Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15833

Search results for: best candidates' method

15833 The Use of Culture as a Campaign Method in Indonesian Parliamentary Election

Authors: Azza Habibullah

Abstract:

The principal objective of this paper is to show the use of participatory culture in the parliamentarian campaign. The use of this method has always been non-popular amongst the parliamentarian candidates due to the amount of times and energy that they need to spent with the constituents. However, due to many parliamentarian corruption cases in the last five years period, some political party have been losing peoples trust. That political party trust lost had also affecting the parliamentarian candidates electability, so they invent some creative campaign method that involving their constituent with more intimates and friendly environment. In this paper, an observation is done to a parliamentarian candidate from Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (Prosperous Justice Party) in Bandung and Cimahi City area, West Java. This Parliamentraian candidate is known for her personal-approach campaign method such as a puppet show, hanging out with group of ex-bike gang leaders, and going fishing with the constituent. This paper will compare her method with other parliamentarian candidates from the same party as her that mostly use mainstream campaign method such as open speech, print media, an other one way campaign method. While the other parliamentarian candidates failed to reach the parliamentarian threshold, the participatory method had proven as an effective method.

Keywords: participatory culture, Indonesian parliamentary election, Prosperous Justice Party, electability

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15832 Are There Any Positive Effects of Motivational Interviewing on Motion Sickness?

Authors: Unal Demirtas, Mehmet Ergin Dipcin, Mehmet Cetin

Abstract:

Background: Applied to student candidates prior to entering the air force academy, under the name of Cadet selection flights and executed as 7-8 sorties under the surveillance of flight instructors, this training is mainly towards appraising students’ characteristics of flying ability. All pilot cadets are gone through physical examination before cadet selection flight in a military hospital. Some cadets may show motion sickness symptoms during this flights. The most common symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, headache, anxiety, paresthaesia, asthenia, muscle contraction and excitement. These cadets are examined by flight surgeon, after this flight surgeon and psychologist have an motivational interviewing with these cadets. Method: In this study, we have applied a survey that we question the severity of the symptom to the candidates that have motion sickness after the first sortie. We have questioned the candidate who had a motivational interviewing by the psychologist after the treatment of the flight surgeon that whether the candidate relived the complaints that he has at the previous sortie after the second sortie and whether there is decrease or increase in the severity of the complaints compared to the previous flight. Findings: 15 candidates have applied for the flight surgeon with at least one of the motion sickness symptoms. 11 of the 15 candidates showing motion sickness symptoms after the first flight expressed that their complaints are decreased after the motivational interviewing and 4 of the candidates stated that there are no changes in their complaints. The frequently expressed complaints are nausea, vertigo, headache, exhaustion and vomiting respectively. 7 out of 15 candidates expressed that they have same kind of complains in bus, ship etc. Conclusion: It is observed in our study that only conducting motivational interviewing with the candidates without any organic disorders without giving any drugs has a positive effect on the candidates in terms of motion sickness.

Keywords: aeromedicine, candidate, motion sickness, motivational interviewing, pilot

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15831 IT-Aided Business Process Enabling Real-Time Analysis of Candidates for Clinical Trials

Authors: Matthieu-P. Schapranow

Abstract:

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires the screening of a big number of potential candidates, i.e. the testing for trial-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, which is a time-consuming and complex task. Today, a significant amount of time is spent on identification of adequate trial participants as their selection may affect the overall study results. We introduce a unique patient eligibility metric, which allows systematic ranking and classification of candidates based on trial-specific filter criteria. Our web application enables real-time analysis of patient data and assessment of candidates using freely definable inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a result, the overall time required for identifying eligible candidates is tremendously reduced whilst additional degrees of freedom for evaluating the relevance of individual candidates are introduced by our contribution.

Keywords: in-memory technology, clinical trials, screening, eligibility metric, data analysis, clustering

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15830 Language Transfer in Graduate Candidates’ Essays

Authors: Erika Martínez Lugo

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Candidates to some graduate studies are asked to write essays in English to prove their competence to write essays and to do it in English. In the present study, language transfer (LT) in 15 written essays is identified, documented, analyzed, and classified. The essays were written in 2019, and the graduate program is a Masters in Modern Languages in a North-Western Mexican city border with USA. This study is of interest since it is important to determine whether or not some errors have been fossilized and have become mistakes, or if it is part of the candidates’ interlanguage. The results show that most language transfer is negative and syntactic, where the influence of candidates L1 (Spanish) is evident in their use of L2 (English).

Keywords: language transfer, cross-linguistic influence, interlanguage, error vs mistake

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15829 Discovery of Exoplanets in Kepler Data Using a Graphics Processing Unit Fast Folding Method and a Deep Learning Model

Authors: Kevin Wang, Jian Ge, Yinan Zhao, Kevin Willis

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Kepler has discovered over 4000 exoplanets and candidates. However, current transit planet detection techniques based on the wavelet analysis and the Box Least Squares (BLS) algorithm have limited sensitivity in detecting minor planets with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and long periods with only 3-4 repeated signals over the mission lifetime of 4 years. This paper presents a novel precise-period transit signal detection methodology based on a new Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Fast Folding algorithm in conjunction with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detect low SNR and/or long-period transit planet signals. A comparison with BLS is conducted on both simulated light curves and real data, demonstrating that the new method has higher speed, sensitivity, and reliability. For instance, the new system can detect transits with SNR as low as three while the performance of BLS drops off quickly around SNR of 7. Meanwhile, the GPU Fast Folding method folds light curves 25 times faster than BLS, a significant gain that allows exoplanet detection to occur at unprecedented period precision. This new method has been tested with all known transit signals with 100% confirmation. In addition, this new method has been successfully applied to the Kepler of Interest (KOI) data and identified a few new Earth-sized Ultra-short period (USP) exoplanet candidates and habitable planet candidates. The results highlight the promise for GPU Fast Folding as a replacement to the traditional BLS algorithm for finding small and/or long-period habitable and Earth-sized planet candidates in-transit data taken with Kepler and other space transit missions such as TESS(Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) and PLATO(PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars).

Keywords: algorithms, astronomy data analysis, deep learning, exoplanet detection methods, small planets, habitable planets, transit photometry

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15828 The Winning Possibility of Female Candidate in Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

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The majority of Korean female members of parliament(MPs) had been elected from the proportional representation till the 19th assemblies but in the 20th general election women MPs of the district representation is slightly more than women MPs of the proportional representation. The chance of women candidates to win is not as low as we assume. Therefore this study aims to reveal which factors influence the election of women candidates, other factors except the political party, because the effect of political party is already well known. Gangnam Eul is selected because female candidate was elected in spite of the low percentage of vote won by her political party. According to the survey, the female candidate was elected thanks to her policies and election pledges. Therefore, women candidates can be elected when they are nominated as candidates by their party in a safe constituency but also they can be elected with their good policies and election pledges in an unsafe constituency. And also the degree of the education, the age and the profession of voters influenced the support of female candidate.

Keywords: women candidates, 20th general election, winning in the district representation, policies and election pledges

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15827 Personnel Selection Based on Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis Methods

Authors: Emre Ipekci Cetin, Ebru Tarcan Icigen

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Personnel selection process is considered as one of the most important and most difficult issues in human resources management. At the stage of personnel selection, the applicants are handled according to certain criteria, the candidates are dealt with, and efforts are made to select the most appropriate candidate. However, this process can be more complicated in terms of the managers who will carry out the staff selection process. Candidates should be evaluated according to different criteria such as work experience, education, foreign language level etc. It is crucial that a rational selection process is carried out by considering all the criteria in an integrated structure. In this study, the problem of choosing the front office manager of a 5 star accommodation enterprise operating in Antalya is addressed by using multi-criteria decision-making methods. In this context, SWARA (Step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis) and MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of ratio analysis) methods, which have relatively few applications when compared with other methods, have been used together. Firstly SWARA method was used to calculate the weights of the criteria and subcriteria that were determined by the business. After the weights of the criteria were obtained, the MOORA method was used to rank the candidates using the ratio system and the reference point approach. Recruitment processes differ from sector to sector, from operation to operation. There are a number of criteria that must be taken into consideration by businesses in accordance with the structure of each sector. It is of utmost importance that all candidates are evaluated objectively in the framework of these criteria, after these criteria have been carefully selected in the selection of suitable candidates for employment. In the study, staff selection process was handled by using SWARA and MOORA methods together.

Keywords: accommodation establishments, human resource management, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, multi-criteria decision making, step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis

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15826 Seat Assignment Model for Student Admissions Process at Saudi Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

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In this paper, student admission process is studied to optimize the assignment of vacant seats with three main objectives. Utilizing all vacant seats, satisfying all program of study admission requirements and maintaining fairness among all candidates are the three main objectives of the optimization model. Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is used to build the model and solve the optimization problem with help of Northwest Coroner Method and Least Cost Method. A closed formula is derived for applying the priority of assigning seat to candidate based on SAM.

Keywords: admission process model, assignment problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, SAM

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15825 DFT Study of Hoogsteen-Type Base Pairs

Authors: N. Amraoui, D. Hammoutene

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We have performed a theoretical study using dispersion-corrected Density Functional Methods to evaluate a variety of artificial nucleobases as candidates for metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs. We focus on A-M-T Hoogsteen-type base pair with M=Co(II), Ru(I), Ni(I). All calculations are performed using (ADF 09) program. Metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs are studied as drug candidates, their geometry optimizations are performed at ZORA/TZ2P/BLYP-D level. The molecular geometries and different energies as total energies, coordination energies, Pauli interactions, orbital interactions and electrostatic energies are determined.

Keywords: chemistry, biology, density functional method, orbital interactions

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15824 Developing Countries and the Entrepreneurial Intention of Postgraduates: A Study of Nigerian Postgraduates in UUM

Authors: Mahmoud Ahmad Mahmoud

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The surge in unemployment among nations and the understanding of the important role played by entrepreneurship in job creation by researchers and policy makers have steered to the postulation that entrepreneurship activities can be spurred through the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Notwithstanding, entrepreneurial intention studies are very scarce in the developing world especially in the African continent. Even among the developed countries, studies of entrepreneurial intention were mostly focused on the undergraduate candidates. This paper therefore, aimed at filling the gap by employing the descriptive quantitative survey method to examine the entrepreneurial intention of 158 Nigerian postgraduate candidates of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), comprising 46 Masters and 112 PhD candidates who are studying in the College of Business (COB), College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) and College of Legal, Government and International Studies (COLGIS), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model was used due its reputable validity, with attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as the independent variables. Preliminary analysis and data screening were conducted which qualifies the data to the multivariate analysis assumptions. The reliability test was performed using the Cronbach Alpha method which shows all variables as reliable with a value of >0.70. However, the data is free from the multicollinearity issue with all factors in the Pearson correlation having <0.9 value and the VIF having <10. Regression analysis has shown the sufficiency and predictive capability of the TPB model to entrepreneurship intention with attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control being positively and significantly related to the entrepreneurial intention of Nigerian postgraduates. Considering the Beta values, perceived behavioural control emerged as the strongest factor that influences the postgraduates entrepreneurial intention. Developing countries are therefore, recommended to make efforts in redesigning their entrepreneurship development policies to fit candidates of the highest level of academia. Further studies should replicate in a larger sample that comprises more than one university and more than one developing country.

Keywords: attitude, entrepreneurial intention, Nigeria, perceived behavioral control, postgraduates, subjective norms

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15823 A Functional Analysis of the 2016 United States Presidential Debates through the Application of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse

Authors: Maryam Vaezi

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In this study, the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse has been applied in order to investigate the 2016 Clinton-Trump presidential debates. All three kinds of utterances (acclaims, attacks, and defenses) were produced by the candidates supporting the usefulness of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse for the analysis of the presidential debates as a type of political discourse. Attacks comprised 45% of the candidates’ utterances, followed by acclaims at 33%; defenses were the least common function at 22%. The candidate from the Democratic Party, Hillary Clinton, acclaimed more, whereas the Republican Party presidential candidate, Donald Trump, attacked more. Simple denial was the most common form of defense used by the candidates. Both candidates directed more of their utterances to policy (past deeds, future plans, and general goals) than character (personal qualities, leadership abilities, and ideals). Analyzing debates in terms of the functions performed by the candidates to increase their desirability and chance of winning the election, can lead to a better understanding of these significant political events as well as other forms of political discourse.

Keywords: acclaim, attack, defend, character, Democratic Party, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, policy, presidential debates, Republican Party

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15822 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih

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Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesis

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15821 Anterior Chamber Depth Measured with Orbscan and Pentacam Compared with Smith Method in 102 Phakic Eyes

Authors: Mohammad Ghandehari Motlagh

Abstract:

Purpose: Comparing anterior chamber depth (ACD) measured with Orbscan II and Pentacam HR compared with the Smith method results. Methods: Smith method (1979) is a reliable method of measuring ACD only with help of slit lamp. In this study 102 phakic eyes as PRK candidates were imaged with both OrbScan and Pentacam and finally ACD was measured thru Smith method with slit lamp. ACD measured with Smith method was presumed as the gold standard and was compared with ACD of the 2 imaging devices. Contraindication cases for PRK and pseudophakic eyes have been excluded from the study. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35.2 ±14.8 yrs/old including 56 M(54.9%)and 46 F(45.09%).Acceptable correlation of ACD measured thru Smith method with Orbscan and Pentacam are R=0.958 and R=0.942 respectively and so Orbscan results can be used in procedures relying on ACD. Conclusion: ACDs measured with OrbScan is more precise than Pentacam and so can be more useful in some surgery procedures relying ACD results such as phakic IOLs and in cycloplegia contraindications.

Keywords: orbscan, pentacam, anterior chamber depth, slit lamp

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15820 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi

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Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: best candidate method, centroid ranking technique, fuzzy transportation problem, robust ranking technique, transportation problem

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15819 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

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This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

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15818 Variable Tree Structure QR Decomposition-M Algorithm (QRD-M) in Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) Systems

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Jong-Kwang Kim, Chang-Hee Kang, Hyoung-Kyu Song

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In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, QR decomposition-M algorithm (QRD-M) has suboptimal error performance. However, the QRD-M has still high complexity due to many calculations at each layer in tree structure. To reduce the complexity of the QRD-M, proposed QRD-M modifies existing tree structure by eliminating unnecessary candidates at almost whole layers. The method of the elimination is discarding the candidates which have accumulated squared Euclidean distances larger than calculated threshold. The simulation results show that the proposed QRD-M has same bit error rate (BER) performance with lower complexity than the conventional QRD-M.

Keywords: complexity, MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, squared Euclidean distance

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15817 Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews

Authors: Callie Mady

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This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.

Keywords: French as an additional language education, teacher language confidence, teacher language maintenance, teacher language proficiency

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15816 Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Abdelaziz Hussien

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This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.

Keywords: trait-based language education, cooperative learning, writing achievement, writing composition, traits of writing, teacher education

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15815 Omani PE Candidate Self-Reports of Learning Strategies Used to Learn Sport Skills

Authors: Nasser Al-Rawahi

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The study aims at determining self-regulated learning strategies used by Omani physical education candidates to learn sport skills. The data were collected by a self-regulated learning theory questionnaire. The sample of the study comprised of 145 undergraduate physical education students enrolled in the department of physical education at the College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University. The findings of the study revealed that the most commonly used strategies for learning sport skills by Omani physical education candidate are ‘the effort learning strategies, planning learning strategies and evaluation learning strategies’. However, the reflection learning strategies, self-monitoring and self-efficacy learning strategies were revealed as the least used strategies by the PE candidates in learning and acquiring sport skills. Based on these findings, suggestions and recommendations for future research were provided.

Keywords: learning strategies, physical education candidates, self-regulated learning theory, Oman

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15814 Narrative Research in Secondary Teacher Education: Examining the Self-Efficacy of Content Area Teacher Candidates

Authors: Tiffany Karalis Noel

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The purpose of this study was to examine the factors attributed to the self-efficacy of beginning secondary content area teachers as they moved through their student teaching experiences. This study used a narrative inquiry methodology to understand the variables attributed to teacher self-efficacy among a group of secondary content area teacher candidates. The primary purpose of using a narrative inquiry methodology was to share the stories of content area teacher candidates’ student teaching experiences. Focused research questions included: (1) To what extent does teacher education preparation affect the self-efficacy of beginning content area teachers? (2) Which recurrent elements of teacher education affect the self-efficacy of beginning teachers, regardless of content area? (3) How do the findings from research questions 1 and 2 inform teacher educators? The findings of this study suggest that teacher education preparation affects the self-efficacy of beginning secondary teacher candidates across the content areas; accordingly, the findings of this study provide insight for teacher educators to consider the areas where teacher education programs are failing to provide adequate preparation. These teacher candidates emphasized the value of adequate preparation throughout their teacher education programs to help inform their student teaching experiences. In order to feel effective and successful as beginning teachers, these teacher candidates required additional opportunities to apply the practical application of their teaching skills prior to the student teaching experience, the incorporation of classroom management strategy coursework into their curriculum, and opportunities to explore the extensive demands of the teaching profession ranging from time management to dealing with difficult parents, to name a few referenced examples. The teacher candidates experienced feelings of self-doubt related to their effectiveness as teachers when they were unable to employ successful classroom management strategies, pedagogical techniques, or even feel confidence in navigating challenging conversations with students, parents, and/or administrators. In order to help future teacher candidates and beginning teachers in general overcome these barriers, additional coursework, fieldwork, and practical application experiences should be provided in teacher education programs to help boost the self-efficacy of student teachers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, teacher efficacy, secondary preservice teacher education, teacher candidacy, student teaching

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15813 Determination of the Inhibitory Effects of N-Methylpyrrole Derivatives on Glutathione Reductase Enzyme

Authors: Esma Kocaoglu, Oktay Talaz, Huseyin Cavdar, Murat Senturk, Deniz Eki̇nci̇

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Glutathione reductase (GR) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme which is responsible for the maintenance of the antioxidant GSH (glutathione) molecule. Antimalarial effects of some chemical molecules are attributed to their inhibition of GR; thus inhibitors of this enzyme are expected to be promising candidates for the treatment of malaria. In this work, GR inhibitory properties of N-Methylpyrrole derivatives are reported. Firstly, GR was purified by means of affinity chromatography using 2’,5’-ADP-Sepharose 4B as ligand. Enzymatic activity was measured by Beutler’s method. Synthesis of the compounds was approved by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Different inhibitor concentrations were used and all compounds were tested in triplicate at each concentration used. It was found that all compounds have better inhibitory activity than the strong GR inhibitor N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, especially three molecules, 8m, 8n, and 8q, are the best among them with low micromolar I₅₀ values. Findings of our study indicate that these Schiff base derivatives are strong GR inhibitors which can be used as leads for designation of novel antimalaria candidates.

Keywords: glutathione reductase, antimalaria, inhibitor, enzyme

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15812 Infusion of Skills for Undergraduate Scholarship into Teacher Education: Two Case Studies in New York and Florida

Authors: Tunde Szecsi, Janka Szilagyi

Abstract:

Students majoring in education are underrepresented in undergraduate scholarship. To enable and encourage teacher candidates to engage in scholarly activities, it is essential to infuse skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, oral and written communication, collaboration and the utilization of information literacy, into courses in teacher preparation programs. In this empirical study, we examined two teacher education programs – one in New York State and one in Florida – in terms of the approaches of the course-based infusion of skills for undergraduate research, and the effectiveness of this infusion. First, course-related documents such as syllabi, assignment descriptions, and course activities were reviewed and analyzed. The goal of the document analysis was to identify and describe the targeted skills, and the pedagogical approaches and strategies for promoting research skills in teacher candidates. Next, a selection of teacher candidates’ scholarly products from the institution in Florida was used as a data set to examine teacher candidates’ skill development in the context of the identified assignments. This dataset was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to describe the changes that occurred in teacher candidates’ critical thinking, communication, and information literacy skills, and to uncover patterns in the skill development at the two institutions. Descriptive statistics were calculated to explore the changes in these skills of teacher candidates over a period of three years. The findings based on data from the teacher education program in Florida indicated a steady gain in written communication and critical thinking and a modest increase in informational literacy. At the institution in New York, candidates’ submission and success rates on the edTPA, a New York State Teacher Certification exam, was used as a measure of scholarly skills. Overall, although different approaches were used for infusing the development of scholarly skills in the courses, the results suggest that a holistic and well-orchestrated infusion of the skills into most courses in the teacher education program might result in steadily developing scholarly skills. These results offered essential implications for teacher education programs in terms of further improvements in teacher candidates’ skills for engaging in undergraduate research and scholarship. In this presentation, our purpose is to showcase two approaches developed by two teacher education programs to demonstrate how diverse approaches toward the promotion of undergraduate scholarship activities are responsive to the context of the teacher preparation programs.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogical strategies, teacher education, undergraduate student research

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15811 Using Computer Simulations to Prepare Teachers

Authors: Roberta Gentry

Abstract:

The presentation will begin with a brief literature review of the use of computer simulation in teacher education programs. This information will be summarized. Additionally, based on the literature review, advantages and disadvantages of using computer simulation in higher education will be shared. Finally, a study in which computer simulations software was used with 50 initial licensure teacher candidates in both an introductory course and a behavior management course will be shared. Candidates reflected on their experiences with using computer simulation. The instructor of the course will also share lessons learned.

Keywords: simulations, teacher education, teacher preparation, educational research

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15810 Reviewing Special Education Preservice Teachers' Reflective Practices over Two Field Experiences: Topics and Changes in Reflection

Authors: Laurie U. deBettencourt

Abstract:

During pre-service field experiences teacher candidates are often asked to reflect as part of their training and in this investigation candidates’ reflective journal entries were reviewed, coded and analyzed with results suggesting teacher candidates need more direct instruction on how to describe, analyze, and make judgements on their instructional practices so that their practices improve over time. Teacher education programs often incorporate reflective-based activities during field experiences. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if special education teacher candidate’s reflective practices changed as they completed their two supervised field experiences and to determine what topics the candidates focused on in their reflections. The six females graduate students were completing two field experiences in special education classrooms within one academic year as part of their coursework leading to a master’s degree and special education teacher state certification. Each candidate wrote 15 reflection journal entries (approximately 200 words each) per field experience. Each of the journal entries were reviewed sentence by sentence to determine a reflective practice score and to determine the topics discussed. The reflective practice score was calculated using four dimensions of reflection (describe, analyze, judge, and apply) in order to create a continuous variable representing their reflective practice across four points of time. A One-way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) suggested that special education teacher candidates did not change their reflective practices over time (i.e., at time-point one the practitioner’s mean score was 56.0 out of 100 (SD = 7.6), 53.8 (SD = 4.3) at time-point two, 51.2 (SD = 4.5) at time-point three, and 57.7 (SD = 8.2) at time-point four). Qualitative findings suggest candidates focused mostly on themselves in their reflections. Conclusions suggest the need for teacher preparation programs to provide more direct instruction on how a teacher should reflect. Specific implications are provided for teacher training and future research.

Keywords: field experiences, reflective practices, special educators, teacher preparation

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15809 Teachers’ Perceptions Related to the Guiding Skills within the Application Courses

Authors: Tanimola Kazeem Abiodun

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In Nigeria, both formal education and distance learning opportunities are used in teacher training. Practical courses aim to improve the skills of teacher candidates in a school environment. Teacher candidates attend kindergarten classes under the supervision of a teacher. In this context, the guiding skills of teachers gain importance in terms of shaping candidates’ perceptions about teaching profession. In this study, the teachers’ perceptions related to the guiding skills within the practical courses were determined. Also, the perceptions and applications related to guiding skills were compared. A Likert scale questionnaire and an open-ended question were used to determine perceptions and applications. 120 questionnaires were taken into consideration and analyses of data were performed by using percentage distribution and QSR Nvivo 8 program. In this study, statements related to teachers’ perceptions about the guiding skills were asked and it is determined that almost all the teachers agreed about the importance of these statements. On the other hand, how these guidance skills are applied by teachers is also queried with an open-ended question. Finally, thoughts and applications related to guidance skills were compared to each other. Based on this comparison, it is seen that there are some differences between the thoughts and applications especially related with time management, planning, feedbacks, curriculum, workload, rules and guidance. It can be said that some guidance skills cannot be controlled only by teachers. For example, candidates’ motivation, attention, population and educational environment are also determinative factors for effective guidance. In summary, it is necessary to have prior conditions for teachers to apply these idealized guidance skills for training more successful candidates to pre-school education era. At this point, organization of practical courses by the faculties gains importance and in this context it is crucial for faculties to revise their applications based on more detailed researches.

Keywords: teacher training, guiding skills, education, practical courses

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15808 The Opinions of Counselor Candidates' regarding Universal Values in Marriage Relationship

Authors: Seval Kizildag, Ozge Can Aran

Abstract:

The effective intervention of counselors’ in conflict between spouses may be effective in increasing the quality of marital relationship. At this point, it is necessary for counselors to consider their own value systems at first and then reflect this correctly to the counseling process. For this reason, it is primarily important to determine the needs of counselors. Starting from this point of view, in this study, it is aimed to reveal the perspective of counselor candidates about the universal values in marriage relation. The study group of the survey was formed by sampling, which is one of the prospective sampling methods. As a criterion being a candidate for counseling area and having knowledge of the concepts of the Marriage and Family Counseling course is based, because, that candidate students have a comprehensive knowledge of the field and that students have mastered the concepts of marriage and family counseling will strengthen the findings of this study. For this reason, 61 counselor candidates, 32 (52%) female and 29 (48%) male counselor candidates, who were about to graduate from a university in south-east Turkey and who took a Marriage and Family Counseling course, voluntarily participated in the study. The average age of counselor candidates’ is 23. At the same time, 70 % of the parents of these candidates brought about their marriage through arranged marriage, 13% through flirting, 8% by relative marriage, 7% through friend circles and 2% by custom. The data were collected through Demographic Information Form and a form titled ‘Universal Values Form in Marriage’ which consists of six questions prepared by researchers. After the data were transferred to the computer, necessary statistical evaluations were made on the data. The qualitative data analysis was used on the data which was obtained in the study. The universal values which include six basic values covering trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, citizenship, determined under the name as ‘six pillar of character’ are used as base and frequency values of the data were calculated trough content analysis. According to the findings of the study, while the value which most students find the most important value in marriage relation is being reliable, the value which they find the least important is to have citizenship consciousness. Also in this study, it is found out that counselor candidates associate the value of being trustworthiness ‘loyalty’ with (33%) as the highest in terms of frequency, the value of being respect ‘No violence’ with (23%), the value of responsibility ‘in the context of gender roles and spouses doing their owns’ with (35%) the value of being fairness ‘impartiality’ with (25%), the value of being caring ‘ being helpful’ with (25%) and finally as to the value of citizenship ‘love of country’ with (14%) and’ respect for the laws ‘ with (14%). It is believed that these results of the study will contribute to the arrangements for the development of counseling skills for counselor candidates regarding value in marriage and family counseling curricula.

Keywords: caring, citizenship, counselor candidate, fairness, marriage relationship, respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, value system

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15807 Case Studies of Educational Technology Integration for Global Citizenship Development among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Erik Jon Byker

Abstract:

Government leaders and education policymakers have increasingly focused on ways that teachers can better prepare children for life in a global society. Such preparation includes the development of global citizenship among young people. Yet, scholars point out that many elementary school educators and teacher candidates have limited awareness of being global citizens in an interdependent world. More and more teacher preparation programs aim to integrate global citizenship in their program plans and use educational technology to help develop global citizenship. Many non-governmental organizations (NGOs), like the Asia Society and Partnership for 21st Century Skills, have led the way in creating global citizenship frameworks that prepare teachers and students with global competencies. The development of global citizenship among teachers needs to begin even before teachers sign their first contract. Global citizenship development should start when teacher candidates are being prepared to teach. Using the Critical Cosmopolitan Theory as a conceptual lens, this paper examines the integration of global citizenship curricula in teacher education programs in North Carolina and Texas in the United States of America. Using a case study methodology, the paper describes and compares the teacher candidates’ (n=136) perceptions of the global citizenship curricula delivered with the aid of educational technology. The study found that after participating in the global citizenship curricula, participants: (1) made conceptual leaps in their global citizenship definitions; (2) developed a stronger commitment for their future role as educators in developing global citizens; and (3) were more willing to take action for social justice-related issues in education. In sum, this paper discusses empirical findings related to the ways to integrate educational technology in preparing globally competent teachers.

Keywords: educational technology, global education, intercultural awareness, teacher candidates

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15806 A Theoretical Approach on Electoral Competition, Lobby Formation and Equilibrium Policy Platforms

Authors: Deepti Kohli, Meeta Keswani Mehra

Abstract:

The paper develops a theoretical model of electoral competition with purely opportunistic candidates and a uni-dimensional policy using the probability voting approach while focusing on the aspect of lobby formation to analyze the inherent complex interactions between centripetal and centrifugal forces and their effects on equilibrium policy platforms. There exist three types of agents, namely, Left-wing, Moderate and Right-wing who comprise of the total voting population. Also, it is assumed that the Left and Right agents are free to initiate a lobby of their choice. If initiated, these lobbies generate donations which in turn can be contributed to one (or both) electoral candidates in order to influence them to implement the lobby’s preferred policy. Four different lobby formation scenarios have been considered: no lobby formation, only Left, only Right and both Left and Right. The equilibrium policy platforms, amount of individual donations by agents to their respective lobbies and the contributions offered to the electoral candidates have been solved for under each of the above four cases. Since it is assumed that the agents cannot coordinate each other’s actions during the lobby formation stage, there exists a probability with which a lobby would be formed, which is also solved for in the model. The results indicate that the policy platforms of the two electoral candidates converge completely under the cases of no lobby and both (extreme) formations but diverge under the cases of only one (Left or Right) lobby formation. This is because in the case of no lobby being formed, only the centripetal forces (emerging from the election-winning aspect) are present while in the case of both extreme (Left-wing and Right-wing) lobbies being formed, centrifugal forces (emerging from the lobby formation aspect) also arise but cancel each other out, again resulting in a pure policy convergence phenomenon. In contrast, in case of only one lobby being formed, both centripetal and centrifugal forces interact strategically, leading the two electoral candidates to choose completely different policy platforms in equilibrium. Additionally, it is found that in equilibrium, while the donation by a specific agent type increases with the formation of both lobbies in comparison to when only one lobby is formed, the probability of implementation of the policy being advocated by that lobby group falls.

Keywords: electoral competition, equilibrium policy platforms, lobby formation, opportunistic candidates

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15805 Preparation and Size Control of Sub-100 Nm Pure Nanodrugs

Authors: Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee

Abstract:

Pure nanodrugs (PNDs) – nanoparticles consisting entirely of drug molecules, have been considered as promising candidates for the next-generation nanodrugs. However, the traditional preparation method via reprecipitation faces critical challenges including low production rates, relatively large particle sizes and batch-to-batch variations. Here, for the first time, we successfully developed a novel, versatile and controllable strategy for preparing PNDs via an anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) template-assisted method. With this approach, we prepared PNDs of an anti-cancer drug (VM-26) with precisely controlled sizes reaching the sub-20 nm range. This template-assisted approach has much higher feasibility for mass production comparing to the conventional reprecipitation method and is beneficial for future clinical translation. The present method is further demonstrated to be easily applicable for a wide range of hydrophobic biomolecules without the need of custom molecular modifications and can be extended for preparing all-in-one nanostructures with different functional agents.

Keywords: drug delivery, pure nanodrugs, size control, template

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15804 Improving Indoor Air Quality by Increasing Bio-Based Negative Air Ion Release

Authors: Shuye Jiang, Ali Ma, Srinivasan Ramachandran

Abstract:

Indoor air quality could be improved through traditional air purifiers. However, they may not be environmental products. Here, a bio-based method was employed to improve indoor air quality by increasing negative air ion (NAI) release from ornamental plants. A total of 60 plant species has been screened by evaluating their ability to release NAIs, from which four candidates were selected to further study. All of them are from the Dracaena or fabids clade. These four candidates were then subjected to survey their ability to reduce the concentration of particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 or 10 microns (PM2.5 and PM10) in the growth chamber. High concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were artificially generated by burning a stick of incense for 2 minutes in the closed growth chamber (80cm length × 80cm width × 80cm height), in which the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were generally around 500 µg/m3 and 1500 µg/m3, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 were naturally reduced to 410 and 670, respectively after two hours in case that no plants were placed inside the chamber. Interestingly, these two sizes of particulars were reduced to 170 µg/m3 and 210 µg/m3, respectively after two hours when plants were placed to the chamber. It took 4 hours for the plants to reduce particular concentration to acceptable level at less than 55 µg/m3 for both PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. However, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were still above 200 µg/m3 and 300 µg/m3, respectively after 4 hours in the growth chamber without any plants. These results suggest the contribution of plants to the particulate deposition. However, all of these data are preliminary and the results may be updated by further studies. In addition, the roles of plants in absorbing indoor formaldehyde have also been explored and their absorbing ability is being improved by optimizing their growth conditions and treating with various exogenous agents. Thus, our preliminary studies provide an alternative strategy to improve indoor air quality.

Keywords: bio-based method, indoor air, negative air ion, particulate matter

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