Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Nhac Thanh Huong

69 Challenges in Learning Legal English from the Students’ Perspective at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong


Legal English, also known as Language of the Law (Mellinkoff, David. 2004), is an indispensable factor contributing to the development of legal field. At Hanoi Law University, legal English is a compulsory subject in the syllabus of legal English major; International Trade law and Fast-track law training program. The question that what obstacles students face with when dealing with legal English, however, has not been answered at that institution. Therefore, this present research, which makes use of survey questionnaires as the main method, aims to study the challenges of learning legal English from the students’ perspective, from which some useful solutions are drawn up to overcome these difficulties and improve the effectiveness of learning legal English. The results indicate notable difficulties arising from the level of general English skills, the characteristics of legal English and legal background knowledge. These findings lay a scientific foundation for suggesting some solutions for practical applications in teaching as well as learning legal English among both teachers and students.

Keywords: challenges, HLU, Legal English, students' perspective

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68 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang


Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, bone tissue engineering, alveolar bone

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67 Corrective Feedback and Uptake Patterns in English Speaking Lessons at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong


New teaching methods have led to the changes in the teachers’ roles in an English class, in which teachers’ error correction is an integral part. Language error and corrective feedback have been the interest of many researchers in foreign language teaching. However, the techniques and the effectiveness of teachers’ feedback have been a question of much controversy. This present case study has been carried out with a view to finding out the patterns of teachers’ corrective feedback and their impact on students’ uptake in English speaking lessons of legal English major students at Hanoi Law University. In order to achieve those aims, the study makes use of classroom observations as the main method of data collection to seeks answers to the two following questions: 1. What patterns of corrective feedback occur in English speaking lessons for second- year legal English major students in Hanoi Law University?; 2. To what extent does that corrective feedback lead to students’ uptake? The study provided some important findings, among which was a close relationship between corrective feedback and uptake. In particular, recast was the most commonly used feedback type, yet it was the least effective in terms of students’ uptake and repair, while the most successful feedback, namely meta-linguistic feedback, clarification requests and elicitation, which led to students’ generated repair, was used at a much lower rate by teachers. Furthermore, it revealed that different types of errors needed different types of feedback. Also, the use of feedback depended on the students’ English proficiency level. In the light of findings, a number of pedagogical implications have been drawn in the hope of enhancing the effectiveness of teachers’ corrective feedback to students’ uptake in foreign language acquisition process.

Keywords: corrective feedback, error, uptake, speaking English lesson

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66 The Effect of Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Ling-Ling E, Lin Feng, Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Zhanping Shi, Juncheng Wang, Wei Luo, Yan Lv


The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the two calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). One nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), imitating the composition and the micro-structure characteristics of the natural bone, was made by Beijing Allgens Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China). The other beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), being fully interoperability globular pore structure, was provided by Shanghai Bio-lu Biomaterials Co, Ltd. (China). We compared the absorption water rate and the protein adsorption rate of two scaffolds and the characterization of DPSCs cultured on the culture plate and both scaffolds under osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) treatment. The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into the back of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 8 and 12 weeks to compare their bone formation capacity. The results showed that the ODM-treated DPSCs expressed osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunofluorescence staining. Positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, calcium deposition and calcium nodules were also observed on the ODM-treated DPSCs. The nHAC/PLA had significantly higher absorption water rate and protein adsorption rate than ß-TCP. The initial attachment of DPSCs seeded onto nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than that onto ß-TCP; and the proliferation rate of the cells was significantly higher than that of ß-TCP on 1, 3 and 7 days of cell culture. DPSCs+ß-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity, calcium/phosphorus content and mineral formation than DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. When implanted into the back of SCID mice, nHAC/PLA alone had no new bone formation, newly formed mature bone and osteoid were only observed in β-TCP alone, DPSCs+nHAC/PLA and DPSCs+β-TCP, and this three groups displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of total bone formation area had no difference between DPSCs+β-TCP and DPSCs+nHAC/PLA at each time point,but the percentage of mature bone formation area of DPSCs+β-TCP was significantly higher than that of DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. Our results demonstrated that the DPSCs on nHAC/PLA had a better proliferation and that the DPSCs on β-TCP had a more mineralization in vitro, much more newly formed mature bones in vivo were presented in DPSCs+β-TCP group. These findings have provided a further knowledge that scaffold architecture has a different influence on the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. This study may provide insight into the clinical periodontal bone tissue repair with DPSCs+β-TCP construct.

Keywords: dental pulp stem cells, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide), beta-tricalcium phosphate, periodontal tissue engineering, bone regeneration

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65 Sexual Behaviors and Condom Attitude among Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Findings

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Thanh N. Long, Phan T. Huong, Donald E. Stewart


This paper presents views on condom use and the contexts of safe and unsafe sexual practices with different sexual partners and their relationships among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. Fifteen IDUs participated and two local interviewers conducted qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews in September-October, 2012 in Vietnamese language. Data were analyzed thematically. Non-protective condom attitudes include negotiate or convince Female Sex Workers (FSW); not realizing risk, importance or necessity; partner doesn’t like, and having extra money/drug from clients. On the other hand, self-awareness, family-consciousness, suspicion of STI presence, fear of getting HIV, and client negotiation sometimes resulted in a safe-sex practice. A thematic diagram was developed to present the relationship (strong/weak) between condom attitude and sexual practice (safe/unsafe) by partner types. The experiences and views reflected in the qualitative information emphasize the heightened need for safe-sex education especially among young IDUs (male/female) highlighting sexual transmission risk.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, injecting drug user, risk behaviors, Vietnam

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64 Hall Coefficient in the Presence of Strong Electromagnetic Waves Caused by Confined Electrons and Phonons in a Rectangular Quantum Wire

Authors: Nguyen Quang Bau, Nguyen Thu Huong, Dang Thi Thanh Thuy


The analytic expression for the Hall Coefficient (HC) caused by the confined electrons in the presence of a strong electromagnetic wave (EMW) including the effect of phonon confinement in rectangular quantum wires (RQWs) is calculated by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons in the case of electron - optical phonon scattering. It is because the expression of the HC for the confined phonon case contains indexes m, m’ which are specific to the phonon confinement. The expression in a RQW is different from that for the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW or in 2D. The results are numerically calculated and discussed for a GaAs/GaAsAl RQW. The numerical results show that HC in a RQW can have both negative and positive values. This is different from the case of the absence of EMW and the case presence of EMW including the effect of phonon unconfinement in a RQW. These results are also compared with those in the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW and confined phonons in a quantum well. The conductivity in the case of confined phonon has more resonance peaks compared with that in case of unconfined phonons in a RQW. This new property is the same in quantum well. All results are compared with the case of unconfined phonons to see differences.

Keywords: Hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation, confined phonons

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63 Payments for Forest Environmental Services: Advantages and Disadvantages in the Different Mechanisms in Vietnam North Central Area

Authors: Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh, Van Mai Thi Khanh


For around the world, payments for environmental services have been implemented since the late 1970s in Europe and North America; then, it was spread to Latin America, Asia, Africa, and finally Oceania in 2008. In Vietnam, payments for environmental services are an interesting issue recently with the forest as the main focus and therefore known as the program on payment for forest environmental services (PFES). PFES was piloted in Lam Dong and Son La in 2008 and has been widely applied in many provinces after 2010. PFES is in the orientation for the socialization of national forest protection in Vietnam and has made great strides in the last decade. By using the primary data and secondary data simultaneously, the paper clarifies two cases of implementing PFES in the Vietnam North Central area with the different mechanisms of payment. In the first case at Phu Loc district (Thua Thien Hue province), PFES is an indirect method by a water supply company via the Forest Protection and Development Fund. In the second one at Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park (Quang Binh Province), tourism companies are the direct payers to forest owners. The paper describes the PFES implementation process at each site, clarifies the payment mechanism, and models the relationship between stakeholders in PFES implementation. Based on the current status of PFES sites, the paper compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the two payment methods. Finally, the paper proposes recommendations to improve the existing shortcomings in each payment mechanism.

Keywords: advantages and disadvantages, forest environmental services, forest protection, payment mechanism

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62 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen, Gary Dykes


In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics

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61 Trions in Semiconductor Quantum Dot System

Authors: Jayden Leonard, Nguyen Que Huong


In this work, we study the Trion state in a spherical quantum dot of a direct band gap semiconductor with a shell of organic material. The electronic structure of the Trion due to degenerate valence band will be considered. The coupling between the wannier exciton inside the dot and the Frenkel exciton in the shell will make the Trion state become hybrid. The competition between “semiconductor” and “organic” phases of the Trion and the transitions between them depend on Parameters of the system such as the materials, the size of the dot and the thickness of the shell, etc… and could be manipulated using those parameters.

Keywords: trion, exciton, quantum dot, heterostructure

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60 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim


This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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59 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim


In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.

Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.

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58 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh


This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: marine sediments, river sediments, physico chemical characterizations, environmental characterizations

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57 A Reflection of the Contemporary Life of Urban People Through Mixed Media Art

Authors: Van Huong Mai, Kanokwan Nithiratphat, Adool Booncham


The Movement of Contemporary Life consisted of two purposes, which were to study the movement and development of the modern life and to create the visual arts, which were paintings expressed via the form of apartment buildings was used from mixed media (digital printing and acrylic painting on canvas) which conveyed the rapid pace of modern life leading to diverse movements in viewer’s feeling. The operation of this creation was collected field data, documentary data, and influence from creative work. The data analysis was analyzed in order to theme, form, technique, and process to satisfy of concept and special character of the pieces.

Keywords: movement, contemporary life, visual art, acrylic painting, digital art, urban space

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56 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung


This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock production

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55 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

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54 Improvement in Ni (II) Adsorption Capacity by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Jitae Kim, Chi-Hyeon Lee


Fe-nano zeolite adsorbent was used for removal of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) using for analysis of functional groups, morphology and surface area. Bath adsorption experiments were analyzed on the effect of pH, time, adsorbent doses and initial Ni (II) concentration. The optimum pH for Ni (II) removal using Fe-nano zeolite was found at 5.0 and 90 min of reaction time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ni (II) was 231.68 mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics data for the adsorption process was fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The desorption of Ni (II) from Ni-loaded Fe-nano zeolite was analyzed and even after 10 cycles 72 % desorption was achieved. These finding supported that Fe-nano zeolite with high adsorption capacity, high reuse ability would be utilized for Ni (II) removal from water.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, Ni (II) removal, regeneration

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53 Effect of Formulation Compositions and Freezing Rates on the Conformational Changes of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (HA)

Authors: Thanh Phuong Doan, Narueporn Sutanthavibul


The influence of freezing cycle on influenza haemagglutinin (HA) conformational stability was investigated in terms of freezing rates and formulation compositions. The results showed that appropriate HA conformation could be evaluated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy with HA concentration of greater than 0.09 mg/ml. The intermediate freezing rate of approximately 1.0oC/min preserved the original HA conformation better than at slow freezing rate (0.5oC/min) and rapid freezing rate (2.6oC/min). The changes in CD spectra of the secondary HA structure were more pronounced than those of the tertiary HA structure during the evaluation. Additionally, the formulations, which resulted in the highest conformational stability were found to have sucrose present in the composition. As opposed to when only glycine was used, the stability of HA conformation was poor.

Keywords: freezing, haemagglutinin, influenza, circular dichroism

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52 Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Daochu


Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.

Keywords: heavy metal, soil, Nhue River, wastewater irrigation

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51 Robust Model Predictive Controller for Uncertain Nonlinear Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems: A Tube-Based Approach

Authors: Tran Gia Khanh, Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Nguyen Van Huong, Mai Xuan Sinh


This work presents the problem of tube-based robust model predictive controller for a class of continuous-time systems in the presence of input disturbances. The main objective is to point out the state trajectory of closed system being maintained inside a sequence of tubes. An estimation of attraction region of the closed system is pointed out based on input state stability (ISS) theory and linearized model in each time interval. The theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for a wheeled inverted pendulum system.

Keywords: input state stability (ISS), tube-based robust MPC, continuous-time nonlinear systems, wheeled inverted pendulum

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50 Isogeometric Topology Optimization in Cracked Structures Design

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Thanh Banh Thien, Soomi Shin


In the present study, the isogeometric topology optimization is proposed for cracked structures through using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) as a design model. Design density variables defined in the variable space are used to approximate the element analysis density by the bivariate B-spline basis functions. The mathematical formulation of topology optimization problem solving minimum structural compliance is an alternating active-phase algorithm with the Gauss-Seidel version as an optimization model of optimality criteria. Stiffness and adjoint sensitivity formulations linked to strain energy of cracked structure are proposed in terms of design density variables. Numerical examples demonstrate interactions of topology optimization to structures design with cracks.

Keywords: topology optimization, isogeometric, NURBS, design

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49 Assessment of the Water Quality of the Nhue River in Vietnam and its Suitability for Irrigation Water

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Dao Chu


The Nhue River in Vietnam is the main source of irrigation water for suburban agricultural land and fish farm. Wastewater from the industrial plants located along these rivers has been discharged, which has degraded the water quality of the rivers. The present paper describes the chemical properties of water from the river focusing on heavy metal pollution and the suitability of water quality for irrigation. Water from the river was heavily polluted with heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni. Dissolved oxygen, COD, and total suspended solids, and the concentrations of all heavy metals exceeded the Vietnamese standard for surface water quality in all investigated sites. The concentrations of some heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni were over the internationally recommended WHO maximum limits for irrigation water. A wide variation in heavy metal concentration of water due to metal types is the result of wastewater discharged from different industrial sources.

Keywords: heavy metals, stream water, irrigation, industry

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48 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau


Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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47 Determining Coordinates of Ultra-Light Drones Based on the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) Method

Authors: Nguyen Huy Hoang, Do Thanh Quan, Tran Vu Kien


The use of the active radar to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones is frequently difficult due to long-distance, absolutely small radar cross-section (RCS) and obstacles. Since ultra-light drones are usually controlled by the Time Difference of Arrival (RF), the paper proposed a method to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones in the space based on the arrival time of the signal at receiving antennas and the time difference of arrival (TDOA). The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is really potential and highly accurate.

Keywords: ultra-light drone, TDOA, radar cross-section (RCS), RF

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46 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang


This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism

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45 History, Challenges and Solutions for Social Work Education and Recognition in Vietnam

Authors: Thuy Bui Anh, Ngan Nguyen Thi Thanh


Currently, social work in Vietnam is entering the first step in the development process to become a true profession with a strong position in society. However, Spirit of helping and sharing of social work has already existed in the daily life of Vietnamese people for a very long time, becoming a precious heritage passed down from ancestors to the next generations while expanding the territory, building and defending for the country. Following the stream of history, charity work in Vietnam has gradually transformed itself towards a more professional work, especially in the last 2 decades. Accordingly, more than 50 universities and educational institutions in Vietnam have been licensed to train social work, ensuring a stronger foundation on human resources working in this field. Despite the strong growth, social work profession, social work education and the recognition of the role of the social workers still need to be fueled to develop, responded to the increasing demand of Vietnam society.

Keywords: education, history, recognition, social work, Vietnam

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44 Characteristic Matrix Faults for Flight Control System

Authors: Thanh Nga Thai


A major issue in air transportation is in flight safety. Recent developments in control engineering have an attractive potential for resolving new issues related to guidance, navigation, and control of flying vehicles. Many future atmospheric missions will require increased on board autonomy including fault diagnosis and the subsequent control and guidance recovery actions. To improve designing system diagnostic, an efficient FDI- fault detection and identification- methodology is necessary to achieve. Contribute to characteristic of different faults in sensor and actuator in the view of mathematics brings a lot of profit in some condition changes in the system. This research finds some profit to reduce a trade-off to achieve between fault detection and performance of the closed loop system and cost and calculated in simulation.

Keywords: fault detection and identification, sensor faults, actuator faults, flight control system

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43 Adaptive Optimal Controller for Uncertain Inverted Pendulum System: A Dynamic Programming Approach for Continuous Time System

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Tran Van Tuyen, Do Trong Tan, Bui Minh Dinh, Nguyen Van Huong


In this paper, we investigate the adaptive optimal control law for continuous-time systems with input disturbances and unknown parameters. This paper extends previous works to obtain the robust control law of uncertain systems. Through theoretical analysis, an adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) based optimal control is proposed to stabilize the closed-loop system and ensure the convergence properties of proposed iterative algorithm. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability (GAS) for closed system is also analyzed. The theoretical analysis for continuous-time systems and simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for an inverted pendulum system.

Keywords: approximate/adaptive dynamic programming, ADP, adaptive optimal control law, input state stability, ISS, inverted pendulum

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42 Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Parametric Programming Based Cascade Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Pham Tam Thanh, Le Duy Tung, Tran Hoang Anh


This paper considers the problem of cascade control system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Due to the complicated modelling technique of UAV, it is necessary to separate them into two subsystems. The proposed cascade control structure is a hierarchical scheme including a robust control for inner subsystem based on H infinity theory and trajectory generator using genetic algorithm (GA), outer loop control law based on multi-parametric programming (MPP) technique to overcome the disadvantage of a big amount of calculations. Simulation results are presented to show that the equivalent path has been found and obtained by proposed cascade control scheme.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, GA, H infinity, multi-parametric programming, MPP, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs

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41 Analysis of Formation Methods of Range Profiles for an X-Band Coastal Surveillance Radar

Authors: Nguyen Van Loi, Le Thanh Son, Tran Trung Kien


The paper deals with the problem of the formation of range profiles (RPs) for an X-band coastal surveillance radar. Two popular methods, the difference operator method, and the window-based method, are reviewed and analyzed via two tests with different datasets. The test results show that although the original window-based method achieves a better performance than the difference operator method, it has three main drawbacks that are the use of 3 or 4 peaks of an RP for creating the windows, the extension of the window size using the power sum of three adjacent cells in the left and the right sides of the windows and the same threshold applied for all types of vessels to finish the formation process of RPs. These drawbacks lead to inaccurate RPs due to the low signal-to-clutter ratio. Therefore, some suggestions are proposed to improve the original window-based method.

Keywords: range profile, difference operator method, window-based method, automatic target recognition

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40 An Efficient Algorithm for Global Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Duc Dong Do, Ngoc Ha Tran, Thanh Hai Dang, Cao Cuong Dang, Xuan Huan Hoang


Global aligning two protein-protein interaction networks is an essentially important task in bioinformatics/computational biology field of study. It is a challenging and widely studied research topic in recent years. Accurately aligned networks allow us to identify functional modules of proteins and/ororthologous proteins from which unknown functions of a protein can be inferred. We here introduce a novel efficient heuristic global network alignment algorithm called FASTAn, including two phases: the first to construct an initial alignment and the second to improve such alignment by exerting a local optimization repeated procedure. The experimental results demonstrated that FASTAn outperformed the state-of-the-art global network alignment algorithm namely SPINAL in terms of both commonly used objective scores and the run-time.

Keywords: FASTAn, Heuristic algorithm, biological network alignment, protein-protein interaction networks

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