Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1846

Search results for: humanitarian intervention

1846 Politicization of Humanitarian NGOs: A Comparison Study of Oxfam and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)

Authors: Ratih Andaruni Widhiantari

Abstract:

The combination of the expanding population of aid agencies and the act of politicization in humanitarian intervention blurred the distinction between what humanitarianism accept as universal human rights in theory and their practices in humanitarian intervention. Humanitarian organizations were now venturing into the formerly taboo territory of politics that place individuals at risk, for examples, cooperating and coordinating with the intervening states, considering moments of destruction as opportunities for political change and even taking on functions that had once been the exclusive preserve of government. Hence, aid agencies were becoming involved in matters of local or even international politics. This study focuses on the comparison between Oxfam and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctor without Borders different attitudes against political influences in humanitarian aid. It aims to untangle the bewilderment whether the contradictory approach to politics will becoming a barrier to performing their principles as humanitarian actors and also the consequences of taking that one particular position. The analysis of quantitative data and qualitative literature analysis are presented. The findings indicated Oxfam is actively engaged with politics. It welcomed government and private sector to shared cooperation to reach its goals to alleviate global inequalities. On the other hand, MSF has always taken a strong position to refuse any politics influence within their aid programmes. With no financial assistance from any government, MSF is free from any direct politics intervention. Hence, it can work efficiently with a clear objective to respond the demand side pressures from the people in needs. It is still publicly against politic involvement in the humanitarian activity, but practically, it has been moving forward to politicization in its own definition.

Keywords: humanitarian agencies, humanitarian intervention, humanitarian principles, politicization of humanitarianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1845 Responsibility to Protect in Practice: Libya and Syria

Authors: Guram Esakia, Giorgi Goguadze

Abstract:

The following paper is written due to overview the concept of R2P, this new dimension in International Relations field. Paper contains the general description of previously mentioned concept, its advantages and disadvantages. We also compare each other R2P and“humanitarian intervention“, trying to make clear division between these two approaches in conflict solution. There is also discussed R2P in real action, successful one in Libya and yet failed in Syria. Essay doesn’t claim to be the part of scientific chain and is based only on personal subjection as well on information gathered from various scholars and UN resolutions.

Keywords: the concept of R2P, humanitarian intervention, Libya, Syria

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1844 Legal Contestation of Non-Legal Norms: The Case of Humanitarian Intervention Norm between 1999 and 2018

Authors: Nazli Ustunes Demirhan

Abstract:

Norms of any nature are subject to pressures of change throughout their lifespans, as they are interpreted and re-interpreted every time they are used rhetorically or practically by international actors. The inevitable contestation of different interpretations may lead to an erosion of the norm, as well as to its strengthening. This paper aims to question the role of formal legality on the change of norm strength, using a norm contestation framework and a multidimensional norm strength conceptualization. It argues that the role of legality is not necessarily linked to the formal legal characteristics of a norm, but is about the legality of the contestation processes. In order to demonstrate this argument, the paper examines the evolutionary path of the humanitarian intervention norm as a case study. Humanitarian intervention, as a norm of very low formal legal characteristics, has been subject to numerous cycles of contestation, demonstrating a fluctuating pattern of norm strength. With the purpose of examining the existence and role of legality in the selected contestation periods from 1999 to 2017, this paper uses process tracing method with a detailed document analysis on the Security Council documents; including decisions, resolutions, meeting minutes, press releases as well as individual country statements. Through the empirical analysis, it is demonstrated that the legality of the contestation processes has a positive effect at least on the authoritativeness dimension of norm strength. This study tries to contribute to the developing dialogue between international relations (IR) and internal law (IL) disciplines with its better-tuned understanding of legality. It connects to further questions in IR/IL nexus, relating to the value added of norm legality, and politics of legalization as well as better international policies for norm reinforcement.

Keywords: humanitarian intervention, legality, norm contestation, norm dynamics, responsibility to protect

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1843 Responsibility to Protect: The Continuing Post-Colonial Western Hegemony

Authors: Helyeh Doutaghi

Abstract:

In 2005, the doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created by the UN Member States agreeing to not only to have the primary responsibility to protect their civilians from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, but also to be responsible towards those civilians whose State was found manifestly failing in that regard. This paper will assess the doctrine of R2P and will argue that R2P too, just like humanitarian intervention, suffers from a lack of legal basis and political will to implement it. Or better said, it is being selectively used by the hegemon’s power to achieve its political will. In doing so, the origin and development shall be explained. Furthermore, it will be submitted that R2P has failed to achieve its purpose due to the unresolved Security Council’s deadlock. Lastly, the concept of legal morality entailed in R2P and its use in real life cases since 2005 will be examined.

Keywords: responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, United Nations, legitimacy, legality

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1842 Norm Evolution through Contestation: Role of Legality from Humanitarian Intervention to Responsibility to Protect

Authors: Nazlı Üstünes Demirhan

Abstract:

International norms are subject to pressures of change through contestation during the course of their lifetimes. The nature of the contestation is one of the factors that are likely to have a determinative role in the direction of this change towards a stronger or weaker norm. This paper aims to understand the relation between the legality of contestation and the direction of change in norm strength. Based on a multidimensional norm strength conceptualization, it is hypothesized that use of legal logic and rhetoric of argumentation would have a positive influence for norm strength, whereas non-legal nature of contestation would lack this and weaken the norm. In order to show this, the evolution of the human protection norm between 1999 and 2018 will be examined with reference to two major contestation periods; Kosovo intervention of 1999, which led to the development of R2P doctrine, and Libya intervention of 2011, which is followed by the demise of the norm. The comparative analysis will be conducted through process tracing method with a document analysis on the Security Council meeting minutes, resolutions, and press releases. This study aims to contribute to the norm contestation literature with the introduction of legal process analysis. It also relates to further questions in IR/IL nexus, relating to the value added of norm legality as well as the politics of legalization.

Keywords: humanitarian intervention, legality, norm contestation, norm dynamics, norm strength, responsibility to protect

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1841 Appraisal of Humanitarian Supply Chain Risks Using Best-Worst Method

Authors: Ali Mohaghar, Iman Ghasemian Sahebi, Alireza Arab

Abstract:

In the last decades, increasing in human and natural disaster occurrence had very irreparable effects on human life. Hence, one of the important issues in humanitarian supply chain management is identifying and prioritizing the different risks and finding suitable solutions for encountering them at the time of disaster occurrence. This study is an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of humanitarian supply chain risks in a case study of Tehran Red Crescent Societies. For this purpose, Best-Worst method (BWM) has been used for analyzing the risks of the humanitarian supply chain. 22 risks of the humanitarian supply chain were identified based on the literature and interviews with four experts. According to BWM method, the importance of each risk was calculated. The findings showed that culture contexts, little awareness of people, and poor education system are the most important humanitarian supply chain risks. This research provides a useful guideline for managers so that they can benefit from the results to prioritize their solutions.

Keywords: Best-Worst Method, humanitarian logistics, humanitarian supply chain, risk management

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1840 Bringing Ethics to a Violent System

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar

Abstract:

In international system, there has always been a cycle of violence, war and peace. As there travels the time, after Christianity and later Just War theorists, international relations theorists have been tried to limit violence and war. As pieces of international law, Peace of Augsburg, Kellog-Briand Pact, League of Nations Covenant and UN Charter were and are still not effective to prevent war. Moreover, in order to find a way around these rules, it is believed that a new excuse started to be used instead of violence or war, humanitarian intervention. However, it has neither a legal nor a universally accepted framework. As a result, it is open to be manipulated by states. In order to prevent this, Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) which gives a state the responsibility to protect its citizens against violence, is created. Additionally, RtoP transfers this responsibility to regional or international group of states at the time when a state is the origin of violence. In the lights of these, this paper analyzes RtoP as an ethical approach to war and peace studies because it provides other states as guardians and care-takers of people who do not belong to them or do not share any togetherness.

Keywords: ethics, humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, UN charter

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1839 Cybersecurity and Governance for Humanitarian Work: An Approach for Addressing Security Risks

Authors: Rossouw De Bruin, Sebastiaan H. Von Solms

Abstract:

The state of national security is an evolving concern. Companies, organizations, governments, states and individuals are aware of the security of their information and their assets however, they may not always be aware of the risks present. These risks are not only limited to non-existence of security procedures. Existing security can be severely flawed, especially if there is non-conformance towards policies, practices and procedures. When looking at humanitarian actions, we can easily identify these flaws. Unfortunately, humanitarian aid has to compete with factors from within the states, countries and continents they are working in. Furthermore, as technology improves, so does our connectivity to the internet and the way in which we use the internet. However, there are times when security is overlooked and humanitarian agencies are some of the agencies that do not always take security into consideration. The purpose of this paper will be to introduce the importance of cybersecurity and cybersecurity governance with respect to humanitarian work. We will also introduce and briefly discuss a model that can be used by humanitarian agencies to assess, manage and maintain their cybersecurity efforts.

Keywords: humanities, cybersecurity, cybersecurity governance, maturity, cybersecurity maturity, maturity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1838 Humanitarian Supply Chain Management: Extended Literature Review

Authors: Busra Gulnihan Dascıoglu, Ozalp Vayvay, Zeynep Tugce Kalender

Abstract:

Humanitarian supply chain management has gain popularity in recent years in research fields. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on humanitarian operations and crisis/disaster management from 2010 to latest researches in order to identify the current research and to provide direction for future research in this growing field. Researches are classified considering the research publication year, research fields. Articles from humanitarian supply chain management were reviewed, keywords were identified within a disaster management lifecycle framework. Research gaps are identified for future research areas.

Keywords: crisis, disaster, humanitarian supply chain management, relief operations

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1837 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

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1836 Global Health, Humanitarian Medical Aid, and the Ethics of Rationing

Authors: N. W. Paul, S. Michl

Abstract:

In our globalized world we need to appreciate the fact that questions of health and justice need to be addressed on a global scale, too. The way in which diverse governmental and non-governmental initiatives are trying to answer the need for humanitarian medical aid has long since been a visible result of globalized responsibility. While the intention of humanitarian medical aids seems to be evident, the allocation of resources has become more and more an ethical and societal challenge. With a rising number and growing dimension of humanitarian catastrophes around the globe the search for ethically justifiable ways to decide who might benefit from limited resources has become a pressing question. Rooted in theories of justice (Rawls) and concepts of social welfare (Sen) we developed and implemented a model for an ethically sound distribution of a limited annual budget for humanitarian care in one of the largest medical universities of Germany. Based on our long lasting experience with civil casualties of war (Afghanistan) and civil war (Libya) as well as with under- and uninsured and/or stateless patients we are now facing the on-going refugee crisis as our most recent challenge in terms of global health and justice. Against this background, the paper strives to a) explain key issues of humanitarian medical aid in the 21st century, b) explore the problem of rationing from an ethical point of view, c) suggest a tool for the rational allocation of scarce resources in humanitarian medical aid, d) present actual cases of humanitarian care that have been managed with our toolbox, and e) discuss the international applicability of our model beyond local contexts.

Keywords: humanitarian care, medical ethics, allocation, rationing

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1835 International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of New Technologies of Warfare

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, despite all efforts made to achieve overall peace through the application of the principles of international humanitarian law, crimes against mankind which are of unprecedented concern to the whole world have remained unabated. The fall back on war as a technique for settling disputes between nations, individuals, countries and ethnic groups with accompanying toll of deaths and destruction of properties have remained a conspicuous component of human history. Indeed, to control this conduct of warfare and the dehumanization of individuals, a body of law aimed at regulating the impacts of conflicts and hostilities in the theater of war has become necessary. Thus, it is to examine the conditions in which international humanitarian law will apply and also to determine the extent of the challenges of new progressions of warfare that this study is undertaken. All through this examination, we grasped doctrinal approach wherein we used text books, journals, international materials and supposition of law specialists in the field of international humanitarian law. This paper shall examine the distinctive factors responsible for the rebelliousness to the rules of International Humanitarian Law and furthermore, shall proffer possible courses of action that will address the challenges of new technologies of warfare all over the world. Essentially, the basic proposals made in this paper if totally utilized may go far in ensuring a sufficient standard in the application of the rules of international humanitarian law as it relates to an increasingly frequent phenomenon of contemporary developments in technologies of warfare which has in recent past, made it more difficult for the most ideal application of the rules of international humanitarian law. This paper deduces that for a sustainable global peace to be achieved, the rules of International Humanitarian Law as it relates to the utilization of new technologies of warfare should be completely clung to and should be made a strict liability offense. Likewise, this paper further recommends the introduction of domestic criminal law punishment of serious contraventions of the rules of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: international, humanitarian law, new technologies, warfare

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1834 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

Abstract:

In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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1833 The Triple Nexus: Key Challenges in Shifting from Conceptualization to Operationalization of the Humanitarian-Development-Peacebuilding Nexus

Authors: Sarah M. Bolger

Abstract:

There is a clear recognition that humanitarian and development workers are operating more and more frequently in situations of protracted crises, with conflict and violence undermining long-term development efforts. First coined at the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016, the humanitarian-development-peacebuilding nexus – or 'Triple Nexus' - seeks to promote greater cooperation and policy and program coherence amongst organizations working within and across the nexus. However, despite the clear need for such an approach, the Triple Nexus has failed to gain much traction. This is largely due to the lack of conceptual clarity for actors on the ground and the disconnect between the theory of the Triple Nexus and what that means in practice. This paper seeks to identify the key challenges in shifting from the conceptual definition of the Triple Nexus and what that can look like, particularly for multi-mandated organizations, to the operationalization of the Triple Nexus approach. It adopts a case study approach, examining a selection of organizations and programs and their approaches to the Triple Nexus in order to extract key challenges and lessons learned. Finally, key recommendations are provided on how these challenges can be overcome, allowing for the operationalization of the Triple Nexus and ultimately for a more integrated and sustainable approach to humanitarian, development, and peacebuilding work.

Keywords: development, humanitarian, peacebuilding, triple nexus

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1832 Responsibility to Protect and State Sovereignty: The Case of Syria

Authors: Renu Kumari

Abstract:

State sovereignty refers to the ability and power of a state to be independent and not to have any interference of external actors in its internal affairs. This phenomenon has been accepted by International Law, which gives rights to the state to maintain its autonomy and territorial integrity without the interference of other actors. In of 1980’s and 1990’s the world has witnessed the worst case of human rights violence for instance, Rwanda genocide, the conflict in former Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Burundi, and Chad so and so forth. Though human rights violence is not a new phenomenon, it has been present all over the world in different time and space. But in 1990’s after the devastation of these conflicts and violence the world community came up with the notion of humanitarian intervention in which some states took the responsibility of protecting human rights violations and on the in order to protect they can intervene in the internal matters of a state specifically during civil war where state is unable to protect its people. Later on these so-called world community realized that intervention itself is a negative term that was criticized also therefore they came up with a different notion that sounded positive which known as responsibility to protect. In 2005 onwards, the notion of responsibility to protect accepted and recognized by the United Nations and states at a larger level. In the case of Syria on the name of responsibility to protect foreign interventions took place and due to the internal war Syrian people were already facing many problems, the government was not able to protect them. External invasion caused many devastating outcomes to the country. This paper is an attempt to analyze various dimensions of invasion of external affairs of a particular state and the status of sovereignty. Firstly, it lays out the notion of humanitarian intervention and then the responsibility to protect. Secondly, it looks in the case of Syria since 2011, the conflict of Syria. Thirdly it focuses on various efforts made by international organizations and other actors. Lastly, it looks why and how other actors intervene in the internal matter of Syria.

Keywords: state sovereignty, external actors, intervention, responsibility to protect

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1831 Conceptual Design of a Telecommunications Equipment Container for Humanitarian Logistics

Authors: S. Parisi, Ch. Achillas, D. Aidonis, D. Folinas, N. Moussiopoulos

Abstract:

Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC) has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication center in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.

Keywords: telecommunications container, design, case study, humanitarian logistics

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1830 An Analysis of the Affect of Climate Change on Humanitarian Law: The Way Forward

Authors: Anjali Kanagali, Astha Sinha

Abstract:

Climate change is the greatest threat being faced by mankind in the 21st century. It no longer is merely an environmental, scientific or economic issue but is a humanitarian issue as well. Paris Agreement put great pressure on the businesses to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate the impact of climate change. However, the already increased climate variability and extreme weather are aggravating emergency humanitarian needs. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), if efficient policy changes are not made in time to combat the climate change issues, the situation will deteriorate with an estimated global temperature rise of 4 degrees. The existing international network of Humanitarian system is not adequately structured to handle the projected natural disasters and climate change crisis. The 2030 Agenda which embraces the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) discussed the relationship between the climate change and humanitarian assistance. The Humanitarian law aims to protect, amongst other things, ‘internally displaced persons’ which includes people displaced due to natural hazard related disasters engulfing the hazards of climate change. ‘Legal protection’ of displaced people to protect their rights is becoming a pressing need in such times. In this paper, attempts will be made to analyze the causes of the displacement, identify areas where the effect of the climate change is most likely to occur and to examine the character of forced displacement triggering population movement. We shall discuss the pressure on the Humanitarian system and assistance due to climate change issues and the need for vesting powers to the local communities or local government players to deal with the climate changes. We shall also discuss the possibility of setting up a new framework where non-state actors could be set up for climate change impact and its governance.

Keywords: humanitarian assistance to climate change, humanitarian crisis, internally displaced person, legal framework for climate migrants, non-state actors

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1829 Examining Individual and Organisational Legal Accountability for Sexual Exploitation Perpetrated by International Humanitarian Workers in Haiti

Authors: Elizabeth Carthy

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There is growing recognition that sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) perpetrated by humanitarian workers is widespread, most recently affirmed by allegations of high-ranking Oxfam officials paying women for sex in post-earthquake Haiti. SEA covers a range of gendered abuses, including rape, sexual assault, and ‘transactional’ or ‘survival’ sex. Holding individuals legally accountable for such behaviors is difficult in all contexts even more so in fragile and conflict-affected settings. Transactional sex, for the purposes of this paper, refers to situations where humanitarian workers exchange aid or assistance for sexual services. This paper explores existing organizational accountability measures relating to transactional sex engaged in by international humanitarian workers through a descriptive and interpretive case study approach-examining the situation in Haiti. It comparatively analyses steps the United Nations has taken to combat this problem. Then it examines the possibility of domestic legal accountability for such conduct in Haiti. Finally, the paper argues that international human rights law can fill in potential gaps in domestic legal frameworks to ensure states hold humanitarian workers and potentially organizations accountable for engaging in and/or perpetuating this gendered abuse of power.

Keywords: gender-based violence, humanitarian action, international human rights law, sexual exploitation

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1828 Use of a Relief Mobile Unit in the Humanitarian Cause

Authors: Stephani Ferreira da Silva Manso, Regina M. M. Dias Chiquetano

Abstract:

This article aims to present a research on one of the main aspects of response in humanitarian causes: agility of operations. Brazil is among the 10 countries with the highest number of people affected by disasters.The main types of disasters in Brazil include floods and mass movements. Focusing on a nongovernmental organization that began in the conflicts of First and Second World Wars, arriving in Brazil in 1984. In 2017, the organization has activated their emergency response mobile unit to reach families following flooding that affected around 9,000 people. In partnership with Truckvan, the mobile unit, has 45 m² of floor space and is divided into three compartments each designed to meet the main needs of the population: the first will be used to prepare hot meals, the second to washing and drying of clothes, and the third for the accomplishment of psychological support. This option will be available for situations where there are more than one thousand victims who are sheltered, even temporarily, and demand immediate care, which will be identified through the National Emergency Plan. In this way, the actions that were already done as donation of blankets, clothes, hygiene kits, among others, will be enhanced. Studies show that one of the biggest difficulties in responding to the disaster is in the first few hours after the disaster. This study aimed to show the organization's innovative results and to propose improvement actions in transportation focused on humanitarian aid as the concepts developed in the manufacture and adaptation of the mobile unit to the rescue environment. Thus, the principles of this humanitarian aid bus are very effective.

Keywords: disasters, humanitarian cause, relief, unit mobile

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1827 An Exact Algorithm for Location–Transportation Problems in Humanitarian Relief

Authors: Chansiri Singhtaun

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This paper proposes a mathematical model and examines the performance of an exact algorithm for a location–transportation problems in humanitarian relief. The model determines the number and location of distribution centers in a relief network, the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution center and the vehicles to take the supplies to meet the needs of disaster victims under capacity restriction, transportation and budgetary constraints. The computational experiments are conducted on the various sizes of problems that are generated. Branch and bound algorithm is applied for these problems. The results show that this algorithm can solve problem sizes of up to three candidate locations with five demand points and one candidate location with up to twenty demand points without premature termination.

Keywords: disaster response, facility location, humanitarian relief, transportation

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1826 Translation, War and Humanitarian Action: A Case Study of the Kindertransporte to Switzerland

Authors: Lisa Mockli, Chelsea Sambells

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By combining the methodologies of history and translation studies, this study will explore the interplay between humanitarian action, politics, and translation within the advertising for a lesser-known Swiss child evacuation project of some 60.000 Belgium and French children to Switzerland for three month periods from 1940 to 1945. Inspired by Descriptive-Explanatory Translation Studies, this project compares Swiss speeches published between May and September 1942 (the termination of the evacuations). Radio broadcasts, leaflets and newspapers will triangulate the data. First, linguistic and content-related differences will be identified and described. Second, based on findings from the Swiss Federal Archives, the evidence from the comparative textual analysis will then be evaluated in order to explore how the speeches were modified, for what purpose, and which key issues were raised during their modification. By exploring these questions, this paper provides new insights into (I) Switzerland’s understanding of Swiss neutrality and humanitarianism during the Second World War, (II) the role of children in war and (III) the role of translation in shaping political discourse and humanitarian action. Moreover, this interdisciplinary approach also demonstrates how scholarly collaboration may help to make some elements of humanitarian action more self-reflexive and effective.

Keywords: children, history, humanitarianism, politics, translation

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1825 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

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Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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1824 Human Security Providers in Fragile State under Asymmetric War Conditions

Authors: Luna Shamieh

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Various players are part of the game in an asymmetric war, all making efforts to provide human security to their own adherents. Although a fragile state is not able to provide sufficient and comprehensive services, it still provides special services and security to the elite; the insurgents as well provide services and security to their associates. The humanitarian organisations, on the other hand, provide some fundamental elements of human security, but only in the regions, they are able to access when possible (if possible). The counterinsurgents (security forces of the state and intervention forces) operate within a narrow band defined by the vision of the responsibility to protect and the perspective of the resolution of the conflict through combat; hence, the possibility to provide human security is shaken at this end. This article examines how each player provides human security from the perspective of freedom from want in order to secure basic and strategic needs, freedom from fear through providing protection against all kinds of violence, and the freedom to live in dignity. It identifies a vicious cycle caused by the intervention of the different players causing a centrifugal force that may lead to disintegration of the nation under war.

Keywords: asymmetric war, counterinsurgency, fragile state, human security, insurgency

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1823 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

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This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: violence, intervention, safety climate, performance, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1822 The Mission Slimpossible Program: Dietary and Physical Activity Intervention to Combat Obesity among University Students in UITM Puncak Alam

Authors: Kartini Ilias, Nabilah Md Ahir, Nor Zafirah Ab Rahman, Safiah Md Yusof, Nuri Naqieyah Radzuan, Siti Sabariah Buhari

Abstract:

This study aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of an intervention in improving eating habits and physical activity level of university students of UiTM Puncak Alam. The intervention consists of weekly dietary counselling by registered dietitian and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for three times per week for the duration of 8 weeks. A total of 25 students from the intervention group and 25 students from control group who had BMI equal to or greater than 25kg/m² participated in the study. The results showed a significant reduction in body weight (3.0 kg), body fat percentage (7.9 %), waist circumference (7.3 cm) and BMI (2.9 kg/m²) between pre and post intervention. Besides, there was a significant increase in the level of physical activity among subjects in intervention group. In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on eating habit, physical activity level and improves weight status of the students. It is expected that the intervention could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating obesity intervention.

Keywords: obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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1821 Indicators for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents; Body Composition and Body Mass Index: Evaluating a School-Based Health Promotion Project in Iran after 12 Weeks of Intervention

Authors: Saeid Doaei

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Background: Obesity in adolescence is a primary risk factor for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was the assessment of the effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12 to 16 years old boy adolescents. Methods: 96 adolescent boys of two schools of District 5 of Tehran have participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned as intervention school (n=53) and control school (n=43). The height and weight of students were measured with a calibrated tape line and digital scale respectively and their BMI were calculated. The amounts of body fat percent (BF) and body muscle (BM) percent were determined by Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA) considering the age, gender and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The intervention was implemented in the intervention school, according to the Ottawa charter principles. Results: 12 weeks of intervention decreased body fat percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81 % in the intervention group and increased by .39 % in the control group, P < .01). However, weight, BMI and BM did not change significantly. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the implementation of comprehensive intervention in obese adolescents may improve the body composition, although these changes may not be reflected in BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

Keywords: obesity, childhood, BMI, nutrition

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1820 The Violations of Human Rights After the February Revolution in Libya

Authors: Abdsalam Alahwal, Suren Pillay

Abstract:

Libya saw the occurrence of violations of human rights on a large scale as well as the deterioration of the rule of law in large parts of the country after the February 17 revolution that removed the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi from power in what is known upheaval of the Arab Spring. Although Libya, a country with a modern democracy, but he has declared unconstitutional temporarily allowed to exercise all the rights of political, civil and judicial, but the presence of weapons in the hands of militias list on the basis of regional, tribal and ideology was the main reason for the deterioration of the humanitarian situation as well as the foreign intervention in Libya. Where reports stressed that violations are serious committed by the conflicting parties from power after the fall of Gaddafi of assassinations and kidnapping of identity and practices related to human trafficking Some of these reports indicate that some ethnic ingredients such as Tawergha and Epiphyseal where was deliberately targeted by some militias were displacement around the city because of their allegiance to the former regime after the war ended in 2012. It is noteworthy that many of these violations and abuses committed by these militias that participated overthrow Gaddafi may rise to war crimes and crimes against humanity. That the intervention in Libya, although it had a human purpose and under the pretext of reducing the political system of human rights violations, but that the main objective, which was behind the international intervention was to overthrow the existing political system and the elimination of Muammar Gaddafi.

Keywords: Arab Spring, democracy, revolution , Libya

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1819 A Randomized Control Trial Intervention to Combat Childhood Obesity in Negeri Sembilan: The Hebat! Program

Authors: Siti Sabariah Buhari, Ruzita Abdul Talib, Poh Bee Koon

Abstract:

This study aims to develop and evaluate an intervention to improve eating habits, active lifestyle and weight status of overweight and obese children in Negeri Sembilan. The H.E.B.A.T! Program involved children, parents, and school and focused on behaviour and environment modification to achieve its goal. The intervention consists of H.E.B.A.T! Camp, parent’s workshop and school-based activities. A total of 21 children from intervention school and 22 children from control school who had BMI for age Z-score ≥ +1SD participated in the study. Mean age of subjects was 10.8 ± 0.3 years old. Four phases were included in the development of the intervention. Evaluation of intervention was conducted through process, impact and outcome evaluation. Process evaluation found that intervention program was implemented successfully with minimal modification and without having any technical problems. Impact and outcome evaluation was assessed based on dietary intake, average step counts, BMI for age z-score, body fat percentage and waist circumference at pre-intervention (T0), post-intervention 1 (T1) and post-intervention 2 (T2). There was significant reduction in energy (14.8%) and fat (21.9%) intakes (at p < 0.05) at post-intervention 1 (T1) in intervention group. By controlling for sex as covariate, there was significant intervention effect for average step counts, BMI for age z-score and waist circumference (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on positive behavioural intentions and improves weight status of the children. It is expected that the HEBAT! Program could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating childhood obesity intervention.

Keywords: childhood obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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1818 Review and Analysis of Sustainable-Based Risk Management in Humanitarian Supply Chains

Authors: Marinko Maslaric, Maja Jokic

Abstract:

When searching for fast and long term responses, sustainable logistics and supply chain applications have developed irrefutable theories and hypotheses towards market requirements. Nevertheless, there are certain misunderstandings on how the implementation of sustainability principles (social, economical, and environmental) and concepts should work in practice, more specifically, within a humanitarian supply chain management context. This paper will focus on the review and analysis of risk management concepts in humanitarian supply chain in order to identify their compliance with sustainable principles. In this direction, the study will look for strategies that suggest: minimization of environmental impacts throughout the reduction of resources consumption, depreciation of logistics costs, including supply chain ones, minimization of transportation and service costs, elaboration of quality performance of supply chain and logistics, and reduction of supply chain delivery time. On the side of meeting all defense, trades and humanitarian logistics needs, the research will be aligned to UN Sustainable Development Goals, standards, and performances. It will start with relevant strategies for identification of risk indicators and it will end with suggestion of valuable strategic approaches for their minimization or total prevention. Finally, a content analysis will propose a suitable methodological structure for the creation of most sustainable strategy in risk management of humanitarian supply chain. Content analysis will accompany thorough, consistent and methodical approach of literature review for potential disaster risk management plan. Thereupon, the propositions of this research will look for contemporary literature gaps, with respect to operate the literature analysis and to suggest the appropriate sustained risk low master plan. The indicated is here to secure the high quality of logistics practices in hazardous events.

Keywords: humanitarian logistics, sustainability, supply chain risk, risk management plan

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1817 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

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