Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1917

Search results for: legal origin

1917 Moderation Effects of Legal Origin on Corruption and Corporate Performance

Authors: S. Sundarasen, I. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This study examines whether the legal origin of a country alters the association between corruption and corporate performance in the East Asia and South East Asia Region. A total of 18,286 companies from 14 countries in the East Asia and South East Asia Region are tested using Generalized Least Square (GLS) panel and pool data analysis with the cross-section being the income level. The data is further analyzed in terms of high income, upper middle income and low-income countries within the East and South Asia region. The empirical results indicate that legal origin positively moderates the relationship between a country’s corruption level and firm performance. As for the sub-analysis, legal origin positively moderates only in the high and upper middle-income countries. As for the low-income countries, no significance is documented in both the common and civil law.

Keywords: corruption, performance, legal origin, East Asia and South East Asia Region

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1916 Legal Feminism, Modernity and Their Impact on Some African Countries

Authors: Umulisa Linda, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

The origin of legal feminism can be attributed to an attempt to provide a safe space for women such as voting, parental, and inheritance rights, among others. It was also a rebellion against male supremacy. However, with the development of technology and especially in the era of the internet, it appears that both legal feminism and the modernism are losing their luster. While these movements had their origin either in the United States of America or western Europe, their impacts have been felt as far as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, different countries have different levels of penetration of these movements. This study, therefore, had its focus on how legal feminism and modernism have influenced legal developments in Kenya and Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative approach with the respondents being asked about their feelings and perceptions on how the two movements had affected legal developments in their countries. In order to gauge the opinion of different categories of people such as the youth, middle-aged and the elderly people as well as being gender-sensitive, the study adopted a purpose method of sampling. The questionnaires and the focus group discussions were employed as the main tools for data gathering. From the questionnaires, the focus group discussions, and the data analysis that followed, the study concluded that both legal feminism and modernity had penetrated the legal systems of both Kenya and Rwanda so deeply. The study further found that the proponents of the two movements were mostly urban based and educated women. The men were generally opposed to the movements.

Keywords: legal development, legal feminsim, modernism, voting, parental and inheritance rights

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1915 The Social Origin Pay Gap in the UK Household Longitudinal Study

Authors: Michael Vallely

Abstract:

This paper uses data from waves 1 to 10 (2009-2019) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study to examine the social origin pay gap in the UK labour market. We find that regardless of how we proxy social origin, whether it be using the dominance approach, total parental occupation, parental education, total parental education, or the higher parental occupation and higher parental education, the results have one thing in common; in all cases, we observe a significant social origin pay gap for those from the lower social origins with the largest pay gap observed for those from the ‘lowest’ social origin. The results may indicate that when we consider the occupational status and education of both parents, previous estimates of social origin pay gaps and the number of individuals affected may have been underestimated. We also observe social origin pay gaps within educational attainment groups, such as degree holders, and within professional and managerial occupations. Therefore, this paper makes a valuable contribution to the social origin pay gap literature as it provides empirical evidence of a social origin pay gap using a large-scale UK dataset and challenges the argument that education is the great ‘social leveller’.

Keywords: social class, social origin, pay gaps, wage inequality

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1914 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, translation techniques, untranslatability

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1913 Challenges in Learning Legal English from the Students’ Perspective at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong

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Legal English, also known as Language of the Law (Mellinkoff, David. 2004), is an indispensable factor contributing to the development of legal field. At Hanoi Law University, legal English is a compulsory subject in the syllabus of legal English major; International Trade law and Fast-track law training program. The question that what obstacles students face with when dealing with legal English, however, has not been answered at that institution. Therefore, this present research, which makes use of survey questionnaires as the main method, aims to study the challenges of learning legal English from the students’ perspective, from which some useful solutions are drawn up to overcome these difficulties and improve the effectiveness of learning legal English. The results indicate notable difficulties arising from the level of general English skills, the characteristics of legal English and legal background knowledge. These findings lay a scientific foundation for suggesting some solutions for practical applications in teaching as well as learning legal English among both teachers and students.

Keywords: challenges, HLU, Legal English, students' perspective

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1912 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika

Abstract:

The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

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1911 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem

Abstract:

In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: abuse, legal, power, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1910 The Syntactic Features of Islamic Legal Texts and Their Implications for Translation

Authors: Rafat Y. Alwazna

Abstract:

Certain religious texts are deemed part of legal texts that are characterised by high sensitivity and sacredness. Amongst such religious texts are Islamic legal texts that are replete with Islamic legal terms that designate particular legal concepts peculiar to Islamic legal system and legal culture. However, from the syntactic perspective, Islamic legal texts prove lengthy, condensed and convoluted, with little use of punctuation system, but with an extensive use of subordinations and co-ordinations, which separate the main verb from the subject, and which, of course, carry a heavy load of legal detail. The present paper seeks to examine the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts through analysing a short text of Islamic jurisprudence in an attempt at exploring the syntactic features that characterise this type of legal text. A translation of this text into legal English is then exercised to find the translation implications that have emerged as a result of the English translation. Based on these implications, the paper compares and contrasts the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts to those of legal English texts. Finally, the present paper argues that there are a number of syntactic features of Islamic legal texts, such as nominalisation, passivisation, little use of punctuation system, the use of the Arabic cohesive device, etc., which are also possessed by English legal texts except for the last feature and with some variations. The paper also claims that when rendering an Islamic legal text into legal English, certain implications emerge, such as the necessity of a sentence break, the omission of the cohesive device concerned and the increase in the use of nominalisation, passivisation, passive participles, and so on.

Keywords: English legal texts, Islamic legal texts, nominalisation, participles, passivisation, syntactic features, translation implications

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1909 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar

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As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.

Keywords: brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever

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1908 Legal Arrangement on Media Ownership and the Case of Turkey

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

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In this study, we will touch upon the legal arrangements issued in Turkey for prevention of condensation and for ensuring pluralism in the media. We will mention the legal arrangements concerning the regulatory and supervisory authority, namely the Radio and Television Supreme Council, for the visual and auditory media. In this context; the legal arrangements, which have been introduced by the Law No 6112 on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and Their Media Services in relation to the media ownership, will be reviewed through comparison with the Article 29 of the repealed Law No 3984.

Keywords: media ownership, legal arrangements, the case for Turkey, pluralism

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1907 Positivism Legal Controversy: Dilemma Carok as Madura’s Culture through Indigenous Dispute Settlement in Indonesia

Authors: M. Yasin Al-Arif, Mohammad Faisol Soleh

Abstract:

The Indonesia’s Constitution in Article 18b explained that the state recognizes and respects indigenous peoples and their traditional rights that are guaranteed by the law. Despite already guaranteed its existence; in practice such indigenous law is often considered contrary to positive law by legal experts. It is because of legal positivism paradigm which requires the written law as the main reference for the settlement of legal disputes. Carok’s culture is one of the indigenous cultures of Madura to resolve legal disputes that still thrives until today. Carok’s culture is in outside the legal process, and through a fight between the disputing parties until one dies. On the other hand, the legal positivism does not give place to accommodate Carok as indigenous dispute settlement, until it must be solved through trial. This way of settlement has not been successfully satisfying the indigenous people, thus although it has been done through its verdict in the trial, but Carok still be used by them. From the explanation above, Carok’s culture must be accommodated as the main settlement process and legal process of law as the alternative to the effectiveness of dispute resolution in Madura Indonesia.

Keywords: carok, dispute settlement, legal positivism, madura’s culture

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1906 Responsibility to Protect: The Continuing Post-Colonial Western Hegemony

Authors: Helyeh Doutaghi

Abstract:

In 2005, the doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created by the UN Member States agreeing to not only to have the primary responsibility to protect their civilians from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, but also to be responsible towards those civilians whose State was found manifestly failing in that regard. This paper will assess the doctrine of R2P and will argue that R2P too, just like humanitarian intervention, suffers from a lack of legal basis and political will to implement it. Or better said, it is being selectively used by the hegemon’s power to achieve its political will. In doing so, the origin and development shall be explained. Furthermore, it will be submitted that R2P has failed to achieve its purpose due to the unresolved Security Council’s deadlock. Lastly, the concept of legal morality entailed in R2P and its use in real life cases since 2005 will be examined.

Keywords: responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, United Nations, legitimacy, legality

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1905 Victims Legal Representation before International Criminal Court: Freedom of Choice and Role of Victims Legal Representatives

Authors: Erinda Male

Abstract:

Participation of a lawyer in any criminal proceedings on behalf of an accused person or a victim is essential to a fair trial. Legal representation is particularly crucial in proceedings before international tribunals, especially in the International Criminal Court. The paper thus focuses on the importance of the legal representation of victims and defendants before the ICC, as well as on the role of the legal representative in the proceedings before the court and the principle of freedom of choice of legal representatives. Also, the paper presents a short overview of the significance of legal representatives for victims and the necessity to protect their primary role in the ICC system, and ensure that it is coherent and respectful of victims’ rights. Victim participation is an important part of the ICC Statute and it is designed to help ensure that those most affected by the crimes are able to engage with the Court. Proper and quality legal representation ensures meaningful participation of victims at stages of the proceedings before ICC. Finally, the paper acknowledges the role of legal representatives during the pre-trial, trial and post-trial phase, the different modalities in selecting the legal representatives as well as balancing victims’ participation with the right of the accused to a fair trial.

Keywords: fair trial, freedom of choice principle, international criminal court, legal representatives, victims

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1904 Legal Interpretation of the Transplanted Law

Authors: Wahyu Kurniawan

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Indonesia developed the legal system radically since 1999. Several laws have been established and mostly the result of transplantation. Laws were made general but legal problems have been growing. In the legal enforcement, the judges have authority to interpret the laws. Authority and freedom are the source of corruption by the courts in Indonesia. Therefore, it should be built the conceptual framework to interpret the transplanted laws as the legal basis in deciding the cases. This article describes legal development based on interpretation of transplanted law in Indonesia by using the Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) decisions between 2000 and 2010 as the object of the research. The study was using law as a system theory and theories of legal interpretation especially the static and dynamic interpretations. The research showed that the KPPU interpreted the concept that exists in the Competition Law by using static and dynamic interpretation. Static interpretation was used to interpret the legal concepts based on two grounds, minute of meeting during law making process and the definitions that have been recognized in the Indonesian legal system. Dynamic interpretation was used when the KPPU developing the definition of the legal concepts. The general purpose of the law and the theories of the basis of the law were the conceptual framework in using dynamic interpretation. There are two recommendations in this article. Firstly, interpreting the laws by the judges should be based on the correct conceptual framework. Secondly, the technique of interpreting the laws would be the method of controlling the judges.

Keywords: legal interpretation, legal transplant, competition law, KPPU

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1903 Humanitarian Emergency of the Refugee Condition for Central American Immigrants in Irregular Situation

Authors: María de los Ángeles Cerda González, Itzel Arriaga Hurtado, Pascacio José Martínez Pichardo

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In México, the recognition of refugee condition is a fundamental right which, as host State, has the obligation of respect, protect, and fulfill to the foreigners – where we can find the figure of immigrants in irregular situation-, that cannot return to their country of origin for humanitarian reasons. The recognition of the refugee condition as a fundamental right in the Mexican law system proceeds under these situations: 1. The immigrant applies for the refugee condition, even without the necessary proving elements to accredit the humanitarian character of his departure from his country of origin. 2. The immigrant does not apply for the recognition of refugee because he does not know he has the right to, even if he has the profile to apply for. 3. The immigrant who applies fulfills the requirements of the administrative procedure and has access to the refugee recognition. Of the three situations above, only the last one is contemplated for the national indexes of the status refugee; and the first two prove the inefficiency of the governmental system viewed from its lack of sensibility consequence of the no education in human rights matter and which results in the legal vulnerability of the immigrants in irregular situation because they do not have access to the procuration and administration of justice. In the aim of determining the causes and consequences of the no recognition of the refugee status, this investigation was structured from a systemic analysis which objective is to show the advances in Central American humanitarian emergency investigation, the Mexican States actions to protect, respect and fulfil the fundamental right of refugee of immigrants in irregular situation and the social and legal vulnerabilities suffered by Central Americans in Mexico. Therefore, to achieve the deduction of the legal nature of the humanitarian emergency from the Human Rights as a branch of the International Public Law, a conceptual framework is structured using the inductive deductive method. The problem statement is made from a legal framework to approach a theoretical scheme under the theory of social systems, from the analysis of the lack of communication of the governmental and normative subsystems of the Mexican legal system relative to the process undertaken by the Central American immigrants to achieve the recognition of the refugee status as a human right. Accordingly, is determined that fulfilling the obligations of the State referent to grant the right of the recognition of the refugee condition, would mean a guideline for a new stage in Mexican Law, because it would enlarge the constitutional benefits to everyone whose right to the recognition of refugee has been denied an as consequence, a great advance in human rights matter would be achieved.

Keywords: central American immigrants in irregular situation, humanitarian emergency, human rights, refugee

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1902 Three Issues for Integrating Artificial Intelligence into Legal Reasoning

Authors: Fausto Morais

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence has been widely used in law. Programs are able to classify suits, to identify decision-making patterns, to predict outcomes, and to formalize legal arguments as well. In Brazil, the artificial intelligence victor has been classifying cases to supreme court’s standards. When those programs act doing those tasks, they simulate some kind of legal decision and legal arguments, raising doubts about how artificial intelligence can be integrated into legal reasoning. Taking this into account, the following three issues are identified; the problem of hypernormatization, the argument of legal anthropocentrism, and the artificial legal principles. Hypernormatization can be seen in the Brazilian legal context in the Supreme Court’s usage of the Victor program. This program generated efficiency and consistency. On the other hand, there is a feasible risk of over standardizing factual and normative legal features. Then legal clerks and programmers should work together to develop an adequate way to model legal language into computational code. If this is possible, intelligent programs may enact legal decisions in easy cases automatically cases, and, in this picture, the legal anthropocentrism argument takes place. Such an argument argues that just humans beings should enact legal decisions. This is so because human beings have a conscience, free will, and self unity. In spite of that, it is possible to argue against the anthropocentrism argument and to show how intelligent programs may work overcoming human beings' problems like misleading cognition, emotions, and lack of memory. In this way, intelligent machines could be able to pass legal decisions automatically by classification, as Victor in Brazil does, because they are binding by legal patterns and should not deviate from them. Notwithstanding, artificial intelligent programs can be helpful beyond easy cases. In hard cases, they are able to identify legal standards and legal arguments by using machine learning. For that, a dataset of legal decisions regarding a particular matter must be available, which is a reality in Brazilian Judiciary. Doing such procedure, artificial intelligent programs can support a human decision in hard cases, providing legal standards and arguments based on empirical evidence. Those legal features claim an argumentative weight in legal reasoning and should serve as references for judges when they must decide to maintain or overcome a legal standard.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial legal principles, hypernormatization, legal anthropocentrism argument, legal reasoning

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1901 Taxation, Evidential and Jurisdictional Issues in Electronic Commercial Transactions in Nigeria

Authors: Michael Sunday Afolayan

Abstract:

This research work examined the challenges bedevilling the development of legal framework for electronic commercial transactions (e-commerce) in Nigeria. Nigeria does not have a clear-cut legislation regulating electronic commerce in its jurisdiction despite the geometrical rate of growth and adoption of this method of trade. It specifically posed a great challenge looking at taxation, evidential and jurisdictional issues in e-commerce in Nigeria. The author in a broader research work which is abridged here, traced the origin and development of e-commerce and the attendant laws applicable in Nigeria, examining their sufficiency or otherwise. In carrying out the research work, doctrinal mode of legal research was adopted, examining both primary and secondary sources of legal research materials within their contextual meanings. It was found that the failure to enact a law which has direct regulatory bearing on e-commerce in Nigeria has led to adoption and application of circumstantial laws, rules and common law principles to tackle the problems arising out of electronic commercial transactions, especially in the areas of taxation, evidential and jurisdictional challenges. It was ultimately suggested that there is urgent need to sign into law, the Electronic Transaction Bill which had already been passed by the National Assembly since 2017.

Keywords: e-commerce, legislation, taxation, evidential, jurisdiction

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1900 Working Together: The Nature of Collaborative Legal and Social Services and Their Influence on Practice

Authors: Jennifer Donovan

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Practice collaborations between legal assistance and social support services have emerged as a growing framework worldwide for delivering services to clients with high degrees of disadvantage, vulnerability and complexity. In Australia, the past five years has seen a significant growth in these socio-legal collaborations, with programs being delivered through legal, social service and health organizations and addressing a range of issues including mental health, immigration, parental child abduction and domestic violence. This presentation is based on research currently mapping the nature of these collaborations in Australia and exploring the influence that collaborating professions are having on each other’s practice. In a similar way to problem-solving courts being seen as a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in the court setting, socio-legal collaborations have the potential to be a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in an advice setting. This presentation will explore the varied ways in which socio-legal collaboration is being implemented in these programs. It will also explore the development of interdisciplinary therapeutic jurisprudence within them, with preliminary findings suggesting that both legal and social service practice is being influenced by the collaborative setting, with legal practice showing a more therapeutic orientation and social service professions, such as social work, moving toward a legal and rights orientation.

Keywords: collaboration, socio-legal, Australia, therapeutic jurisprudence

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1899 Comparative International Law and Feminist Legal Studies, Uniting to Make a Difference in Addressing the Disempowerment of Women

Authors: Isaac Kfir

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In thinking about the role of the law and its impact on socially constructed norms and identities, scholars have come to explore a multitude of issues to do with equality, empowerment, and views. The aim of this contribution is threefold. Firstly, offer a descriptive framework of feminist legal studies (FLS) through a review of the evolution of the field in the context of equality, rights, and justice. Secondly, encourage those working on equality, rights, and justice in respect to ‘women’s issues’ to engage in international comparative legal studies. Third, to highlight that those seeking solutions to disempowerment and discrimination must recognize that they need to contend with claims that one is seeking to undermine cultural norms. Therefore, one effective way for feminists to address this situation is by relying more on the international legal mechanism, which reflects basic legal tenets as to the universality of equality, rights, and justice, that can then help shape the domestic setting.

Keywords: international comparative law, feminist legal studies, equality, rights, justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1898 Intercultural Competence in Teaching Mediation to Students of Legal English

Authors: Paulina Dwuznik

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For students of legal English, the skill of mediation is of special importance as it constitutes part of their everyday work. Developing the skill of mediation requires developing linguistic, communicative, textual, pragmatic, interactive, social, and intercultural competencies. The study conducted at the Open University of the University of Warsaw compared the results of a questionnaire concerning the needs of legal professionals relating to mediation tasks, which they perform at work with the analysis of the content of different legal English handbooks with special stress on the development of intercultural competence necessary in interlinguistic mediation. The study found that legal English handbooks focus mainly on terminology study, but some of them extend students' intercultural competence in a way which may help them to perform tasks of mediating concepts, texts, and communication. The author of the paper will present the correlation between intercultural competence and mediation skill and give some examples of mediation tasks which may be based on comparative intercultural content of some chosen academic legal English handbooks.

Keywords: intercultural competence, legal English, mediation skill, teaching

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1897 Myths of Thangal Origin from an Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Monoranjan Maibam, Arundhati Maibam, Bojen Akoijam

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Myths may be understood as a special kind of literature though not found in written form. Through myths, anthropologists make attempts to describe a world which members of a literate society can barely imagine. Mythical stories about origin of numerous ethnic and tribal communities have helped in tracing their route of migration and the long journey undertaken before arriving at their present places of settlement. This study intends to highlight the myths associated with the origin of the Thangal tribe of Manipur from an anthropological perspective and interpret the stories in the context of evolution, migration and relationship with other neighbouring groups. Fieldwork was conducted using an interview guide to collect primary data and published literatures were consulted for secondary data. The result show two popular versions of origin myths are found among the Thangal- first is origin from a cave at Makhel located in the Maram area and second is the belief that the Thangal, the Tangkhul and the Meitei are brothers who emerged out of a cave long ago. In conclusion, the origin myths of the Thangal may be confirmed and established through archaeological findings in the form of artefacts. Mention of erection of memorial stones in the second version is a good clue to start an archaeological survey of the sites which are believed to have been once occupied by the people.

Keywords: anthropology, migration, myth, Thangal

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1896 Employee Inventor Compensation: A New Quest for Comparative Law

Authors: Andrea Borroni

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The evolution of technology, the global scale of economy, and the new short-term employment contracts make a very peculiar set of disposition of raising interest for the legal interpreter: the employee inventor compensation. Around the globe, this issue is differently regulated according to the legal systems; therefore, it is extremely fragmented. Of course, employers with transnational businesses should face this issue from a comparative perspective. Different legal regimes are available worldwide awarding, as a consequence, diverse compensation to the inventor and according to their own methodology. Given these premises, the recourse to comparative law methodology (legal formants, diachronic and synchronic methodology, common core approach) is the best equipped to face all these different national approaches in order to achieve a tidy systematic. This research, so, elaborates a map of the specific criteria to grant the compensation for the inventor and to show the criteria to calculate them. This finding has been the first step to find out a common core of the discipline given by the common features present in the different legal systems.

Keywords: comparative law, employee invention, intellectual property, legal transplant

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1895 Human-Automation Interaction in Law: Mapping Legal Decisions and Judgments, Cognitive Processes, and Automation Levels

Authors: Dovile Petkeviciute-Barysiene

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Legal technologies not only create new ways for accessing and providing legal services but also transform the role of legal practitioners. Both lawyers and users of legal services expect automated solutions to outperform people with objectivity and impartiality. Although fairness of the automated decisions is crucial, research on assessing various characteristics of automated processes related to the perceived fairness has only begun. One of the major obstacles to this research is the lack of comprehensive understanding of what legal actions are automated and could be meaningfully automated, and to what extent. Neither public nor legal practitioners oftentimes cannot envision technological input due to the lack of general without illustrative examples. The aim of this study is to map decision making stages and automation levels which are and/or could be achieved in legal actions related to pre-trial and trial processes. Major legal decisions and judgments are identified during the consultations with legal practitioners. The dual-process model of information processing is used to describe cognitive processes taking place while making legal decisions and judgments during pre-trial and trial action. Some of the existing legal technologies are incorporated into the analysis as well. Several published automation level taxonomies are considered because none of them fit well into the legal context, as they were all created for avionics, teleoperation, unmanned aerial vehicles, etc. From the information processing perspective, analysis of the legal decisions and judgments expose situations that are most sensitive to cognitive bias, among others, also help to identify areas that would benefit from the automation the most. Automation level analysis, in turn, provides a systematic approach to interaction and cooperation between humans and algorithms. Moreover, an integrated map of legal decisions and judgments, information processing characteristics, and automation levels all together provide some groundwork for the research of legal technology perceived fairness and acceptance. Acknowledgment: This project has received funding from European Social Fund (project No 09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0116) under grant agreement with the Research Council of Lithuania (LMTLT).

Keywords: automation levels, information processing, legal judgment and decision making, legal technology

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1894 Criminalization of Wicked Statements with Legal Consequences in the Criminal Law of the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomoreț

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The legislation of the Republic of Moldova, as in fact the legislation of any other state, during its entire history was known to the institution of legal and criminal protection of declarations producing legal consequences. The achievements of scientific and legislative concepts in this field cannot be underestimated or questioned. The evolution of criminal law and the establishment of the examined regulations are directly related to certain epochs of the evolution of the statehood of the Republic of Moldova, to the formation of the juridical-national culture, and to the legal system of the state. In the literature, most authors do not define statements in general but establish definitions for them depending on the procedural quality of the person making statements. Thus, in the literature, we will find more often the definitions given: the statements of the witness, the injured party, the suspect, the accused, the defendant, and less often a definition given to the statements to the general, as a means of proof. In addition, we can say that in our case, which is producing legal consequences, it can take different forms depending on the context and the legal framework in which it is made.

Keywords: statement, justice, legislation, criminal law, criminal liability

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1893 The Need for a More Robust Legal Framework to Curb the Rise in Violence against Game Officials

Authors: A. Roomy

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The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.

Keywords: game officials, legal issues, safety, violence

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1892 Compilation and Statistical Analysis of an Arabic-English Legal Corpus in Sketch Engine

Authors: C. Brierley, H. El-Farahaty, A. Farhan

Abstract:

The Leeds Parallel Corpus of Arabic-English Constitutions is a parallel corpus for the Arabic legal domain. Analysis of legal language via Corpus Linguistics techniques is an important development. In legal proceedings, a corpus-based approach to disambiguating meaning is set to replace the dictionary as an interpretative tool, and legal scholarship in the States is now attuned to the potential for Text Analytics over vast quantities of text-based legal material, following the business and medical industries. This trend is reflected in Europe: the interdisciplinary research group in Computer Assisted Legal Linguistics mines big data collections of legal and non-legal texts to analyse: legal interpretations; legal discourse; the comprehensibility of legal texts; conflict resolution; and linguistic human rights. This paper focuses on ‘dignity’ as an important aspect of the overarching concept of human rights in current constitutions across the Arab world. We have compiled a parallel, Arabic-English raw text corpus (169,861 Arabic words and 205,893 English words) from reputable websites such as the World Intellectual Property Organisation and CONSTITUTE, and uploaded and queried our corpus in Sketch Engine. Our most challenging task was sentence-level alignment of Arabic-English data. This entailed manual intervention to ensure correspondence on a one-to-many basis since Arabic sentences differ from English in length and punctuation. We have searched for morphological variants of ‘dignity’ (رامة ك, karāma) in the Arabic data and inspected their English translation equivalents. The term occurs most frequently in the Sudanese constitution (10 instances), and not at all in the constitution of Palestine. Its most frequent collocate, determined via the logDice statistic in Sketch Engine, is ‘human’ as in ‘human dignity’.

Keywords: Arabic constitution, corpus-based legal linguistics, human rights, parallel Arabic-English legal corpora

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1891 A Simple Algorithm for Real-Time 3D Capturing of an Interior Scene Using a Linear Voxel Octree and a Floating Origin Camera

Authors: Vangelis Drosos, Dimitrios Tsoukalos, Dimitrios Tsolis

Abstract:

We present a simple algorithm for capturing a 3D scene (focused on the usage of mobile device cameras in the context of augmented/mixed reality) by using a floating origin camera solution and storing the resulting information in a linear voxel octree. Data is derived from cloud points captured by a mobile device camera. For the purposes of this paper, we assume a scene of fixed size (known to us or determined beforehand) and a fixed voxel resolution. The resulting data is stored in a linear voxel octree using a hashtable. We commence by briefly discussing the logic behind floating origin approaches and the usage of linear voxel octrees for efficient storage. Following that, we present the algorithm for translating captured feature points into voxel data in the context of a fixed origin world and storing them. Finally, we discuss potential applications and areas of future development and improvement to the efficiency of our solution.

Keywords: voxel, octree, computer vision, XR, floating origin

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1890 The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation: Analysis the Adjudications of Thailand Court

Authors: Paiboon Chuwatthanakij

Abstract:

In reference to the legal state in the Thai legal system, most people understand the minor principles of the legal state form, which are the principles that can be explained and understood easily and the results can be seen clearly, especially in the legitimacy of administrative acts. Therefore, there is no awareness of justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law. The legitimacy of administrative acts requires the administration to adhere to the constitution and legislative laws in enforcement of the laws. If it appears that the administrative acts are illegitimate, the administrative court, as the court of justice, will revoke those acts as if they had never been set in the legal system, this will affect people’s trust as they are unaware as to whether the administrative acts that appoint their lives are legitimate or not. Regarding the revocation of administrative orders by the administrative court as if those orders had never existed, the common individual surely cannot be expected to comprehend the security of their juristic position. Therefore, the legal state does not require a revocation of the government’s acts to terminate its legal results merely because those acts are illegitimate, but there should be considerations and realizations regarding the “The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation,” which is a minor principle in the legal state’s content that focuses on supporting and protecting legitimate expectations of the juristic position of an individual and maintaining justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law

Keywords: legal state, rule of law, protection of legitimate, adjudication

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1889 Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia

Authors: Giga Phartenadze

Abstract:

In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.

Keywords: law, e-government, public administration, Georgia

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1888 Problems of the Management of Legal Entities of Private Law in Georgia

Authors: Ketevan Kokrashvili, Rusudan Kutateladze, Nino Pailodze

Abstract:

Importance of management of legal entities under private law of which especially corporate management, as well as looking for ways of its improvement and perfection has become especially relevant in the twenty-first century, which was greatly contributed to by the global economic crisis. Some states have adopted Corporate Governance Codes; the European Union has set to work on a series of directives the main purpose of which is an improvement of corporate governance, provision of greater transparency and implementation of an effective control mechanism. This process is not yet completed, and various problematic issues associated with management of legal persons are still being debated among practitioner experts and scholars. Georgia is not an exception in this regard. The article discusses the legislative gaps, and in some cases, discrepancies having arisen in legal relationships under private law and having caused many practical problems. This especially applies to the management of capital companies.

Keywords: business entities, corporate management, capital public management, existing problems, legal discrepancies

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