, Lidia Favier


There has been growing concern about emerging micropollutants in recent years, because of the possible environmental and health risk posed by these substances, which are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Among them pharmaceuticals are currently not considered under water quality regulations; however, their potential effect on the environment have become more frequent in recent years. Due to the fact that these compounds can be detected in natural water matrices, it can be concluded, that the currently applied water treatment processes are not efficient enough for their effective elimination. To date, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered as highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of those organic micropollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. AOPs such as (photo)chemical oxidation and heterogeneous photocatalysis have proven their potential in degrading harmful organic compounds from aqueous matrices. However, some of these technologies generate reaction by-products, which can even be more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent compounds. Thus, target compound removal does not necessarily result in the removal of toxicity. Therefore, to evaluate process efficiency the determination of the toxicity and ecotoxicity of the reaction intermediates is crucial to estimate the environmental risk of such techniques. In this context, the present study investigates the effectiveness of TiO2 assisted photodegradation for the removal of emerging water contaminants. Two drugs named losartan (used in high blood pressure medication) and levetiracetam (used to treat epilepsy) were considered in this work. The photocatalytic reactions were carried out with a commercial catalyst usually employed in photocatalysis. Moreover, the toxicity of the by-products generated during the process was assessed with various ecotoxicological methods applying aquatic test organisms from different trophic levels. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the toxicity of untreated and treated solutions applying the Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test, the Tetrahymena pyriformis proliferation inhibition test, the Daphnia magna lethality and immobilization tests and the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The applied ecotoxicological methodology indicated sensitively the toxic effects of the treated and untreated water samples, hence the applied test battery is suitable for the ecotoxicological characterization of TiO2 based photocatalytic water treatment technologies and the indication of the formation of toxic by-products from the parent chemical compounds. Obtained results clearly showed that the TiO2 assisted photodegradation was more efficient in the elimination of losartan than levetiracetam. It was also observed that the treated levetiracetam solutions had more severe effect on the applied test organisms. A possible explanation would be the production of levetiracetam by-products, which are more toxic than the parent compound. The increased toxicity and the risk of formation of toxic metabolites represent one possible limitation to the implementation of photocatalytic treatment using TiO2 for the removal of losartan and levetiracetam. Our results proved that, the battery of ecotoxicity tests used in this work can be a promising investigation tool for the environmental risk assessment of photocatalytic processes.

Keywords: aquatic micropollutants, ecotoxicology, nano titanium dioxide, photocatalysis, water treatment

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2 3D Printing of Dual Tablets: Modified Multiple Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine

Authors: Veronika Lesáková, Silvia Slezáková, František Štěpánek


Additive manufacturing technologies producing drug dosage forms aimed at personalized medicine applications are promising strategies with several advantages over the conventional production methods. One of the emerging technologies is 3D printing which reduces manufacturing steps and thus allows a significant drop in expenses. A decrease in material consumption is also a highly impactful benefit as the tested drugs are frequently expensive substances. In addition, 3D printed dosage forms enable increased patient compliance and prevent misdosing as the dosage forms are carefully designed according to the patient’s needs. The incorporation of multiple drugs into a single dosage form further increases the degree of personalization. Our research focuses on the development of 3D printed tablets incorporating multiple drugs (candesartan, losartan) and thermoplastic polymers (e.g., KlucelTM HPC EF). The filaments, an essential feed material for 3D printing,wereproduced via hot-melt extrusion. Subsequently, the extruded filaments of various formulations were 3D printed into tablets using an FDM 3D printer. Then, we have assessed the influence of the internal structure of 3D printed tablets and formulation on dissolution behaviour by obtaining the dissolution profiles of drugs present in the 3D printed tablets. In conclusion, we have developed tablets containing multiple drugs providing modified release profiles. The 3D printing experiments demonstrate the high tunability of 3D printing as each tablet compartment is constructed with a different formulation. Overall, the results suggest that the 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing approach to dual tablet preparation for personalized medicine.

Keywords: 3D printing, drug delivery, hot-melt extrusion, dissolution kinetics

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1 Ordered Mesoporous Carbons of Different Morphology for Loading and Controlled Release of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Aleksandra Galarda, Joanna Goscianska


Smart porous carriers with defined structure and physicochemical properties are required for releasing the therapeutic drug with precise control of delivery time and location in the body. Due to their non-toxicity, ordered structure, chemical, and thermal stability, mesoporous carbons can be considered as modern carriers for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) whose effectiveness needs frequent dosing algorithms. Such an API-carrier system, if programmed precisely, may stabilize the pharmaceutical and increase its dissolution leading to enhanced bioavailability. The substance conjugated with the material, through its prior adsorption, can later be successfully applied internally to the organism, as well as externally if the API release is feasible under these conditions. In the present study, ordered mesoporous carbons of different morphologies and structures, prepared by hard template method, were applied as carriers in the adsorption and controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In the first stage, the carbon materials were synthesized and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation using ammonium persulfate solution and then with amine groups. Materials obtained were thoroughly characterized with respect to morphology (scanning electron microscopy), structure (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy), characteristic functional groups (FT-IR spectroscopy), acid-base nature of surface groups (Boehm titration), parameters of the porous structure (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption) and thermal stability (TG analysis). This was followed by a series of tests of adsorption and release of paracetamol, benzocaine, and losartan potassium. Drug release experiments were performed in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 or 6.8 at 37.0 °C. The XRD patterns in the small-angle range and TEM images revealed that functionalization of mesoporous carbons with carboxylic or amine groups leads to the decreased ordering of their structure. Moreover, the modification caused a considerable reduction of the carbon-specific surface area and pore volume, but it simultaneously resulted in changing their acid-base properties. Mesoporous carbon materials exhibit different morphologies, which affect the host-guest interactions during the adsorption process of active pharmaceutical ingredients. All mesoporous carbons show high adsorption capacity towards drugs. The sorption capacity of materials is mainly affected by BET surface area and the structure/size matching between adsorbent and adsorbate. Selected APIs are linked to the surface of carbon materials mainly by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic interactions. The release behavior of API is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous carbons. The release rate of APIs could be regulated by the introduction of functional groups and by changing the pH of the receptor medium. Acknowledgments—This research was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (project SONATA-12 no: 2016/23/D/NZ7/01347).

Keywords: ordered mesoporous carbons, sorption capacity, drug delivery, carbon nanocarriers

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