Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 612

Search results for: difficulty

612 Integer Programming-Based Generation of Difficulty Level for a Racing Game

Authors: Sangchul Kim, Dosaeng Park

Abstract:

It is one of the important design issues to provide various levels of difficulty in order to suit the skillfulness of an individual. In this paper we propose an integer programming-based method for selecting a mixture of challenges for a racing game that meet a given degree of difficulty. The proposed method can also be used to dynamically adjust the difficulty of the game during the progression of playing. By experiments, it is shown that our method performs well enough to generate games with various degrees of difficulty that match the perception of players.

Keywords: level generation, level adjustment, racing game, ip

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
611 Career Decision-Making Difficulty and Emotional Quotient: Basis for a Career Guidance Intervention for City College of Angeles

Authors: Rhenan D. Estacio

Abstract:

This research presents the career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of one hundred fifty (150) college students of City College of Angeles, Academic Year 2016-2017. Independent sample T-test and Pearson r correlation were done to shifter and non-shifter in terms of their career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. A significant positive correlation revealed (r=.302) on career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. Also, a significant negative correlation revealed (r=-.329) on career decision making difficulty and a moderating variable which is age. The finding significantly shows that emotional quotient was associated and adds a significant incremental variance with career decision making difficulty. Moreover, age shows a moderating effect on career decision making difficulty by having a significant decline and increment on variables. Furthermore, categorization of career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of said participants are described in this study. In addition, career guidance interventions were suggested based on the results of this study.

Keywords: career, decision-making, difficulty, emotional, quotient

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
610 Rating and Generating Sudoku Puzzles Based on Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Bahare Fatemi, Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Nazanin Mehrasa

Abstract:

Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which people in different ages enjoy playing it. The challenging and addictive nature of this game has made it a ubiquitous game. Most magazines, newspapers, puzzle books, etc. publish lots of Sudoku puzzles every day. These puzzles often come in different levels of difficulty so that all people, from beginner to expert, can play the game and enjoy it. Generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty is a major concern of Sudoku designers. There are several works in the literature which propose ways of generating puzzles having a desirable level of difficulty. In this paper, we propose a method based on constraint satisfaction problems to evaluate the difficulty of the Sudoku puzzles. Then, we propose a hill climbing method to generate puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Whereas other methods are usually capable of generating puzzles with only few number of difficulty levels, our method can be used to generate puzzles with arbitrary number of different difficulty levels. We test our method by generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty and having a group of 15 people solve all the puzzles and recording the time they spend for each puzzle.

Keywords: constraint satisfaction problem, generating Sudoku puzzles, hill climbing

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609 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

Abstract:

Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

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608 The Role of Reading Self-Efficacy and Perception of Difficulty in English Reading among Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Kevin Chan, Kevin K. H. Chung, Patcy P. S. Yeung, H. L. Ip, Bill T. C. Chung, Karen M. K. Chung

Abstract:

Purpose: Recent evidence shows that reading self-efficacy and students perceived difficulty in reading are significantly associated with word reading and reading fluency. However, little is known about these relationships among students learning to read English as a second language, particularly in Chinese students. This study examined the contributions of reading self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills to performance on English word reading and reading fluency in Chinese students. Method: A sample of 122 second-and third-grade students in Hong Kong, China, participated in this study. Students completed the measures of reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading. They were assessed on their English cognitive-linguistic and reading skills: rapid automatized naming, nonword reading, phonological awareness, word reading, and one-minute word reading. Results: Results of path analysis indicated that when students’ grades were controlled, reading self-efficacy was a significant correlate of word reading and reading fluency, whereas perception of difficulty in reading negatively predicted word reading. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of taking students’ reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading and their cognitive-linguistic skills into consideration when designing reading intervention and instructions for students learning English as a second language.

Keywords: self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, english as a second language, word reading

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607 The Eye Tracking Technique and the Study of Some Abstract Mathematical Concepts at the University

Authors: Tamara Díaz-Chang, Elizabeth-H Arredondo

Abstract:

This article presents the results of mixed approach research, where the ocular movements of students are examined while they solve questionnaires related to some abstract mathematical concepts. The objective of this research is to determine possible correlations between the parameters of ocular activity and the level of difficulty of the tasks. The difficulty level categories were established based on two types of criteria: a subjective one, through an evaluation, carried out by the subjects, and a behavioral one, related to obtaining the correct solution. Correlations of these criteria with ocular activity parameters, which were considered indicators of mental effort, were identified. The analysis of the data obtained allowed us to observe discrepancies in the categorization of difficulty levels based on subjective and behavioral criteria. There was a negative correlation of the eye movement parameters with the students' opinions on the level of difficulty of the questions, while a strong positive and significant correlation was noted between most of the parameters of ocular activity and the level of difficulty, determined by the percentage of correct answers. The results obtained by the analysis of the data suggest that eye movement parameters can be taken as indicators of the difficulty level of the tasks related to the study of some abstract mathematical concepts at the university.

Keywords: abstract mathematical concepts, cognitive neuroscience, eye-tracking, university education

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606 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning style, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebraic fraction was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style performs better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: algebraic fractions, graduated difficulty, mastery learning style, multimedia

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605 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri

Abstract:

This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: biology, perceived difficulty, post-secondary, study habits

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
604 Characteristics and Item Parameters Fitness on Chemistry Teacher-Made Test Instrument

Authors: Rizki Nor Amelia, Farida A. Setiawati

Abstract:

This study aimed to: (1) describe the characteristics of teacher-made test instrument used to measure the ability of students’chemistry, and (2) identify the presence of the compability difficulty level set by teachers to difficulty level by empirical results. Based on these objectives, this study was a descriptive research. The analysis in this study used the Rasch model and Chi-square statistics. Analysis using Rasch Model was based on the response patterns of high school students to the teacher-made test instrument on chemistry subject Academic Year 2015/2016 in the Yogyakarta. The sample of this research were 358 students taken by cluster random sampling technique. The analysis showed that: (1) a teacher-made tests instrument has a medium on the mean difficulty level. This instrument is capable to measure the ability on the interval of -0,259 ≤ θ ≤ 0,659 logit. Maximum Test Information Function obtained at 18.187 on the ability +0,2 logit; (2) 100% items categorized either as easy or difficult by rasch model is match with the teachers’ judgment; while 37 items are categorized according to rasch model which 8.10% and 10.81% categorized as easy and difficult items respectively according to the teachers, the others are medium categorized. Overall, the distribution of the level of difficulty formulated by the teachers has the distinction (not match) to the level of difficulty based on the empirical results.

Keywords: chemistry, items parameter fitness, Rasch model, teacher-made test

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603 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for software-intensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis

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602 Are Some Languages Harder to Learn and Teach Than Others?

Authors: David S. Rosenstein

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The author believes that modern spoken languages should be equally difficult (or easy) to learn, since all normal children learning their native languages do so at approximately the same rate and with the same competence, progressing from easy to more complex grammar and syntax in the same way. Why then, do some languages seem more difficult than others? Perhaps people are referring to the written language, where it may be true that mastering Chinese requires more time than French, which in turn requires more time than Spanish. But this may be marginal, since Chinese and French children quickly catch up to their Spanish peers in reading comprehension. Rather, the real differences in difficulty derive from two sources: hardened L1 language habits trying to cope with contrasting L2 habits; and unfamiliarity with unique L2 characteristics causing faulty expectations. It would seem that effective L2 teaching and learning must take these two sources of difficulty into consideration. The author feels that the latter (faulty expectations) causes the greatest difficulty, making effective teaching and learning somewhat different for each given foreign language. Examples from Chinese and other languages are presented.

Keywords: learning different languages, language learning difficulties, faulty language expectations

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601 The Comparison of Dismount Skill between National and International Men’s Artistic Gymnastics in Parallel Bars Apparatus

Authors: Chen ChihYu, Tang Wen Tzu, Chen Kuang Hui

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Aim —To compare the dismount skill between Taiwanese and elite international gymnastics in parallel bars following the 2017-2020 code of points. Methods—The gymnasts who advanced to the parallel bars event finals of these four competitions including World Championships, Universiade, the National Games of Taiwan, and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games of Taiwan both 2017 and 2019 were selected in this study. The dismount skill of parallel bars was analyzed, and the average difficulty score was compared by one-way ANOVA. Descriptive statistics were applied to present the type of dismount skill and the difficulty of each gymnast in these four competitions. The data from World Championships and Universiade were combined as the international group (INT), and data of Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games were also combined as the national group (NAT). The differences between INT and NAT were analyzed by the Chi-square test. The statistical significance of this study was set at α= 0.05. Results— i) There was a significant difference in the mean parallel bars dismount skill in these four competitions analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Both dismount scores of World Championships and Universiade were significantly higher than in Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games (0.58±0.08 & 0.56±0.08 > 0.42±0.06 & 40±0.06, p < 0.05). ii) Most of the gymnasts in World Championships and Universiade selected the 0.6-point skill as the parallel bars dismount element, and for the Taiwanese National Games and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, most of the gymnasts performed the 0.4-point dismount skill. iii) The result of the Chi-square test has shown that there was a significant difference in the selection of parallel bars dismount skill. The INT group used the E or E+ difficulty element as the dismount skill, and the NAT group selected the D or D- difficulty element. Conclusion— The level of parallel bars dismount in Taiwanese gymnastics is inferior to elite international gymnastics. It is suggested that Taiwanese gymnastics must try to practice the F difficulty dismount (double salto forward tucked with half twist) in the future.

Keywords: Artistic Gymnastics World Championships, dismount, difficulty score, element

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600 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

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599 Improvements of the Difficulty in Hospital Acceptance at the Scene by the Introduction of Smartphone Application for Emergency-Medical-Service System: A Population-Based Before-And-After Observation Study in Osaka City, Japan

Authors: Yusuke Katayama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Kosuke Kiyohara, Sumito Hayashida, Taku Iwami, Takashi Kawamura, Takeshi Shimazu

Abstract:

Background: Recently, the number of ambulance dispatches has been increasing in Japan and it is, therefore, difficult to accept emergency patients to hospitals smoothly and appropriately because of the limited hospital capacity. To facilitate the request for patient transport by ambulances and hospital acceptance, the emergency information system using information technology has been built up and introduced in various communities. However, its effectiveness has not been insufficiently revealed in Japan. In 2013, we developed a smartphone application system that enables the emergency-medical-service (EMS) personnel to share information about on-scene ambulance and hospital situation. The aim of this study was to assess the introduction effect of this application for EMS system in Osaka City, Japan. Methods: This study was a retrospective study with population-based ambulance records of Osaka Municipal Fire Department. This study period was six years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. In this study, we enrolled emergency patients that on-scene EMS personnel conducted the hospital selection for them. The main endpoint was difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene was to make >=5 phone calls by EMS personnel at the scene to each hospital until a decision to transport was determined. The definition of the smartphone application group was emergency patients transported in the period of 2013-2015 after the introduction of this application, and we assessed the introduction effect of smartphone application with multivariable logistic regression model. Results: A total of 600,526 emergency patients for whom EMS personnel selected hospitals were eligible for our analysis. There were 300,131 smartphone application group (50.0%) in 2010-2012 and 300,395 non-smartphone application group (50.0%) in 2013-2015. The proportion of the difficulty in hospital acceptance was 14.2% (42,585/300,131) in the smartphone application group and 10.9% (32,819/300,395) in the non-smartphone application group, and the difficulty in hospital acceptance significantly decreased by the introduction of the smartphone application (adjusted odds ration; 0.730, 95% confidence interval; 0.718-0.741, P<0.001). Conclusions: Sharing information between ambulance and hospital by introducing smartphone application at the scene was associated with decreasing the difficulty in hospital acceptance. Our findings may be considerable useful for developing emergency medical information system with using IT in other areas of the world.

Keywords: difficulty in hospital acceptance, emergency medical service, infomation technology, smartphone application

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598 Attitudes of Nursing Students Towards Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction

Authors: Şefika Dilek Güven, Gülden Küçükakça

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Objective: Learning the process of interaction with patient occurs within the process of nursing education. For this reason, it is considered to provide an opportunity for questioning and rearrangement of nursing education programs by assessing attitudes of nursing students towards caring nurse-patient interaction. Method: This is a descriptive study conducted in order to assess attitudes of nursing students towards caring nurse-patient interaction. The study was conducted with 318 students who were studying at nursing department of Semra and Vefa Küçük Health High School, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University in 2015-2016 academic year and agreed to participate in the study. “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researchers utilizing the literature and “Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale (CNPIS)”, who Turkish validity and reliability were conducted by Atar and Aştı, were used in the study. The Cronbach α coefficient of CNPIS was found as 0.973 in the study. Permissions of the institution and participants were received before starting to conduct study. Significance test of the difference between two means, analysis of variance, and correlation analysis were used to assess the data. Results: Average age of nursing students participating in the study was 20.72±1.91 and 74.8% were female, and 28.0% were the fourth-year students. 52.5% of the nursing students stated that they chose nursing profession willingly, 80.2% did not have difficulty in their interactions with patients, and 84.6% did not have difficulty in their social relationships. CNPIS total mean score of nursing students was found to be 295.31±40.95. When the correlation between total CNPIS mean score of the nursing students in terms of some variables was examined; it was determined there was a significant positive correlation between ages of the nursing students and total mean score of CNPIS (r=0.184, p=0.001). CNPIS total mean score was found to be higher in female students compared to male students, in 3rd–year students compared to students studying at other years, in those choosing their profession willingly compared to those choosing their profession unwillingly, in those not having difficulty in relations with the patients compared to those having difficulty, and in those not having difficulty in social relationships compared to those having difficulty. It was determined there was a significant difference between CNPIS total mean scores in terms of the year and state of having difficulty in social relationships (p<0,005). Conclusion: Nursing students had positive attitudes towards caring nurse-patient interactions, attitudes of nursing students, who were female, studying at 3rd year, chose nursing profession willingly, did not have difficulty in patient relations, and did not have difficulty in social relationships, towards caring nurse-patient interaction were found to be more positive. In the line with these results; it can be recommended to organize activities for introducing nursing profession to the youth preparing for the university, to use methods that will increase further communication skills to nursing students during their education, to support students in terms of communication skills, and to involve activities that will strengthen their social relationships.

Keywords: nurse-patient interaction, nursing student, patient, communication

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597 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

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This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

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596 Empirical Study on Factors Influencing SEO

Authors: Pakinee Aimmanee, Phoom Chokratsamesiri

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Search engine has become an essential tool nowadays for people to search for their needed information on the internet. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the search engine from three factors: the keyword frequency, the number of inbound links, and the difficulty of the keyword. The evaluations are based on the ranking position and the number of days that Google has seen or detect the webpage. We find that the keyword frequency and the difficulty of the keyword do not affect the Google ranking where the number of inbound links gives remarkable improvement of the ranking position. The optimal number of inbound links found in the experiment is 10.

Keywords: SEO, information retrieval, web search, knowledge technologies

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595 Analysis of the Interventions Performed in Pediatric Cardiology Unit Based on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th): A Pilot Study

Authors: Ji Wen Sun, Nan Ping Shen, Yi Bei Wu

Abstract:

This study used Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th) to identify the interventions performed in a pediatric cardiology unit, and then to analysis its frequency, time and difficulty, so as to give a brief review on what our nurses have done. The research team selected a 35 beds pediatric cardiology unit, and drawn all the nursing interventions in the nursing record from our hospital information system (HIS) from 1 October 2015 to 30 November 2015, using NIC-6th to do the matching and then counting their frequencies. Then giving each intervention its own time and difficulty code according to NIC-6th. The results showed that nurses in pediatric cardiology unit performed totally 43 interventions from 5394 statements, and most of them were in RN(basic) education level needed and less than 15 minutes time needed. There still had some interventions just needed by a nursing assistant but done by nurses, which should call for nurse managers to think about the suitable staffing. Thus, counting the summary of the product of frequency, time and difficulty for each intervention of each nurse can know one's performance. Acknowledgement Clinical Management Optimization Project of Shanghai Shen Kang Hospital Development Center (SHDC2014615); Hundred-Talent Program of Construction of Nursing Plateau Discipline (hlgy16073qnhb).

Keywords: nursing interventions, nursing interventions classification, nursing record, pediatric cardiology

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594 Fear of Covid-19 a Major Contributing Factor to Insomnia in General Iranian Population

Authors: Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Samaneh Akbarour, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Farnaz Etesam, Arezu Najafi, Mahnaz Khalafehnilsaz

Abstract:

Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease has considerably burdened the healthcare system in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of insomnia experienced by the general Iranian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A scale(FCV-19) was used for Fear of COVID-19, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 (GAD-2) for detailed characterization of insomnia and its patterns Results: In total, 675 people with insomnia with the mean age of 40.28 years (SD=11.15) participated in this study. Prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) were 91.4%, 86.7%, and 77%, respectively. DIS, DMS, and EMA were more common in people with depression and anxiety. FCV-19 score was higher in those with more severe types of DIS, DMS, and EMA (P<0.001). FCV-19 was a risk factor for all patterns of insomnia (OR=1.19, 1.12, 1.02 for DIS, DMS, and EMA, respectively). Conclusion: fear of COVID-19 is a major factor to insomnia patterns. Investigation of COVID-19 fear in people with insomnia and the addition of attributed relieving or management strategies to conventional management of insomnia are reasonable approaches to improve the sleep condition of people in the pandemic.

Keywords: insomnia, difficulty maintaining sleep, COVID-19, Coronavirus

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593 When and Why Unhappy People Avoid Enjoyable Experiences

Authors: Hao Shen, Aparna Labroo

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Across four studies, we show people in a negative mood avoid anticipated enjoyable experiences because of the subjective difficulty in simulating those experiences, and they misattribute these feelings of difficulty to reduced pleasantness of the anticipated experience. We observe the avoidance of enjoyable experiences only for anticipated experiences that involve smile-like facial-muscular simulation. When the need for facial-muscular simulation is attenuated, or when the anticipated experience relies on facial-muscular simulation to a lesser extent, people in a negative mood no longer avoid enjoyable experiences, but rather seek such experiences because they fit better with their ongoing mood-repair goals.

Keywords: emotion regulation, mood repair, embodiment, anticipated experiences

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592 Establishing Digital Forensics Capability and Capacity among Malaysia's Law Enforcement Agencies: Issues, Challenges and Recommendations

Authors: Sarah Taylor, Nor Zarina Zainal Abidin, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib

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Although cybercrime is on the rise, yet many Law Enforcement Agencies in Malaysia faces difficulty in establishing own digital forensics capability and capacity. The main reasons are undoubtedly because of the high cost and difficulty in convincing their management. A survey has been conducted among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies owning a digital forensics laboratory to understand their history of building digital forensics capacity and capability, the challenges and the impact of having own laboratory to their case investigation. The result of the study shall be used by other Law Enforcement Agencies in justifying to their management to establish own digital forensics capability and capacity.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics capacity and capability, laboratory, law enforcement agency

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591 Difficulty and Complexity in Dealing with Visual Pollution in the Historical Cities: The Historical City of Ibb-Yemen as a Case Study

Authors: Abdulfattah A. Q .Alwah, Wen Li, Mohammed A. Q. Alwah, Duc Thien Tran, Bing Xi Liu

Abstract:

The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. The historical city of Ibb is suffering from a variety of visual pollution of the urban environment, so it has been chosen as a case study. This study aims to identify the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb, and to provide appropriate solutions, which suit with the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the officials in the competent authorities, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the interview results, this study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb regarding the appearances and the reasons. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which suitable with the complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions take two paths: the first one is to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the second path is to address the current visual pollutions.

Keywords: visual pollution, visual image, urban environment, difficulty, complexity, historical cities, the historical city of Ibb

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590 Perspectives of Saudi Students on Reasons for Seeking Private Tutors in English

Authors: Ghazi Alotaibi

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The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on their reasons for seeking private tutors in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents’ follow-up of student school performance, social pressure, variability in student comprehension levels at school, weak English foundation in previous school years, repeated student absence from school, large classes, as well as English teachers’ heavy teaching loads. The study started with a description of the EFL educational system in Saudi Arabia and concluded with recommendations for the improvement of the school learning environment.

Keywords: english, learning difficulty, private tutoring, Saudi, teaching practices, learning environment

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589 Linking Enhanced Resting-State Brain Connectivity with the Benefit of Desirable Difficulty to Motor Learning: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Authors: Chien-Ho Lin, Ho-Ching Yang, Barbara Knowlton, Shin-Leh Huang, Ming-Chang Chiang

Abstract:

Practicing motor tasks arranged in an interleaved order (interleaved practice, or IP) generally leads to better learning than practicing tasks in a repetitive order (repetitive practice, or RP), an example of how desirable difficulty during practice benefits learning. Greater difficulty during practice, e.g. IP, is associated with greater brain activity measured by higher blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the sensorimotor areas of the brain. In this study resting-state fMRI was applied to investigate whether increase in resting-state brain connectivity immediately after practice predicts the benefit of desirable difficulty to motor learning. 26 healthy adults (11M/15F, age = 23.3±1.3 years) practiced two sets of three sequences arranged in a repetitive or an interleaved order over 2 days, followed by a retention test on Day 5 to evaluate learning. On each practice day, fMRI data were acquired in a resting state after practice. The resting-state fMRI data was decomposed using a group-level spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yielding 9 independent components (IC) matched to the precuneus network, primary visual networks (two ICs, denoted by I and II respectively), sensorimotor networks (two ICs, denoted by I and II respectively), the right and the left frontoparietal networks, occipito-temporal network, and the frontal network. A weighted resting-state functional connectivity (wRSFC) was then defined to incorporate information from within- and between-network brain connectivity. The within-network functional connectivity between a voxel and an IC was gauged by a z-score derived from the Fisher transformation of the IC map. The between-network connectivity was derived from the cross-correlation of time courses across all possible pairs of ICs, leading to a symmetric nc x nc matrix of cross-correlation coefficients, denoted by C = (pᵢⱼ). Here pᵢⱼ is the extremum of cross-correlation between ICs i and j; nc = 9 is the number of ICs. This component-wise cross-correlation matrix C was then projected to the voxel space, with the weights for each voxel set to the z-score that represents the above within-network functional connectivity. The wRSFC map incorporates the global characteristics of brain networks measured by the between-network connectivity, and the spatial information contained in the IC maps measured by the within-network connectivity. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that greater IP-minus-RP difference in wRSFC was positively correlated with the RP-minus-IP difference in the response time on Day 5, particularly in brain regions crucial for motor learning, such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the right premotor and supplementary motor cortices. This indicates that enhanced resting brain connectivity during the early phase of memory consolidation is associated with enhanced learning following interleaved practice, and as such wRSFC could be applied as a biomarker that measures the beneficial effects of desirable difficulty on motor sequence learning.

Keywords: desirable difficulty, functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis, resting-state networks

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588 A Retrievable Genetic Algorithm for Efficient Solving of Sudoku Puzzles

Authors: Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Bahare Fatemi

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Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which is popular among people of different ages. Due to this popularity, computer softwares are being developed to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Several methods and algorithms have been proposed and used in different softwares to efficiently solve Sudoku puzzles. Various search methods such as stochastic local search have been applied to this problem. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one of the algorithms which have been applied to this problem in different forms and in several works in the literature. In these works, chromosomes with little or no information were considered and obtained results were not promising. In this paper, we propose a new way of applying GA to this problem which uses more-informed chromosomes than other works in the literature. We optimize the parameters of our GA using puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Then we use the optimized values of the parameters to solve various puzzles and compare our results to another GA-based method for solving Sudoku puzzles.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimization, solving Sudoku puzzles, stochastic local search

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587 The Interrelationship between Aggression and Frustration Brought about by Computer Games with Incentives among LPU Male Students

Authors: Dior Grita F. De Torres, Edielyn Gonzalvo, Jovielyn Manibo

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The experimental study aims to measure the level of aggression and frustration brought about by computer games with incentives and the interrelationship of the said variables. With 50 participants for each four groups, a total of 200 males who are avid of playing computer games participated in the study. The results and analyses presented in the study concluded that incentives differentially affect the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.18 and 6.521 > tcrit = 2.021 using t-test for dependent groups and Fobt = 4.527 and 8.340 > Fcrit = 3.89 using ANOVA with alpha level of 0.05, two tailed. At the same time, computer game’s level of difficulty also affects the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.53 and 4.783 > tcrit = 2.021 respectively and Fobt = 6.524 and 10.167 > Fcrit = 3.89. Moreover, there is also an interaction between incentive and the level of difficulty of computer game with tobt = 9.68 for aggression and tobt = 7.356 > 2.021 for frustration. Computer games and /with incentives has a large effect on the among male students of LPU.

Keywords: aggression, frustration, computer game, incentive

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586 Using Virtual Reality Exergaming to Improve Health of College Students

Authors: Juanita Wallace, Mark Jackson, Bethany Jurs

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Introduction: Exergames, VR games used as a form of exercise, are being used to reduce sedentary lifestyles in a vast number of populations. However, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the physiological response during VR exergaming to that of traditional exercises. The purpose of this study was to create a foundationary investigation establishing changes in physiological responses resulting from VR exergaming in a college aged population. Methods: In this IRB approved study, college aged students were recruited to play a virtual reality exergame (Beat Saber) on the Oculus Quest 2 (Facebook, 2021) in either a control group (CG) or training group (TG). Both groups consisted of subjects who were not habitual users of virtual reality. The CG played VR one time per week for three weeks and the TG played 150 min/week three weeks. Each group played the same nine Beat Saber songs, in a randomized order, during 30 minute sessions. Song difficulty was increased during play based on song performance. Subjects completed a pre- and posttests at which the following was collected: • Beat Saber Game Metrics: song level played, song score, number of beats completed per song and accuracy (beats completed/total beats) • Physiological Data: heart rate (max and avg.), active calories • Demographics Results: A total of 20 subjects completed the study; nine in the CG (3 males, 6 females) and 11 (5 males, 6 females) in the TG. • Beat Saber Song Metrics: The TG improved performance from a normal/hard difficulty to hard/expert. The CG stayed at the normal/hard difficulty. At the pretest there was no difference in game accuracy between groups. However, at the posttest the CG had a higher accuracy. • Physiological Data (Table 1): Average heart rates were similar between the TG and CG at both the pre- and posttest. However, the TG expended more total calories. Discussion: Due to the lack of peer reviewed literature on c exergaming using Beat Saber, the results of this study cannot be directly compared. However, the results of this study can be compared with the previously established trends for traditional exercise. In traditional exercise, an increase in training volume equates to increased efficiency at the activity. The TG should naturally increase in difficulty at a faster rate than the CG because they played 150 hours per week. Heart rate and caloric responses also increase during traditional exercise as load increases (i.e. speed or resistance). The TG reported an increase in total calories due to a higher difficulty of play. The song accuracy decreases in the TG can be explained by the increased difficulty of play. Conclusion: VR exergaming is comparable to traditional exercise for loads within the 50-70% of maximum heart rate. The ability to use VR for health could motivate individuals who do not engage in traditional exercise. In addition, individuals in health professions can and should promote VR exergaming as a viable way to increase physical activity and improve health in their clients/patients.

Keywords: virtual reality, exergaming, health, heart rate, wellness

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585 Comparison of Mcgrath, Pentax, and Macintosh Laryngoscope in Normal and Cervical Immobilized Manikin by Novices

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, In Kyong Yi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee, Sung Yong Park

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Background: Several video laryngoscopes (VLs) were used to facilitate tracheal intubation in the normal and potentially difficult airway, especially by novice personnel. The aim of this study was to compare tracheal intubation performance regarding the time to intubation, glottic view, difficulty, and dental click, by a novice using McGrath VL, Pentax Airway Scope (AWS) and Macintosh laryngoscope in normal and cervical immobilized manikin models. Methods: Thirty-five anesthesia nurses without previous intubation experience were recruited. The participants performed endotracheal intubation in a manikin model at two simulated neck positions (normal and fixed neck via cervical immobilization), using three different devices (McGrath VL, Pentax AWS, and Macintosh direct laryngoscope) at three times each. Performance parameters included intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack Lehane laryngoscope grading, dental click, and subjective difficulty score. Results: Intubation time and success rate at the first attempt were not significantly different between the 3 groups in normal airway manikin. In the cervical immobilized manikin, the intubation time was shorter (p = 0.012) and the success rate with the first attempt was significantly higher (p < 0.001) when using McGrath VL and Pentax AWS compared with Macintosh laryngoscope. Both VLs showed less difficulty score (p < 0.001) and more Cormack Lehane grade I (p < 0.001). The incidence of dental clicks was higher with McGrath VL than Macintosh laryngoscope in the normal and cervical immobilized airway (p = 0.005, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: McGrath VL and Pentax AWS resulted in shorter intubation time, higher first attempt success rate, compared with Macintosh laryngoscope by a novice intubator in a cervical immobilized manikin model. McGrath VL could be reduced the risk of dental injury compared with Macintosh laryngoscope in this scenario.

Keywords: intubation, manikin, novice, videolaryngoscope

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584 Barriers to Competitive Tenders in Building Conservation Works

Authors: Yoke-Mui Lim, Yahaya Ahmad

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Conservation works in Malaysia that is procured by public organisation usually follow the traditional approach where the works are tendered based on Bills of Quantities (BQ). One of the purposes of tendering is to enable the selection of a competent contractor that offers a competitive price. While competency of the contractors are assessed by their technical knowledge, experience and track records, the assessment of pricing will be dependent on the tender amount. However, the issue currently faced by the conservation works sector is the difficulty in assessing the competitiveness and reasonableness of the tender amount due to the high variance between the tenders amount. Thus, this paper discusses the factors that cause difficulty to the tenderers in pricing competitively in a bidding exercise for conservation tenders. Data on tendering is collected from interviews with conservation works contractors to gain in-depth understanding of the barriers faced in pricing tenders of conservation works. Findings from the study lent support to the contention that the variance of tender amount is very high amongst tenderers. The factors identified in the survey are the format of BQ, hidden works, experience and labour and material costs.

Keywords: building conservation, Malaysia, bill of quantities, tender

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
583 The Effects of Physician-Family Communication from the Point View of Clinical Staff

Authors: Lu-Chiu Huang, Pei-Pei Chen, Li-Chin Yu, Chiao-Wen Kuo, Tsui-Tao Liu, Rung-Chuang Feng

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Purpose: People put increasing emphasis on demands of medical quality and protecting their interests. Patients' or family's dissatisfaction with medical care may easily lead to medical dispute. Physician-family communication plays an essential role in medical care. A sound communication cannot only strengthen patients' belief in the medical team but make patient have definite insight into treatment course of the disease. A family meeting provides an effective platform for communication between clinical staff, patients and family. Decisions and consensuses formed in family meetings can promote patients' or family's satisfaction with medical care. Clinical staff's attitudes toward family meeting may determine behavioral intentions to hold family meeting. This study aims to explore clinical staff's difficulties in holding family meeting and evaluate how their attitudes and behavior influence the effect of family meetings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. It was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in Taipei city. The research team developed its own structural questionnaires, whose expert validity was checked by the nursing experts. Participants filled in the questionnaires online. Data were collected by convenience sampling. A total of 568 participants were invited. They included doctors, nurses, social workers, and so on. Results: 1) The average score of ‘clinical staff’s attitudes to family meetings’ was 5.15 (SD=0.898). It fell between ‘somewhat agree’ and ‘mostly agree’ on the 7-point likert scale. It indicated that clinical staff had positive attitudes toward family meetings, 2) The average score of ‘clinical staff’s behavior to family meetings’ was 5.61 (SD=0.937). It fell between ‘somewhat agree’ and ‘mostly agree’ on the 7-point likert scale. It meant clinical staff tended to have positive behavior at the family meeting, and 3) The average score of ‘Difficulty in conducting family meetings’ was 5.15 (SD=0.897). It fell between ‘somewhat agree’ and ‘mostly agree’ on the 7-point likert scale. The higher the score was, the less difficulty the clinical staff felt. It demonstrated clinical staff felt less difficulty in conducting family meetings. Clinical staff's identification with family meetings brought favored effects. Persistent and active promotion for family meetings can bring patients and family more benefits. Implications for practice: Understanding clinical staff's difficulty in participating family meeting and exploring their attitudes or behavior toward physician-family communication are helpful to develop modes of interaction. Consequently, quality and satisfaction of physician-family communication can be increased.

Keywords: clinical staff, communication, family meeting, physician-family

Procedia PDF Downloads 258