Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1142

Search results for: military leadership

1142 Decision Traps of Military Leaders

Authors: Ahmet Ali Turk, Muhterem Bayram

Abstract:

In this study, it is intended to determine that what kind of traps military leaders fall into during the decision making and how they make take a measure against them. In the study, the domestic and foreign literature on the military leadership has been reviewed and military decision-making process of the different countries has been introduced and study has been designed by making interviews as a sample with 50 people who had made military leadership. The issues resulting from the literature review that led to wrong decisions of military leaders and the points obtained as a result of interview have been evaluated by comparing. As a result, it has been emerged that the personnel who have made especially military leadership are in tendency of making the wrong decision due to decision traps such as excessive self-confidence, lack of experience, unplanned movement, hasty decision making and prohibitive conditions and also the need for increased situational awareness about this condition has been emerged.

Keywords: military leadership, decision making, military decision making, military decision making traps

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1141 Character Strengths and Military Leadership

Authors: Lobna Cherif, Valerie Wood

Abstract:

The importance of both character and resilience for military members has been emphasized at the highest levels of military leadership. Initial research suggests that the presence of character strengths might be relevant in predicting success and well-being for some military populations (e.g., recruits). In this presentation, we will first review our research investigating the perceived importance of character strengths for Canadian military cadet (N = 134) success, the top strengths endorsed by cadets, and, in a subset of cadets (n = 94), the relationships among core strengths and resilience. Participants first completed a survey comprised of a resilience measure and demographic items, then one month later completed a Values in Action (VIA) character strengths profile, questions related to character strengths (their personal top-five character strengths, and strengths they believed were important for military-related stressors and leadership, academic success, resilience, and completion of the military challenge). Findings indicated that military cadets consider (among others), perseverance, judgment, and teamwork to be most critical for bouncing back from stressors. However, the most frequently endorsed strengths that characterized cadets were bravery, honesty, and perseverance. Finally, perseverance, bravery, and humor were positively correlated with cadet resilience, while endorsement of love was negatively correlated with resilience.

Keywords: character strengths, leadership, positive psychology, resilience

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1140 Personality of Military Professionals (Commanders) and Their Way of Leading and Commanding Today and in Historical Context

Authors: Petra Hurbišová, Monika Davidová

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The article deals with the personality of military professionals (commanders) and their way of leading and commanding today and in historical context. The first part focuses on the leadership skills of Alexander the Great, who introduced strategic innovations and even from today's perspective he excelled in efficient work with people. This paper focuses on the way which he achieved his goals. Further attention is paid to approaches to commander´s personality by other great generals. The paper is also focused on personality traits of military professionals necessary for successful management and leadership in today's variable and challenging environment. Finally, attention is paid to the effective and ineffective ways of behavior of commanders and determined what styles of leadership is appropriate for a given situation, whether in peacetime or when commander is deployed in overseas operations or the state of war.

Keywords: authority, commander, leader, leadership, military professional, personality

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1139 Leadership in Future Operational Environment

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Rapidly changing factors that affect daily life also affect operational environment and the way military leaders fulfill their missions. With the help of technological developments, traditional linearity of conflict and war has started to fade away. Furthermore, mission domain has broadened to include traditional threats, hybrid threats and new challenges of cyber and space. Considering the future operational environment, future military leaders need to adapt themselves to the new challenges of the future battlefield. But how to decide what kind of features of leadership are required to operate and accomplish mission in the new complex battlefield? In this article, the main aim is to provide answers to this question. To be able to find right answers, first leadership and leadership components are defined, and then characteristics of future operational environment are analyzed. Finally, leadership features that are required to be successful in redefined battlefield are explained.

Keywords: future operational environment, leadership, leadership components

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1138 The Relationship Between Soldiers’ Psychological Resilience, Leadership Style and Organisational Commitment

Authors: Rosita Kanapeckaite

Abstract:

The modern operational military environment is a combination of factors such as change, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Stiehm (2002) refers to such situations as VUCA situations. VUCA is an acronym commonly used to describe the volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of various situations and conditions. Increasingly fast-paced military operations require military personnel to demonstrate readiness and resilience under stressful conditions in order to maintain the optimum cognitive and physical performance necessary to achieve success. Military resilience can be defined as the ability to cope with the negative effects of setbacks and associated stress on military performance and combat effectiveness. In the volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous modern operational environment, both current and future operations require and place a higher priority on enhancing and maintaining troop readiness and resilience to win decisively in multidimensional combat. This paper explores the phenomenon of soldiers' psychological resilience, theories of leadership, and commitment to the organisation. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between soldiers' psychological resilience, leadership style and commitment to the organisation. The study involved 425 professional soldiers, the research method was a questionnaire survey. The instruments used were measures of psychological resilience, leadership styles and commitment to the organisation. Results: transformational leadership style predicts higher psychological resilience, and psychologically resilient professional servicemen are more committed to the organisation. The study confirms the importance of soldiers' psychological resilience for their commitment to the organisation. The paper also discusses practical applications.

Keywords: resilience, commitment, solders, leadership style

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1137 Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership

Authors: Gadah Alkeniah

Abstract:

Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.

Keywords: distributed leadership, instructional leadership, leadership models, moral leadership, strategic leadership, transformational leadership

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1136 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

Abstract:

Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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1135 The Innovative Leadership in Air Forces

Authors: Ahmet Emre Yonder

Abstract:

The concept of present time is inevitably and rapidly changing. That provokes unbalanced, uncertain and elusive platform in the world order. Keeping up with this fluctuation requires a willingness to step beyond the comfort zones and to take a step through unknown. That is the perspectives of organizations in which the shareholders persistently create and then they share their creation. Moreover they are adapted to the unpredictable shifts and they establish vision. These are the meaning of innovation which is a process that converts new ideas to invaluable outcomes and that process can be ensured via innovative leaders. Leaders’ creativity is needed when challenging against countless complicated and unsteady situations in the battlefield. However, little attention has been paid to the importance of being innovative leader apart from innovating new technologies so far. Additionally, in most situation militarist organizations are hesitant to welcome different attitudes and that may discourage new ideas. Furthermore military leaders may complain about the lack of sources in today's world where the sources are very rare. In that point military leaders should change the strategies they apply from conventional views to the innovation of different point of views. But the constant occupation in Air Forces can be counted as a huge obstacle for innovative thinking. An organizational structure is needed to be developed for solutions of the problems which the creative leaders will encounter.This article focuses on how to raise innovative military leaders with innovative thinking skills and the need for a change from conventional to the innovative leadership in Air Forces. It also gives important suggestions to encourage raising innovative military leaders.

Keywords: air force, creativity, leadership, military, innovation

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1134 Experiences of Military Nurse-Manager: Implication to Clinical Leadership

Authors: Maria Monica D. Espinosa

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify and examine the characteristics of an effective leader in a Hospital institution from the perspectives of military nurse-managers. The researcher extracted the different facets of leadership from the stories of six nurse- managers from a military hospital. The stories which are in pre-reflective stage convey an unbiased perspective from which clinical leadership may be defined. Using Phenomenology as a method of Research, the lived experiences of the military nurse-managers served as empirical data which were reflected upon until the formulation of insights. The information from the co-researchers became gallows from which the characteristics of effective leadership in the clinical area were drawn. These insights were synthesized through layers of reflection that resulted to the knowledge about clinical leadership. The reflections are the following, (a) Clinical leaders develop their skills through experiences and hardwork; (b) Clinical leaders are devoted; (c) Clinical leaders are focused; (d) Clinical leaders are good in interpersonal relationship; (e) Clinical leaders are mentors; (f) Clinical leaders seek affirmation and recognition; and (g) Clinical leaders are responsible and dependable. The common themes that emerged from the nurse manager’s stories showed that clinical leadership maybe attained if leaders possessed the following traits, (a) The gift to establish a steadfast and firm management; (b) The proficiency to guide and encourage others towards the achievement of their goals and objectives; (c) The ability to instigate participative and collaborative work among his/her subordinates and (d) The aptitude and skill to address the institutional concerns in their unit. In the future, Clinical leaders should continually adapt an evaluation program on how they can relate socially with their subordinates, the result of which can be used as a basis in developing strategies on relationship enhancement. Moreover, they should empower the nurses by allowing them to voice out their opinions and concerns regarding assignments, role expectations, and workload issues to improve and strengthen the relationships among nurses. Lastly, they can incorporate a collaborative strategy to promote professional socialization attitudes of nurse managers who work with staff nurses to improve the quality of their proficiencies and enhance a positive clinical environment.

Keywords: clinical leadership, experiences, implications, military nurse - managers, phenomenology

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1133 A Literature Review of Servant Leadership and Criticism of Advanced Research

Authors: So-Jung Kim, Kyoung-Seok Kim, Yeong-Gyeong Choi

Abstract:

Although there are many theories and discussion of leadership, the necessity of having a new leadership paradigm was emphasized. The existing leadership characteristic of instruction and control revealed its limitations. Market competition becomes fierce and economic recession never ends worldwide. Of the leadership theories, servant leadership was introduced recently and is in line with the environmental changes of the organization. Servant leadership is a combination of two words, 'servant' and 'leader' and can be defined as the role of the leader who focuses on doing voluntary work for others with altruistic ethics, makes members, customers, and local communities a priority, and makes a commitment to satisfying their needs. This leadership received attention as one field of leadership in the late 1990s and secured its legitimacy. This study discusses the existing research trends of leadership, the concept, behavior characteristics, and lower dimensions of servant leadership, compares servant leadership with the existing leadership researches and diagnoses if servant leadership is a useful concept for further leadership researches. Finally, this study criticizes the limitations in the existing researches on servant leadership.

Keywords: leadership philosophy, leadership theory, servant leadership, traditional leadership

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1132 Implications of Private Military Security Companies on Stewardship of the Profession of Arms

Authors: Kevin Krupski

Abstract:

Private Military Security Companies have grown to become a major force contributor to nations in military operations. Scholars have debated the implications of this in relation to control and efficiency related to the privatization of violence, but there has been little discussion on how these companies affect the profession of arms. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how the privatization of violence influences the military’s stewardship, whether private military security companies are capable of stewardship of the military profession, and whether there are aspects of stewardship of the military profession that private military security companies are capable of emulating. This paper reviews literature on stewardship, the relationship of the military to the state, and private military security companies in order to identify overlap between uniformed military services and the private sector. Then, it offers a typology for determining under what conditions an organization would act as a steward. Ultimately, there are insufficient reasons for private military security companies to act as stewards of the profession of arms.

Keywords: stewardship, military profession, civil-military, security

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1131 Exploring the State of Leadership Effectiveness of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ojeka Alexandra

Abstract:

The study investigated the leadership effectiveness of leaders of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study sought to examine the leadership styles adopted, the leadership energy and effectiveness of the leaders of two tertiary institutions. The research was undertaken at two institutions, one Polytechnic and one University. The population of the study was the lecturers and the heads of departments of the two institutions. The leadership matrix and leadership effectiveness index questionnaires were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The preferred and practiced styles were compared and contrasted to determine whether or not they were used to achieve goals and objectives of the lecturers and the organizations. The recommendations contribute towards the academic and professional development of the lecturers and their institutions.

Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, leadership energy, tertiary institutions, and leadership styles

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1130 The Construction of Women’s Leadership in the Swedish Armed Forces in the Context of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Authors: Sofia Sutera

Abstract:

Despite the introduction of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Agenda in 2000, thanks to the UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions, and the clear stance of the UN towards the support of increased participation of women in peace and security processes, women’s leadership in this context remains very low. Considering specifically the framework of peacekeeping operations, the aim of this paper is to analyze the way women’s leadership is constructed in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). In the context of the WPS Agenda, Sweden has been chosen as a case study because of the relevance of its singular feminist policies (the statement in 2014 from Wallström, previous and current Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister, that Sweden is pursuing a feminist foreign policy is a clear example). Moreover, the SAF adopted in 2016 the Handbok Gender. This policy addresses explicitly the gender perspective embraced by the Swedish military institution, a sui-generis organization even in the Scandinavian reality. Indeed, the SAF has assumed a clear commitment to represent its institution as gender aware and gender equal. The theoretical perspective utilized in this research, which focuses specifically on women, is feminism and particularly a feminist constructivist approach, with an institutional focus on the military institution, has been chosen. Taking into account the specificity of the feminist research, the above-mentioned gender policy has been examined by means of a critical discourse analysis (CDA) whose main aim is to investigate the social structures of discourse and the power relationships inherent to it. Thus, CDA appears to be quite relevant in order to understand the construction of women’s leadership in the Handbok Gender. Nevertheless, even in a country which officially identifies as feminist and which is characterized by a peculiar military institution, the conclusions of this analysis revealed that women’s leadership in peacekeeping operations remains very low.

Keywords: feminism, peacekeeping operations, swedish armed forces, UNSCR 1325, women's leadership, WPS agenda

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1129 Exploring Military Crime in the Australian Imperial Force by Officers During The First World War

Authors: DES LAMBLEY

Abstract:

The scope and scale of crime in the AIF is a subject largely overlooked by historians preferring to narrate the macro-scale topics. This examination exposes some 17,000 military criminals, 414 of them officers and illustrates how military law imposed itself. This subjective sociological perspective humanises the impacts of war upon soldiers. Examples of the crimes, their seriousness, punishments and military justice tell of cause and effect linkages between crime, stress and illness. The discourse is derived from original official military sources in the Australian Archives.

Keywords: Australia, AIF, Military Crime, WW1, Officers

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1128 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: military endeavor, income, emissions of CO2, panel data

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1127 Creativity and Innovation in a Military Unit of South America: Decision Making Process, Socio-Emotional Climate, Shared Flow and Leadership

Authors: S. da Costa, D. Páez, E. Martínez, A. Torres, M. Beramendi, D. Hermosilla, M. Muratori

Abstract:

This study examined the association between creative performance, organizational climate and leadership, affectivity, shared flow, and group decision making. The sample consisted of 315 cadets of a military academic unit of South America. Satisfaction with the decision-making process during a creative task was associated with the usefulness and effectiveness of the ideas generated by the teams with a weighted average correlation of r = .18. Organizational emotional climate, positive and innovation leadership were associated with this group decision-making process r = .25, with shared flow, r = .29 and with positive affect felt during the performance of the creative task, r = .12. In a sequential mediational analysis positive organizational leadership styles were significantly associated with decision-making process and trough cohesion with utility and efficacy of the solution of a creative task. Satisfactory decision-making was related to shared flow during the creative task at collective or group level, and positive affect with flow at individual level.This study examined the association between creative performance, organizational climate and leadership, affectivity, shared flow, and group decision making. The sample consisted of 315 cadets of a military academic unit of South America. Satisfaction with the decision-making process during a creative task was associated with the usefulness and effectiveness of the ideas generated by the teams with a weighted average correlation of r = .18. Organizational emotional climate, positive and innovation leadership were associated with this group decision-making process r = .25, with shared flow, r = .29 and with positive affect felt during the performance of the creative task, r = .12. In a sequential mediational analysis positive organizational leadership styles were significantly associated with decision-making process and trough cohesion with utility and efficacy of the solution of a creative task. Satisfactory decision-making was related to shared flow during the creative task at collective or group level, and positive affect with flow at individual level.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, military, organization, teams

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1126 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

Abstract:

This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

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1125 The Capability of Organizational Leadership: Development of Conceptual Framework

Authors: Kurmet Kivipõld, Maaja Vadi

Abstract:

Current paper develops the conceptual framework for organizational leadership capability. Organizational leadership here is understood as collective multi-level phenomenon which has been embedded into organizational processes as a capability at the level of the entire organization. The paper analyses and systematises the theo¬retical approaches to multi-level leadership in existing literature. This analysis marks the foundation of collective leadership at the organizational level, which forms the basis for the development of the conceptual framework of organi¬zational leadership capability. The developed conceptual framework of organiza¬tional leadership capability is formed from the synthesis of the three groups of base theories – traditional leadership theories, the resource-based view from strategic management and complexity theory from system theories. These conceptual sources present the main characteristics that determine the nature of organizational leadership capability and are the basis for its mea¬surement.

Keywords: leadership, organizational capability, organizational leadership, resource-based view, system theory

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1124 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

Abstract:

This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

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1123 The Social Change Leadership Model for Administrators and Teachers Development in Northeast Thailand

Authors: D. Thawinkarn, S. Wongbutlee

Abstract:

The Social Change Leadership model is strongly aligned with administration’s mission. This research aims to examine the elements of social change leadership, build and develop leadership for social change, and evaluate effectiveness of leadership development model for social change. The research operation has 3 phases: model studies by in-depth interviews and survey research; drafting and creating model which verified by the experts; and trial of model in schools. The results showed that administrators and teachers have the elements of leadership for social change in moderate level. These elements are ranged descending from consciousness of self, common purpose, congruence, collaboration, commitment, citizenship, and controversy with civility. Model of leadership for social change is included the principles, objectives, content, process. Workshop process: Results show that the model of leadership development for social change in administrators and teachers leads to higher score in leadership evaluation prior to administering the operation.

Keywords: leadership, social change model, organization, administrators

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1122 A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process

Authors: Theresa Robinson Harris

Abstract:

Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.

Keywords: leadership, small business, entrepreneurship, success, failure

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1121 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik

Abstract:

Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Işıklar Air Force High School, military school, values, values education

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1120 Perceived Role of Business School in Developing Leadership in Students

Authors: Ranala Nirmala, Rajanala Krishna Gopal

Abstract:

Business schools train management graduates to join the industry in managerial positions. Most of the managerial positions require leadership competency and while some of the business schools have leadership development as a course, many assume leadership development among students through their curriculum. While literature supports the need for leadership development among students, there are few studies which explored the role of department and leadership skills in business management students. This paper is based on an empirical study of students of a university based business school and explored the relationship between the perceived role of department, including the faculty, infrastructure, etc on the leadership skills and potential of the students. Students have been administered an instrument that captured different leadership aspects of the students and the data was reduced into fourteen dimensions including leadership skills perceived by student, role of department in developing leadership skills, leadership potential of students, etc. Anova and regression analysis are the primary statistical tools were used (using SPSS 17.0) and the results revealed that there is a significant relationship between the student perceptions of their leadership potential and the role of department, the faculty, the curriculum, etc. This study supports introducing focused courses in management curriculum to promote leadership among students.

Keywords: students, management education, leadership, role of institution

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1119 Inconsistent Safety Leadership as a Predictor of Employee Safety Behavior

Authors: Jane Mullen, Ann Rheaume, Kevin Kelloway

Abstract:

Research on the effects of inconsistent safety leadership is limited, particularly regarding employee safety behavior in organizations. Inconsistent safety leadership occurs when organizational leaders display both effective and ineffective styles of safety leadership (i.e., transformational vs laissez-faire). In this study, we examine the effect of inconsistent safety leadership style on employee safety participation. Defined as the interaction of S.A.F.E.R (Speak, Act, Focus, Engage and Recognize) leadership style and passive leadership style, inconsistent safety leadership was found to be a significant predictor of safety participation in a sample of 307 nurses in Eastern Canada. Results of the moderated regression analysis also showed a significant main effect for S.A.F.E.R leadership, but not for passive leadership. To further explore the significant interaction, the simple slopes for S.A.F.E.R leadership at high and low levels (1 SD above and below the mean) of passive leadership were plotted. As predicted, the positive effects of S.A.F.E.R leadership behavior were attenuated when leaders were perceived by employees as also displaying high levels of passive leadership (i.e., inconsistent leadership styles). The research makes important theoretical and practical contributions to the occupational health and safety literature. The results demonstrate that leadership behavior, which is characteristic of the S.A.F.E.R model, is positively associated with employee safety participation. This finding is particularly important as researchers continue to explore what leaders can do to engage employees in work-related safety activities. The results also demonstrate how passive leadership may undermine the positive outcomes associated with safety leadership behavior in organizations. The data suggest that employee safety behavior is highest when leaders engage in safety effective leadership behavior on a consistent basis, rather than periodically.

Keywords: employee safety behavior, leadership, participation, safety training

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1118 Distributed Leadership: An Alternative at Higher Education Institutions in Turkey

Authors: Sakine Sincer

Abstract:

In today’s world, which takes further steps towards globalization each and every day, societies and cultures are re-shaped while the demands of the changing world are described once more. In this atmosphere, where the speed of change sometimes reaches a terrifying point, it is possible to state that effective leaders are needed more than ever in order to meet the above-stated needs and demands. The question of what effective leadership is keeping its importance on the agenda. Most of the answers to this question has mostly focused on the approach of distributed leadership recently. This study aims at analyzing the applicability of distributed leadership, which is accepted to be an example of effective leadership that can meet the needs of global world, which is changing more and more rapidly nowadays, at higher education institutions in Turkey. Within the framework of this study, first of all, the historical development of distributed leadership is addressed, and then a theoretical framework is drawn for this approach by means of underlying what distributed leadership is and is not. After that, different points of view about the approach are laid out within the borders of opinions expressed by Gronn and Spillane, who are accepted to be the most famous advocators of distributed leadership. Then, exemplar practices of distributed leadership are included in the study before drawing attention to the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Lastly, the applicability of distributed leadership at higher education institutions in Turkey is analyzed. This study is carried out with the method of literature review by resorting to first- and second-hand sources on distributed leadership.

Keywords: globalization, school leadership, distributed leadership, higher education, management

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1117 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge

Authors: M. Erhan Orhan, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, military, knowledge management, warfare, technology

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1116 Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

Authors: Prabhakar Venugopal G.

Abstract:

Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – complexity leadership that encompasses multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. The success of higher education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge sharing and knowledge applications. In this paper are the elements of globalization, the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization are discussed. The complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.

Keywords: globalization, complexity leadership, knowledge management

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1115 Civil-Military Relations in Turkey, Europe, and Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

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This article tries to comprehend the change of Turkish common military relations in an analogical viewpoint. The investigation is taking into account two criteria: institutional / legitimate systems and political oversight of the military's self-sufficiency. Examination of European furthermore, Middle Eastern common military relations models to the Turkish ideal model discloses grave contrasts in the middle of Turkish and Middle Eastern common military relations. The Turkish model in change for not less than 10 years is closer to the European show in both lawful and political perspectives. However, the article underscores that Turkish common military relations are still in change and despite the fact that the EU increase procedure has continuously democratized the legitimate arrangement of the nation, law based combining obliges further advances in the political area. A the result, stabilization in Turkey depends not just on withdrawing of the military from the political domain, additionally on the best possible civilization of the administration in hypothesis and practice.

Keywords: Turkish common military, institutional, legitimate systems, political oversight, middle Eastern common military

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1114 The Impact of Purpose as a Principal Leadership Skill on the Performance Select Township Schools in South Africa

Authors: Pepe Marais, Krishna Govender

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the impact of “purpose” as a principal leadership skill on the performance of two township schools using a quantitative research design and collecting data from the school principals, teachers and matric learners, using the 28-scale Servant Leadership Test as well as Gallup’s Q12 Employee Engagement survey. The questionnaires addressed the key objectives, namely, the extent to which the principals of the participating schools exhibited servant leadership and their understanding of “purpose” as one word in leadership and how teachers and learners perceived the impact of a “one-word” purpose-driven leader on the performance of the selected schools. Although no relationship could be demonstrated between ‘’purpose’’ and the performance of the two township schools, it became evident that a significant increase in Servant Leadership leads to a significant increase in engagement and performance, as measured by the matric pass rate. It is recommended that workshops be facilitated with principals and teachers in order to entrench ‘’purpose’’ deeper throughout the schools. In addition, Servant Leadership training has to be conduced to increase the leadership ability of the school principals. Future research in the area of ‘’purpose as one word’’, as well as Servant Leadership as a principal skillset within South Africa’s public school leadership, is recommended.

Keywords: school leadership, servant leadership, one-word purpose, engagement, leadership

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1113 The Examination of the Mediating Role of Leader-Member Exchange on the Association between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Behavior: A Study in Turkish Technological Organizations

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior and to evaluate the mediating role of leader-member exchange relationships (LMX) on the assumed relationship. This study has focused on the suggestion that LMX might emerge through transformational leadership behaviors and thus could mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior. A cross-sectional survey research has been conducted on the relationship these leadership approaches and their impact on organizational HRM-outcomes has been conducted on two organizations operating in the technical sector in Istanbul-Turkey. The results of the research have supported the hypotheses. Transformational leadership was positively related to the innovative behaviors and LMX emerged to mediate that relationship.

Keywords: innovative leadership, leader-member exchange, transformational leadership, Turkey

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