Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4935

Search results for: upgrading power

4935 Effect of Fuel Injection Discharge Curve and Injection Pressure on Upgrading Power and Combustion Parameters in HD Diesel Engine with CFD Simulation

Authors: Saeed Chamehsara, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Mehdi Tajdari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure simultaneously for upgrading power of heavy duty diesel engine by simulation of combustion process in AVL-Fire software are discussed. Hence, the fuel injection discharge curve was changed from semi-triangular to rectangular which is usual in common rail fuel injection system. Injection pressure with respect to amount of injected fuel and nozzle hole diameter are changed. Injection pressure is calculated by an experimental equation which is for heavy duty diesel engines with common rail fuel injection system. Upgrading power for 1000 and 2000 bar injection pressure are discussed. For 1000 bar injection pressure with 188 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter in compare with first state which is semi-triangular discharge curve with 139 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter, upgrading power is about 19% whereas the special change has not been observed in cylinder pressure. On the other hand, both the NOX emission and the Soot emission decreased about 30% and 6% respectively. Compared with first state, for 2000 bar injection pressure that injected fuel and nozzle diameter are 196 mg and 2.6 mm respectively, upgrading power is about 22% whereas cylinder pressure has been fixed and NOX emission and the Soot emissions are decreased 36% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: CFD simulation, HD diesel engine, upgrading power, injection pressure, fuel injection discharge curve, combustion process

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4934 The Mechanism of Upgrading and Urban Development in the Egyptian City: Case Study of Damietta

Authors: Lina Fayed Amin

Abstract:

The research studied, in the beginning, the related urban concepts such as the urban, development, urban development. As it also deals with the upgrading, urban upgrading, community participation and the role of local administration in development and upgrading projects. Then it studies some regional upgrading & urban development projects in Egypt followed by international projects, and the analysis the strategies followed in dealing with these projects. Afterwards, we state the regional aspects of both Damietta governorate & city, dealing with its potentials & development constraints. Followed by studying the upgrading and urban development projects strategies in reflection to the city’s crucial problems, and the constraints that faced the upgrading & development project. Then, it studied the implementation of the project’s strategies & it provided the financial resources needed for the development project in Damietta city. Followed by the studying of the urban and human development projects in the upgrading of Damietta city, as well as analyzing the different projects &analyzing the results of these projects on the aspects of the city’s needs. Then the research analysis in comparison the upgrading and urban development project in Damietta and the regional upgrading and development projects in Egypt. As well as the comparison between the upgrading and urban development project and the international projects in some Arabic and foreign countries in relation to the goals, problems, obstacles, the community participation, the finance resources and the results. Finally, it reviews the results and recommendations that were reached as a result of studying the similar urban upgrading projects in Egypt and in some Arabic and foreign countries. Followed by the analytical analysis of the upgrading and urban development in Egypt

Keywords: Damietta city, urban development, upgrading mechanisms, urban upgrading

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4933 An Overview of Informal Settlement Upgrading Strategies in Kabul City and the Need for an Integrated Multi-Sector Upgrading Model

Authors: Bashir Ahmad Amiri, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

The developing economies are experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization, mainly the urbanization of poverty which is leading to sprawling of slums and informal settlement. Kabul, being the capital and primate city of Afghanistan is grossly encountered to the informal settlement where the majority of the people consider to be informal. Despite all efforts to upgrade and minimize the growth of these settlements, they are growing rapidly. Various interventions have been taken by the government and some international organizations from physical upgrading to urban renewal, but none of them have succeeded to solve the issue of informal settlement. The magnitude of the urbanization and the complexity of informal settlement in Kabul city, and the institutional and capital constraint of the government calls for integration and optimization of currently practiced strategies. This paper provides an overview of informal settlement formation and the conventional upgrading strategies in Kabul city to identify the dominant/successful practices and rationalize the conventional upgrading modes. For this purpose, Hothkhel has been selected as the case study, since it represents the same situation of major informal settlements of the city. Considering the existing potential and features of the Hothkhel and proposed land use by master plan this paper intends to find a suitable upgrading mode for the study area and finally to scale up the model for the city level upgrading. The result highlights that the informal settlements of Kabul city have high (re)development capacity for accepting the additional room without converting the available agricultural area to built-up. The result also indicates that the integrated multi-sector upgrading has the scale-up potential to increase the reach of beneficiaries and to ensure an inclusive and efficient urbanization.

Keywords: informal settlement, upgrading strategies, Kabul city, urban expansion, integrated multi-sector, scale-up

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4932 Thermo-Economic Evaluation of Sustainable Biogas Upgrading via Solid-Oxide Electrolysis

Authors: Ligang Wang, Theodoros Damartzis, Stefan Diethelm, Jan Van Herle, François Marechal

Abstract:

Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic sludge from wastewater treatment as well as various urban and agricultural organic wastes is of great significance to achieve a sustainable society. Two upgrading approaches for cleaned biogas can be considered: (1) direct H₂ injection for catalytic CO₂ methanation and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas. The first approach usually employs electrolysis technologies to generate hydrogen and increases the biogas production rate; while the second one usually applies commercially-available highly-selective membrane technologies to efficiently extract CO₂ from the biogas with the latter being then sent afterward for compression and storage for further use. A straightforward way of utilizing the captured CO₂ is on-site catalytic CO₂ methanation. From the perspective of system complexity, the second approach may be questioned, since it introduces an additional expensive membrane component for producing the same amount of methane. However, given the circumstance that the sustainability of the produced biogas should be retained after biogas upgrading, renewable electricity should be supplied to drive the electrolyzer. Therefore, considering the intermittent nature and seasonal variation of renewable electricity supply, the second approach offers high operational flexibility. This indicates that these two approaches should be compared based on the availability and scale of the local renewable power supply and not only the technical systems themselves. Solid-oxide electrolysis generally offers high overall system efficiency, and more importantly, it can achieve simultaneous electrolysis of CO₂ and H₂O (namely, co-electrolysis), which may bring significant benefits for the case of CO₂ separation from the produced biogas. When taking co-electrolysis into account, two additional upgrading approaches can be proposed: (1) direct steam injection into the biogas with the mixture going through the SOE, and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas which can be used later for co-electrolysis. The case study of integrating SOE to a wastewater treatment plant is investigated with wind power as the renewable power. The dynamic production of biogas is provided on an hourly basis with the corresponding oxygen and heating requirements. All four approaches mentioned above are investigated and compared thermo-economically: (a) steam-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for steam electrolysis, (b) CO₂ separation and co-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for co-electrolysis, (c) steam-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power, and (d) co-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power. The influence of the scale of wind power supply is investigated by a sensitivity analysis. The results derived provide general understanding on the economic competitiveness of SOE for sustainable biogas upgrading, thus assisting the decision making for biogas production sites. The research leading to the presented work is funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 under grant agreements n° 699892 (ECo, topic H2020-JTI-FCH-2015-1) and SCCER BIOSWEET.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, solid-oxide electrolyzer, co-electrolysis, CO₂ utilization, energy storage

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4931 Effect of Urban Informal Settlements and Outdoor Advertisement on the Quality of Built Environment and Urban Upgrading in Nigeria

Authors: Amao Funmilayo Lanrewaju, T. Ogunlade

Abstract:

The paper examines the causes and characteristics of informal settlements and outdoor advertisement in the evaluation of quality of environment. The paper identifies the problems that have aided informal settlements to: Urbanization, poverty, growth of informal sector, non-affordability of land and housing shortage. The paper asserts that the informal settlements have serious adverse effects on the people’s health, their built environment and quality of life. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The paper argues that, although the urban upgrading possesses great potential for improving quality of built environment in informal settlements, there is a need to repackage the upgrading exercise so that majority can benefit from it. It is necessary to incorporate community participation into the urban upgrading in order to assist the very poor that cannot take care of their housing consumption needs. Therefore, government is encouraged to see informal settlements as a solution to new city planning rather than problem to the urban areas. This paper suggests the implementation of policies and planning, physical infrastructural development, social economic improvement, environment and health improvement. Government, private and communities interventions on informal settlements are required in order to prevent further decay for sustainable development.

Keywords: quality of environment, informal settlements, urban upgrading, outdoor advertisement

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4930 Nano-Enhanced In-Situ and Field Up-Gradation of Heavy Oil

Authors: Devesh Motwani, Ranjana S. Baruah

Abstract:

The prime incentive behind up gradation of heavy oil is to increase its API gravity for ease of transportation to refineries, thus expanding the market access of bitumen-based crude to the refineries. There has always been a demand for an integrated approach that aims at simplifying the upgrading scheme, making it adaptable to the production site in terms of economics, environment, and personnel safety. Recent advances in nanotechnology have facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oil upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. The In-Situ upgrading scheme makes use of Hot Fluid Injection (HFI) technique where heavy fractions separated from produced oil are injected into the formations to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. In the presence of hydrogen, catalytic exothermic hydro-processing reactions occur that produce light gases and volatile hydrocarbons which contribute to increased oil detachment from the rock resulting in enhanced recovery. In this way the process is a combination of enhanced heavy oil recovery along with up gradation that effectively handles the heat load within the reservoirs, reduces hydrocarbon waste generation and minimizes the need for diluents. By eliminating most of the residual oil, the Synthetic Crude Oil (SCO) is much easier to transport and more amenable for processing in refineries. For heavy oil reservoirs seriously impacted by the presence of aquifers, the nano-catalytic technology can still be implemented on field though with some additional investments and reduced synergies; however still significantly serving the purpose of production of transportable oil with substantial benefits with respect to both large scale upgrading, and known commercial field upgrading technologies currently on the market. The paper aims to delve deeper into the technology discussed, and the future compatibility.

Keywords: upgrading, synthetic crude oil, nano-catalytic technology, compatibility

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4929 Obstacles and Ways-Forward to Upgrading Nigeria Basic Nursing Schools: A Survey of Perception of Teaching Hospitals’ Nurse Trainers and Stakeholders

Authors: Chijioke Oliver Nwodoh, Jonah Ikechukwu Eze, Loretta Chika Ukwuaba, Ifeoma Ndubuisi, Ada Carol Nwaneri, Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo

Abstract:

Presence of nursing workforce with unequal qualification and status in Nigeria has undermined the growth of nursing profession in the country. Upgrading of the existing basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria is a way-forward to solving this inequality problem and Nigeria teaching hospitals are in vantage position for this project due to the already existing supportive structure and manpower in those hospitals. What the nurse trainers and the stakeholders of the teaching hospitals may hold for or against the upgrading is a determining factor for the upgrading project, but that is not clear and has not been investigated in Nigeria. The study investigated the perception of nurse trainers and stakeholders of teaching hospitals in Enugu State of Nigeria on the obstacles and ways-forward to upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria. The study specifically elicited what the subjects may view as obstacles to upgrading basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria and ascertained their suggestions on the possible ways of overcoming the obstacles. By utilizing cross-sectional descriptive design and a purposive sampling procedure, 78 accessible subjects out of a total population of 87 were used for the study. The generated data from the subjects were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean for the research questions and Pearson’s chi-square for the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0. The result showed that lack of extant policy, fund, and disunity among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the main obstacles to the upgrading. However, the respondents did not see items like: stakeholders and nurse trainers of basic and post-basic schools of nursing; fear of admitting and producing poor quality nurses; and so forth, as obstacles to the upgrading project. Institution of the upgrading policy by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria, funding, awareness creation for the upgrading and unison among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the major possible ways to overcome the obstacles. The difference in the subjects’ perceptions between the two hospitals was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). It is recommended that the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing in Nigeria should unite and liaise with Federal Ministries of Health and Education for modalities and actualization of upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: nurse trainers, obstacles, perception, stakeholders, teaching hospital, upgrading basic nursing schools, ways-forward

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4928 Upgrading of Old Large Turbo Generators

Authors: M. Shadmand, T. Enayaty Ahangar, S. Kazemi

Abstract:

Insulation system of electrical machineries is the most critical point for their durability. Depending on generator nominal voltage, its insulation system is designed. In this research, a new stator insulation system is designed by new type of mica tapes which will consequently enables us to decrease the nominal ground-wall insulation thickness for the same voltage level. By keeping constant the slot area, it will be possible to increase the copper value in stator bars which will consequently able us to increase the nominal output current of turbo-generator. This will affect the cooling capability of machinery to some extent. But by considering the thermal conductivity of new insulating system which is improved, it is possible to increase the output power of generator up to 6% more. This research is done practically on a 200 MVA and 15.75 kV turbo-generators which its insulating system is Resin Rich (RR).

Keywords: insulation system, resin rich, VPI, upgrading

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4927 Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount

Authors: Zarrin Nasri

Abstract:

Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.

Keywords: asphaltene, microwave, upgrading, vacuum residue, viscosity

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4926 Technology for Biogas Upgrading with Immobilized Algae Biomass

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Miroslaw Krzemieniewski, Agata Glowacka-Gil, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielinska, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska

Abstract:

Technologies of biogas upgrading are now perceived as competitive solution combustion and production of electricity and heat. Biomethane production will ensure broader application as energy carrier than biogas. Biomethane can be used as fuel in internal combustion engines or introduced into the natural gas transmission network. Therefore, there is a need to search for innovative, economically and technically justified methods for biogas enrichment. The aim of this paper is to present a technology solution for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass. Reactor for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass can be used for removing CO₂ from the biogas, flue gases and the waste gases especially coming from different industry sectors, e.g. from the food industry from yeast production process, biogas production systems, liquid and gaseous fuels combustion systems, hydrocarbon processing technology. The basis for the technological assumptions of presented technology were laboratory works and analyses that tested technological variants of biogas upgrading. The enrichment of biogas with a methane content of 90-97% pointed to technological assumptions for installation on a technical scale. Reactor for biogas upgrading with algae biomass is characterized by a significantly lower cubature in relation to the currently used solutions which use CO₂ removal processes. The invention, by its structure, assumes achieving a very high concentration of biomass of algae through its immobilization in capsules. This eliminates the phenomenon of lowering the pH value, i.e. acidification of the environment in which algae grow, resulting from the introduction of waste gases at a high CO₂ concentration. The system for introducing light into algae capsules is characterized by a higher degree of its use, due to lower losses resulting from the phenomenon of absorption of light energy by water. The light from the light source is continuously supplied to the formed biomass of algae or cyanobacteria in capsules by the light tubes. The light source may be sunlight or a light generator of a different wavelength of light from 300 nm to 800 nm. A portion of gas containing CO₂, accumulated in the tank and conveyed by the pump is periodically introduced into the housing of the photobioreactor tank. When conveying the gas that contains CO₂, it penetrates the algal biomass in capsules through the outer envelope, displacing, from the algal biomass, gaseous metabolic products which are discharged by the outlet duct for gases. It contributes to eliminating the negative impact of this factor on CO₂ binding processes. As a result of the cyclic dosing of gases containing carbon dioxide, gaseous metabolic products of algae are displaced and removed outside the technological system. Technology for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass is suitable for the small biogas plant. The advantages of this technology are high efficiency as well as useful algae biomass which can be used mainly as animal feed, fertilizers and in the power industry. The construction of the device allows effective removal of carbon dioxide from gases at a high CO₂ concentration.

Keywords: biogas, carbon dioxide, immobilised biomass, microalgae, upgrading

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4925 Dissemination of Knowledge on Quality Control for Upgrading Product Standards for Small and Micro Community Enterprises

Authors: Niyom Suwandej

Abstract:

This research paper investigated the opinions of small and micro community enterprises from Jom Pluak Subdistrict, Bangkhontee District, Samut Songkram Province towards product quality control, and the findings are aimed to disseminate knowledge on quality control for upgrading product standards for small and micro community enterprises. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods, in which there were 23 samples in the study. The study was divided into 2 steps which were (1) studying the opinions of the respondents towards the community’s product quality control and upgrading product standards; (2) creating development guidance for product quality control and upgrading product standards for small and micro community enterprise. The demographic findings revealed female respondents as the majority, with most above 50 years of age and married. Most had more than 15 years of working experience. The education level reported by most respondents was primary school or lower followed by secondary school or lower with most respondents was vocational certificate level. Most respondents had the highest level of satisfaction with the existing condition of product quality control knowledge management. Pertaining to opinions on the guidance of knowledge creation for product quality control for small and micro community enterprise, the respondents were willing to apply the knowledge in upgrading their product standards. For the opinions of knowledge creation for product quality control and product standards, the respondents had the highest level of satisfaction. Guidance of knowledge creation for product quality control and product standards for small and micro community enterprises received the highest level of satisfaction from the respondents. Furthermore they had knowledge and comprehension in product quality control and product standards and could apply the knowledge in improving the quality of their production and product standards for small and micro community enterprises.

Keywords: product quality control, product standards, community enterprise, marketing management

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4924 Sustainable Biogas Upgrading: Characterization of Adsorption Properties of Tuff

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino, Franco Cotana

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results from the analysis of Tuff for CO2 and H2S removal from biogas. Synthetic zeolites, commonly used for biogas upgrading, are characterized by excellent performance in terms of carbon dioxide adsorption, however, cost and environmental footprint represent a negative contribute to their sustainability. Natural zeolites contained in Tuff, a totally inexpensive byproduct of the construction industry, show very interesting selective adsorption properties, associated with its availability in regions, as central Italy, where biogas production from small scale plants is rapidly increasing. An in-house experimental device was assembled to measure the adsorption capacity of Tuff as a function of partial CO2 pressure for different temperatures (i.e. adsorption isotherms). Results show performances as high as 66% with respect to commercial zeolites (13X). A sensitivity analysis of different regeneration processes is also presented. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic zeolites was finally performed using biogas samples obtained from different types of feedstock and characterized by varying CO2 and H2S content.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, CO2 adsorption, sustainable energy, tuff

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4923 The Essential but Uncertain Role of the Vietnamese Association of Cities of Vietnam in Promoting Community-Based Housing Upgrading

Authors: T. Nguyen, H. Rennie, S. Vallance, M. Mackay

Abstract:

Municipal Associations, also called Unions, Leagues or Federations of municipalities have been established worldwide to represent the interests and needs of urban governments in the face of increasing urban issues. In 2008, the Association of Cities of Vietnam (ACVN) joined the Asian Coalition of Community Action Program (ACCA program) and introduced the community-based upgrading approach to help Vietnamese cities to address urban upgrading issues. While this community-based upgrading approach has only been implemented in a small number of Vietnamese cities and its replication has faced certain challenges, it is worthy to explore insights on how the Association of cities of Vietnam played its role in implementing some reportedly successful projects. This paper responds to this inquiry and presents results extracted from the author’s PhD study that sets out with a general objective to critically examine how social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) were formed, mobilized and maintained in a local collective and community-based upgrading process. Methodologically, the study utilized the given general categorization of bonding, bridging and linking capitals to explore and confirm how social capital operated in the real context of a community-based upgrading process, particularly in the context of Vietnam. To do this, the study conducted two exploratory and qualitative case studies of housing projects in Friendship neighbourhood (Vinh city) and Binh Dong neighbourhood (Tan An city). This paper presents the findings of the Friendship neighbourhood case study, focusing on the role of the Vietnamese municipal association in forming, mobilizing and maintaining bonding, bridging and linking capital for a community-based upgrading process. The findings highlight the essential but uncertain role of ACVN - the organization that has a hybrid legitimacy status - in such a process. The results improve our understanding both practically and theoretically. Practically, the results offer insights into the performance of a municipal association operating in a transitioning socio-political context of Vietnam. Theoretically, the paper questions the necessity of categorizing social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) by suggesting a holistic approach of looking at social capital for urban governance issues within the Vietnamese context and perhaps elsewhere.

Keywords: bonding capital, bridging capital, municipal association, linking capital, social capital, housing upgrading

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4922 Gas Separation by Water-Swollen Membrane

Authors: Lenka Morávková, Zuzana Sedláková, Jiří Vejražka, Věra Jandová, Pavel Izák

Abstract:

The need to minimize the costs of biogas upgrading leads to a continuous search for new and more effective membrane materials. The improvement of biogas combustion efficiency is connected with polar gases removal from a feed stream. One of the possibilities is the use of water–swollen polyamide layer of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane for simultaneous carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide removal. Transport properties and basic characteristics of a thin film composite membrane were compared in the term of appropriate water-swollen membrane choice for biogas upgrading. SEM analysis showed that the surface of the best performing composites changed significantly upon swelling by water. The surface changes were found to be a proof that the selective skin polyamide layer was swollen well. Further, the presence of a sufficient number of associative centers, namely amido groups, inside the upper layer of the hydrophilic thin composite membrane can play an important role in the polar gas separation from a non-polar gas. The next key factor is a high porosity of the membrane support.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, hydrogen sulphide separation, water-swollen membrane

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4921 Bioclimatic Design, Evaluation of Energy Behavior and Energy-Saving Interventions at the Theagenio Cancer Hospital

Authors: Emmanouel Koumoulas, Aikaterini Rokkou, Marios Moschakis

Abstract:

Theagenio" in Thessaloniki exists and works for three centuries now as a hospital. Since 1975, it has been operating as an Integrated Special Cancer Hospital and since 1985 it has been integrated into the National Health System. "Theagenio" Cancer Hospital is located at the central web of Thessaloniki residential complex and consists of two buildings, the "Symeonidio Research Center", which was completed in 1962 and the Nursing Ward, a project that was later completed in 1975. This paper examines the design of the Hospital Unit according to the requirements of the energy design of buildings. Initially, the energy characteristics of the Hospital are recorded, followed by a detailed presentation of the electromechanical installations. After the existing situation has been captured and with the help of the software TEE-KENAK, different scenarios for the energy upgrading of the buildings have been studied. Proposals for upgrading concern both the shell, e.g. installation of external thermal insulation, replacement of frames, addition of shading systems, etc. as well as electromechanical installations, e.g. use of ceiling fans, improvements in heating and cooling systems, interventions in lighting, etc. The simulation calculates the future energy status of the buildings and presents the economic benefits of the proposed interventions with reference to the environmental profits that arise.

Keywords: energy consumption in hospitals, energy saving interventions, energy upgrading, hospital facilities

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4920 High Heating Value Bio-Chars from a Bio-Oil Upgrading Process

Authors: Julius K. Gane, Mohamad N. Nahil, Paul T. Williams

Abstract:

In today’s world of rapid population growth and a changing climate, one way to mitigate various negative effects is via renewable energy solutions. Energy and power as basic requirements in almost all human endeavours are also the banes of the changing climate and the impacts thereof. Thus it is crucial to develop innovative and environmentally friendly energy options to ameliorate various negative repercussions. Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil via hydro-treatment offers such opportunities, as quality renewable liquid transportation fuels can be produced. The process, however, is typically accompanied by bio-char formation as a by-product. The goal of this work was to study the yield and some properties of bio-chars formed from a hydrotreatment process, with an overall aim to promote the valuable utilization of wastes or by-products from renewable energy technologies. It is assumed that bio-chars that have comparable energy contents with coals will be more desirable as solid energy materials due to renewability and environmental friendliness. Therefore, the analytical work in this study focused mainly on determining the higher heating value (HHV) of the chars. The method involved the reaction of bio-oil in an autoclave supplied by the Parr Instrument Company, IL, USA. Two main parameters (different temperatures and resident times) were investigated. The chars were characterized using a Thermo EA2000 CHNS analyser, then oxygen contents and HHVs computed based on the literature. From the results, these bio-chars can readily serve as feedstocks for the production of renewable solid fuels. Their HHVs ranged between 29.26-39.18 MJ/kg, affected by different temperatures and retention times. There was an inverse relationship between the oxygen content and the HHVs of the chars. It can, therefore, be concluded that it is possible to optimize the process efficiency of the hydrotreatment process used through the production of renewable energy materials from the 'waste’ char by-products. Future work should consider developing a suitable balance between the primary objective of bio-oil upgrading processes (which is to improve the quality of the liquid fuels) and the conversion of its solid wastes into value-added products such as smokeless briquettes.

Keywords: bio-char, renewable solid biofuels, valorisation, waste-to-energy

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4919 Technical Evaluation of Upgrading a Simple Gas Turbine Fired by Diesel to a Combined Cycle Power Plant in Kingdom of Suadi Arabistan Using WinSim Design II Software

Authors: Salman Obaidoon, Mohamed Hassan, Omer Bakather

Abstract:

As environmental regulations increase, the need for a clean and inexpensive energy is becoming necessary these days using an available raw material with high efficiency and low emissions of toxic gases. This paper presents a study on modifying a gas turbine power plant fired by diesel, which is located in Saudi Arabia in order to increase the efficiency and capacity of the station as well as decrease the rate of emissions. The studied power plant consists of 30 units with different capacities and total net power is 1470 MW. The study was conducted on unit number 25 (GT-25) which produces 72.3 MW with 29.5% efficiency. In the beginning, the unit was modeled and simulated by using WinSim Design II software. In this step, actual unit data were used in order to test the validity of the model. The net power and efficiency obtained from software were 76.4 MW and 32.2% respectively. A difference of about 6% was found in the simulated power plant compared to the actual station which means that the model is valid. After the validation of the model, the simple gas turbine power plant was converted to a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). In this case, the exhausted gas released from the gas turbine was introduced to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which consists of three heat exchangers: an economizer, an evaporator and a superheater. In this proposed model, many scenarios were conducted in order to get the optimal operating conditions. The net power of CCPP was increased to 116.4 MW while the overall efficiency of the unit was reached to 49.02%, consuming the same amount of fuel for the gas turbine power plant. For the purpose of comparing the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide on each model. It was found that the rate of CO₂ emissions was decreased from 15.94 kg/s to 9.22 kg/s by using the combined cycle power model as a result of reducing of the amount of diesel from 5.08 kg/s to 2.94 kg/s needed to produce 76.5 MW. The results indicate that the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide was decreased by 42.133% in CCPP compared to the simple gas turbine power plant.

Keywords: combined cycle power plant, efficiency, heat recovery steam generator, simulation, validation, WinSim design II software

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4918 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni

Abstract:

Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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4917 A Study of Heavy Hydrocarbons Upgrading by Microwave Pyrolysis

Authors: Thanida Sritangthong, Suksun Amornraksa

Abstract:

By-product upgrading is crucial in hydrocarbon industries as it can increase overall profit margin of the business. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is relatively new technique which induces heat directly to raw materials. This results in a more energy saving and more energy-efficient process. It is also a promising method to enhance and accelerate chemical reactions, thus reducing the pyrolysis reaction time and increasing the quality of value-added products from different kinds of feedstocks. In this study, upgrading opportunity of fuel oil by-product from an olefins plant is investigated by means of microwave pyrolysis. The experiment was conducted in a lab-scale quartz reactor placed inside a 1,100 watts household microwave oven. Operating temperature was varied from 500 to 900C to observe the consequence on the quality of pyrolysis products. Several microwave receptors i.e. activated carbon, silicon carbide (SiC) and copper oxide (CuO) were used as a material to enhance the heating and reaction in the reactor. The effect of residence time was determined by adjusting flow rate of N2 carrier gas. The chemical composition and product yield were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that hydrogen, methane, ethylene, and ethane were obtained as the main gaseous products from all operating temperatures while the main liquid products were alkane, cycloalkane and polycyclic aromatic groups. The results indicated that microwave pyrolysis has a potential to upgrade low value hydrocarbons to high value products.

Keywords: fuel oil, heavy hydrocarbons, microwave pyrolysis, pyrolysis

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4916 Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Federico Capra, Emanuele Martelli, Matteo Gazzani, Marco Mazzotti, Maurizio Notaro

Abstract:

Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, biogas upgrading energetic cost, CO2 adsorption, VTSA process modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
4915 Community’s Role in Slum Development: A Case Study of the Kabul Old City

Authors: Habibi Said Mustafa, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, has witnessed a major population growth in the last decades which caused a significant increase in the number of informal settlements. The residents are suffering from many problems such as poor infrastructure, shortage of public facilities, depriving of the sense of ownership and facing much environmental degradation. Even though majority of the residents are living in such condition, the government response has been quite weak. The government’s main planning strategy has been upgrading in the form of provision of facilities and improving elements of physical infrastructure, unfortunately most of the projects which had not community’s support, faced with lots of challenges such as people’s resistance or even in some cases the project rather than solving the problem, compounded them to a worse condition. A major reason as to why many projects have not been effective in achieving certain objectives in the past is the results of local people were not being involved. Community participation plays an important role in slum development projects. The development of an integrated urban development concept these days without the mobilization of participants and community seems difficult and impossible. Therefore this paper looks into factors and methods which can help in creating a participatory approach for developing the slums in Kabul city. Furthermore, it describes the result of a questionnaire which was conducted on a part of the Kabul Old City due to hear resident’s problem related to the slum upgrading and collect their opinions on this regard. The research also points out some factors which can severely hamper the successful implementation of a slum upgrading project if not adequately addressed.

Keywords: Community empowerment, Informal settlements, Job opportunities, People participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4914 Quality of Life of Poor Residential Neighborhoods in Oshogbo, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao

Abstract:

As a result of the high cost of housing, the increasing population is forced to live in substandard housing and unhealthy conditions giving rise to poor residential neighborhoods. The paper examines the causes and characteristics of poor residential neighborhood. The paper finds the problems that have influence poor neighborhoods to; poverty, growth of informal sector and housing shortage. The paper asserts that poor residential neighborhoods have adverse effects on the people. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers while primary data relating to building and environmental quality from structured questionnaire administered on sample of 500 household heads, from sampling frame of 5000 housing units. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are poor and employed in informal sector. The paper suggests urban renewal and slum upgrading programs as methods in dealing with the situation and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants.

Keywords: environmental degeneration, housing, poverty, quality of life, urban upgrading

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
4913 CO₂ Recovery from Biogas and Successful Upgrading to Food-Grade Quality: A Case Study

Authors: Elisa Esposito, Johannes C. Jansen, Loredana Dellamuzia, Ugo Moretti, Lidietta Giorno

Abstract:

The reduction of CO₂ emission into the atmosphere as a result of human activity is one of the most important environmental challenges to face in the next decennia. Emission of CO₂, related to the use of fossil fuels, is believed to be one of the main causes of global warming and climate change. In this scenario, the production of biomethane from organic waste, as a renewable energy source, is one of the most promising strategies to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission. Unfortunately, biogas upgrading still produces the greenhouse gas CO₂ as a waste product. Therefore, this work presents a case study on biogas upgrading, aimed at the simultaneous purification of methane and CO₂ via different steps, including CO₂/methane separation by polymeric membranes. The original objective of the project was the biogas upgrading to distribution grid quality methane, but the innovative aspect of this case study is the further purification of the captured CO₂, transforming it from a useless by-product to a pure gas with food-grade quality, suitable for commercial application in the food and beverage industry. The study was performed on a pilot plant constructed by Tecno Project Industriale Srl (TPI) Italy. This is a model of one of the largest biogas production and purification plants. The full-scale anaerobic digestion plant (Montello Spa, North Italy), has a digestive capacity of 400.000 ton of biomass/year and can treat 6.250 m3/hour of biogas from FORSU (organic fraction of solid urban waste). The entire upgrading process consists of a number of purifications steps: 1. Dehydration of the raw biogas by condensation. 2. Removal of trace impurities such as H₂S via absorption. 3.Separation of CO₂ and methane via a membrane separation process. 4. Removal of trace impurities from CO₂. The gas separation with polymeric membranes guarantees complete simultaneous removal of microorganisms. The chemical purity of the different process streams was analysed by a certified laboratory and was compared with the guidelines of the European Industrial Gases Association and the International Society of Beverage Technologists (EIGA/ISBT) for CO₂ used in the food industry. The microbiological purity was compared with the limit values defined in the European Collaborative Action. With a purity of 96-99 vol%, the purified methane respects the legal requirements for the household network. At the same time, the CO₂ reaches a purity of > 98.1% before, and 99.9% after the final distillation process. According to the EIGA/ISBT guidelines, the CO₂ proves to be chemically and microbiologically sufficiently pure to be suitable for food-grade applications.

Keywords: biogas, CO₂ separation, CO2 utilization, CO₂ food grade

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4912 Intellectual Property Rights Reforms and the Quality of Exported Goods

Authors: Gideon Ndubuisi

Abstract:

It is widely acknowledged that the quality of a country’s export matters more decisively than the quantity it exports. Hence, understanding the drivers of exported goods’ quality is a relevant policy question. Among other things, product quality upgrading is a considerable cost uncertainty venture that can be undertaken by an entrepreneur. Once a product is successfully upgraded, however, others can imitate the product, and hence, the returns to the pioneer entrepreneur are socialized. Along with this line, a government policy such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection which lessens the non-appropriability problem and incentivizes cost discovery investments becomes both a panacea in addressing the market failure and a sine qua non for an entrepreneur to engage in product quality upgrading. In addendum, product quality upgrading involves complex tasks which often require a lot of knowledge and technology sharing beyond the bounds of the firm thereby creating rooms for knowledge spillovers and imitations. Without an institution that protects upstream suppliers of knowledge and technology, technology masking occurs which bids up marginal production cost and product quality fall. Despite these clear associations between IPRs and product quality upgrading, the surging literature on the drivers of the quality of exported goods has proceeded almost in isolation of IPRs protection as a determinant. Consequently, the current study uses a difference-in-difference method to evaluate the effects of IPRs reforms on the quality of exported goods in 16 developing countries over the sample periods of 1984-2000. The study finds weak evidence that IPRs reforms increase the quality of all exported goods. When the industries are sorted into high and low-patent sensitive industries, however, we find strong indicative evidence that IPRs reform increases the quality of exported goods in high-patent sensitive sectors both in absolute terms and relative to the low-patent sensitive sectors in the post-reform period. We also obtain strong indicative evidence that it brought the quality of exported goods in the high-patent sensitive sectors closer to the quality frontier. Accounting for time-duration effects, these observed effects grow over time. The results are also largely consistent when we consider the sophistication and complexity of exported goods rather than just quality upgrades.

Keywords: exports, export quality, export sophistication, intellectual property rights

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4911 Soft Power: Concept and Role in Country Policy

Authors: Talip Turkmen

Abstract:

From the moment the first beats, the first step into the world mankind finds him in a struggle to survive. Most important case to win this fight is power. Power is one of the most common concepts which we encounter in our life. Mainly power is ability to reach desired results on someone else or ability to penetrate into the behavior of others. Throughout history merging technology and changing political trade-offs caused the change of concept of power. Receiving a state of multipolar new world order in the 21st century and increasing impacts of media have narrowed the limits of military power. With increasing globalization and peaceful diplomacy this gap, left by military power, has filled by soft power which has ability to persuade and attract. As concepts of power soft power also has not compromised yet. For that reason it is important to specify, sources of soft power, soft power strategies and limits of soft power. The purpose of this study was to analyze concept of soft power and importance of soft power in foreign relations. This project focuses on power, hard power and soft power relations, sources of soft power and strategies to gain soft power. Datas in this project was acquired from other studies on soft power and foreign relations. This paper was prepared in terms of concept and research techniques. As a result of data gained in this study the one of important topics in international relations is balance between soft power.

Keywords: soft power, foreign policy, national power, hard power

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4910 Reactive Power Cost Evaluation with FACTS Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: A. S. Walkey, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

It is not always economical to provide reactive power using synchronous alternators. The cost of reactive power can be minimized by optimal placing of FACTS devices in power systems. In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization- Sequential Quadratic Programming (PSO-SQP) algorithm is applied to minimize the cost of reactive power generation along with real power generation to alleviate the bus voltage violations. The effectiveness of proposed approach tested on IEEE-14 bus systems. In this paper in addition to synchronous generators, an opportunity of FACTS devices are also proposed to procure the reactive power demands in the power system.

Keywords: reactive power, reactive power cost, voltage security margins, capability curve, FACTS devices

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4909 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
4908 The Using of Smart Power Concepts in Military Targeting Process

Authors: Serdal AKYUZ

Abstract:

The smart power is the use of soft and hard power together in consideration of existing circumstances. Soft power can be defined as the capability of changing perception of any target mass by employing policies based on legality. The hard power, generally, uses military and economic instruments which are the concrete indicator of general power comprehension. More than providing a balance between soft and hard power, smart power creates a proactive combination by assessing existing resources. Military targeting process (MTP), as stated in smart power methodology, benefits from a wide scope of lethal and non-lethal weapons to reach intended end state. The Smart powers components can be used in military targeting process similar to using of lethal or non-lethal weapons. This paper investigates the current use of Smart power concept, MTP and presents a new approach to MTP from smart power concept point of view.

Keywords: future security environment, hard power, military targeting process, soft power, smart power

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4907 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: power quality disturbances, power quality evaluation, statistical analysis, electrical distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4906 A Succinct Method for Allocation of Reactive Power Loss in Deregulated Scenario

Authors: J. S. Savier

Abstract:

Real power is the component power which is converted into useful energy whereas reactive power is the component of power which cannot be converted to useful energy but it is required for the magnetization of various electrical machineries. If the reactive power is compensated at the consumer end, the need for reactive power flow from generators to the load can be avoided and hence the overall power loss can be reduced. In this scenario, this paper presents a succinct method called JSS method for allocation of reactive power losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment. The proposed method has the advantage that no assumptions are made while deriving the reactive power loss allocation method.

Keywords: deregulation, reactive power loss allocation, radial distribution systems, succinct method

Procedia PDF Downloads 218