Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: biopolymers

62 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars Containing Two Biopolymers

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco-Torgal

Abstract:

The use of bio-based admixtures on construction materials is a recent trend that is gaining momentum. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported concerning the use of biopolymers on hybrid cement based mortars. This paper reports experimental results regarding the study of the influence of mix design of 43 hybrid cement mortars containing two different biopolymers on its mechanical performance. The results show that the use of the biopolymer carrageenan is much more effective than the biopolymer xanthan concerning the increase in compressive strength. An optimum biopolymer content was found.

Keywords: waste reuse, fly ash, waste glass, hybrid cement, biopolymers, mechanical strength

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61 Detection and Molecular Identification of Bacteria Forming Polyhydroxyalkanoate and Polyhydroxybutyrate Isolated from Soil in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali Bahkali, Rayan Yousef Booq, Mohammad Khiyami

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Soil samples were collected from five different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Microbiological methods included dilution methods and pour plates to isolate and purify bacteria soil. The ability of isolates to develop biopolymer was investigated on petri dishes containing elements and substance concentrations stimulating developing biopolymer. Fluorescent stains, Nile red and Nile blue were used to stain the bacterial cells developing biopolymers. In addition, Sudan black was used to detect biopolymers in bacterial cells. The isolates which developed biopolymers were identified based on their gene sequence of 1 6sRNA and their ability to grow and synthesize PHAs on mineral medium supplemented with 1% dates molasses as the only carbon source under nitrogen limitation. During the study 293 bacterial isolates were isolated and detected. Through the initial survey on the petri dishes, 84 isolates showed the ability to develop biopolymers. These bacterial colonies developed a pink color due to accumulation of the biopolymers in the cells. Twenty-three isolates were able to grow on dates molasses, three strains of which showed the ability to accumulate biopolymers. These strains included Bacillus sp., Ralstonia sp. and Microbacterium sp. They were detected by Nile blue A stain with fluorescence microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 51). Among the isolated strains Ralstonia sp. was selected after its ability to grow on molasses dates in the presence of a limited nitrogen source was detected. The optimum conditions for formation of biopolymers by isolated strains were investigated. Conditions studied included, best incubation duration (2 days), temperature (30°C) and pH (7-8). The maximum PHB production was raised by 1% (v1v) when using concentrations of dates molasses 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% in MSM. The best inoculated with 1% old inoculum (1= OD). The ideal extraction method of PHA and PHB proved to be 0.4% sodium hypochlorite solution, producing a quantity of polymer 98.79% of the cell's dry weight. The maximum PHB production was 1.79 g/L recorded by Ralstonia sp. after 48 h, while it was 1.40 g/L produced by R.eutropha ATCC 17697 after 48 h.

Keywords: bacteria forming polyhydroxyalkanoate, detection, molecular, Saudi Arabia

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60 Engineered Biopolymers as Novel Sustainable Resin Binder for Wood Composites

Authors: Somaieh Salehpour, Douglas Ireland, Chris Anderson, Charles Markessini

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Over the last few years, advancements have been made around improving sustainability for wood composite boards. One of the last and most challenging sustainability hurdles is finding a viable alternative to petroleum-based resin binders. In today’s market, no longer is formaldehyde emission control sufficient to meet the requirements of many architects and end-use consumers. Even the use of highly reactive isocyanates is considered by many as not sustainable enough since these chemicals are manufactured from classical fossil fuel sources. The emergence of biopolymers specifically engineered for usage as wood composite binders has been successfully demonstrated in this paper as a viable option towards a truly renewable wood composite board. Recent technology advancements driven by EcoSynthetix and CHIMAR have exploited the advantages of using an engineered biopolymer. The evidence shows that this renewable technology has the potential to be used as a partial up to full replacement of classical formaldehyde technologies. Numerous trials, both in the lab and at industrial scale, have shown that a renewable binder of the proposed technology can produce a commercially viable board in a traditional industrial setting. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide evidence that a sustainable binder alternative can be used to make a commercial board while at the same time improving the total cost of manufacturing.

Keywords: no added formaldehyde, renewable, biopolymers, sustainable wood composites, engineered biopolymers

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59 Synthesis of Biopolymeric Nanoparticles of Starch for Packaging Reinforcement Applications

Authors: Yousof Farrag, Sara Malmir, Rebeca Bouza, Maite Rico, Belén Montero, Luís Barral

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Biopolymers are being extensively studied in the last years as a replacement of the conventional petroleum derived polymers, especially in packaging industry. They are natural, biodegradable materials. However, the lack of good mechanical and barrier properties is a problem in the way of this replacement. One of the most abundant biopolymers in the nature is the starch, its renewable, biocompatible low cost polysaccharide, it can be obtained from wide variety of plants, it has been used in food, packaging and other industries. This work is focusing on the production a high yield of starch nanoparticles via nanoprecipitation, to be used as reinforcement filling of biopolymer packaging matrices made of different types of starch improving their mechanical and barrier properties. Wheat and corn starch solutions were prepared in different concentrations. Absolute ethanol, acetone and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid were added as antisolvents dropwise under different amplitudes of sonication and different speeds of stirring, the produced particles were analyzed with dynamic light scattering DLS and scanning electron microscope SEM getting the morphology and the size distribution to study the effect of those factors on the produced particles. DLS results show that we have nanoparticles using low concentration of corn starch (0.5%) using 0.1M HCl as antisolvent, [Z average: 209 nm, PDI: 0,49], in case of wheat starch, we could obtain nanoparticles [Z average: 159 nm, PDI: 0,45] using the same starch solution concentration together with absolute ethanol as antisolvent.

Keywords: biopolymers, nanoparticles, DLS, starch

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58 Novel Adomet Analogs as Tools for Nucleic Acids Labeling

Authors: Milda Nainyte, Viktoras Masevicius

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Biological methylation is a methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) onto N-, C-, O- or S-nucleophiles in DNA, RNA, proteins or small biomolecules. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which represent more than 3 % of the proteins in the cell. As a general mechanism, the methyl group from AdoMet replaces a hydrogen atom of nucleophilic center producing methylated DNA and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). Recently, DNA methyltransferases have been used for the sequence-specific, covalent labeling of biopolymers. Two types of MTase catalyzed labeling of biopolymers are known, referred as two-step and one-step. During two-step labeling, an alkylating fragment is transferred onto DNA in a sequence-specific manner and then the reporter group, such as biotin, is attached for selective visualization using suitable chemistries of coupling. This approach of labeling is quite difficult and the chemical hitching does not always proceed at 100 %, but in the second step the variety of reporter groups can be selected and that gives the flexibility for this labeling method. In the one-step labeling, AdoMet analog is designed with the reporter group already attached to the functional group. Thus, the one-step labeling method would be more comfortable tool for labeling of biopolymers in order to prevent additional chemical reactions and selection of reaction conditions. Also, time costs would be reduced. However, effective AdoMet analog appropriate for one-step labeling of biopolymers and containing cleavable bond, required for reduction of PCR interferation, is still not known. To expand the practical utility of this important enzymatic reaction, cofactors with activated sulfonium-bound side-chains have been produced and can serve as surrogate cofactors for a variety of wild-type and mutant DNA and RNA MTases enabling covalent attachment of these chains to their target sites in DNA, RNA or proteins (the approach named methyltransferase-directed Transfer of Activated Groups, mTAG). Compounds containing hex-2-yn-1-yl moiety has proved to be efficient alkylating agents for labeling of DNA. Herein we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of N-biotinoyl-N’-(pent-4-ynoyl)cystamine starting from the coupling of cystamine with pentynoic acid and finally attaching the biotin as a reporter group. The synthesis of the first AdoMet based cofactor containing a cleavable reporter group and appropriate for one-step labeling was developed.

Keywords: adoMet analogs, DNA alkylation, cofactor, methyltransferases

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57 Dewatering of Brewery Sludge through the Use of Biopolymers

Authors: Audrey Smith, M. Saifur Rahaman

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The waste crisis has become a global issue, forcing many industries to reconsider their disposal methods and environmental practices. Sludge is a form of waste created in many fields, which include water and wastewater, pulp and paper, as well as from breweries. The composition of this sludge differs between sources and can, therefore, have varying disposal methods or future applications. When looking at the brewery industry, it produces a significant amount of sludge with a high water content. In order to avoid landfilling, this waste can further be processed into a valuable material. Specifically, the sludge must undergo dewatering, a process which typically involves the addition of coagulants like aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride. These chemicals, however, limit the potential uses of the sludge since it will contain traces of metals. In this case, the desired outcome of the brewery sludge would be to produce animal feed; however, these conventional coagulants would add a toxic component to the sludge. The use of biopolymers like chitosan, which act as a coagulant, can be used to dewater brewery sludge while allowing it to be safe for animal consumption. Chitosan is also a by-product created by the shellfish processing industry and therefore reduces the environmental imprint since it involves using the waste from one industry to treat the waste from another. In order to prove the effectiveness of this biopolymer, experiments using jar-tests will be utilised to determine the optimal dosages and conditions, while variances of contaminants like ammonium will also be observed. The efficiency of chitosan can also be compared to other polysaccharides to determine which is best suited for this waste. Overall a significant separation has been achieved between the solid and liquid content of the waste during the coagulation-flocculation process when applying chitosan. This biopolymer can, therefore, be used to dewater brewery sludge such that it can be repurposed as animal feed. The use of biopolymers can also be applied to treat sludge from other industries, which can reduce the amount of waste produced and allow for more diverse options for reuse.

Keywords: animal feed, biopolymer, brewery sludge, chitosan

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56 Using Biopolymer Materials to Enhance Sandy Soil Behavior

Authors: Mohamed Ayeldeen, Abdelazim Negm

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Nowadays, strength characteristics of soils have more importance due to increasing building loads. In some projects, geotechnical properties of the soils are be improved using man-made materials varying from cement-based to chemical-based. These materials have proven successful in improving the engineering properties of the soil such as shear strength, compressibility, permeability, bearing capacity etc.. However, the use of these artificial injection formulas often modifies the pH level of soil, contaminates soil and groundwater. This is attributed to their toxic and hazardous characteristics. Recently, an environmentally friendly soil treatment method or Biological Treatment Method (BTM) was to bond particles of loose sandy soils. This research paper presents the preliminary results of using biopolymers for strengthening cohesionless soil. Xanthan gum was identified for further study over a range of concentrations varying from 0.25% to 2.00%. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and it is a nontoxic material. A series of direct shear, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of sandy soil treated with Xanthan gum with different concentration ratios and at different curing times. Laser microscopy imaging was also conducted to study the microstructure of the treated sand. Experimental results demonstrated the compatibility of Xanthan gum to improve the geotechnical properties of sandy soil. Depending on the biopolymer concentration, it was observed that the biopolymers effectively increased the cohesion intercept and stiffness of the treated sand and reduced the permeability of sand. The microscopy imaging indicates that the cross-links of the biopolymers through and over the soil particles increase with the increase of the biopolymer concentration.

Keywords: biopolymer, direct shear, permeability, sand, shear strength, Xanthan gum

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55 Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance

Authors: Binnur Sagbas

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Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.

Keywords: artificial joints, plasma surface modification, UHMWPE, vitamin E, wear

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54 Potential of Enhancing Oil Recovery in Omani Oil Fields via Biopolymer Injection

Authors: Yahya Al-Wahaibi, Saif Al-Bahry, Abdulkadir Elshafie, Ali Al-Bemani, Sanket Joshi

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Microbial enhanced oil recovery is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. There are a variety of metabolites produced by microorganisms that can be useful for oil recovery, like biopolymers-polysaccharides secreted by microbes, biodegradable thus environmentally friendly. Some fungi like Schizophyllum commune (a type of mushroom), and Aureobasidium pullulans are reported to produce biopolymers-schizophyllan and pullulan. Hence, we have procured a microbial strain (Schizophyllum commune) from American Type Culture Collection, which is reported for producing a biopolymer and also isolated several Omani strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from different samples. Studies were carried out for maintenance of the strains and primary screening of production media and environmental conditions for growth of S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates, for 30 days. The observed optimum growth and production temperature was ≤35 °C for S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates. Better growth was observed for both types of fungi under shaking conditions. The initial yield of lyophilized schizophyllan was ≥3.0 g/L, and the yield of pullulan was ≥0.5g/L. Both schizophyllan and pullulan were extracted in crude form and were partially identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which showed partial similarity in chemical structure with published biopolymers. The produced pullulan and schizophyllan increased the viscosity from 9-20 cp of the control media (without biopolymer) to 20 - 121.4 cp of the cell free broth at 0.1 s-1 shear rate at range of temperatures from 25–45 °C. Enhanced biopolymer production and its physicochemical and rheological properties under different environmental conditions (different temperatures, salt concentrations and wide range of pH), complete characterization and effects on oil recovery enhancement were also investigated in this study.

Keywords: Aureobasidium pullulans, biopolymer, oil recovery enhancement, Schizophyllum commune

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53 Advanced Bio-Composite Materials Based on Biopolymer Blends and Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Zineb Kassab, Nassima El Miri, A. Aboulkas, Abdellatif Barakat, Mounir El Achaby

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Recently, more attention has been given to biopolymers with a focus on sustainable development and environmental preservation. Following this tendency, the attempt has been made to replace polymers derived from petroleum with superior biodegradable polymers (biopolymers). In this context, biopolymers are considered potential replacements for conventional plastic materials. However, some of their properties must be improved for better competitiveness, especially regarding their mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. Bio-nanocomposite technology using nanofillers has already been proven as an effective way to produce new materials with specific properties and high performances. With the emergence of nanostructured bio-composite materials, incorporating elongated rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) has attracted more and more attention in the field of nanotechnology. This study is aimed to develop bio-composite films of biopolymer matrices [Carboxymethyle cellulose (CMC), Starch (ST), Chitosan (CS) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)] reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at a nanometric scale from lignocellulosic fibers via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), confocal microscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), atomic force and transmission electron microscopies (AFM and TEM) techniques. The as extracted CNC were used as a reinforcing phase to produce a variety of bio-composite films at different CNC loading (0.5-10 wt %) with specific properties. The rheological properties of film-forming solutions (FFS) of bio-composites were studied, and their relation to the casting process was evaluated. Then, the structural, optical transparency, water vapor permeability, thermal stability and mechanical properties of all prepared bio-composite films were evaluated and studied in this report. The high performances of these bio-composite films are expected to have potential in biomaterials or packaging applications.

Keywords: biopolymer composites, cellulose nanocrystals, food packaging, lignocellulosic fibers

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52 Active Food Packaging Films Based on Functionalized Graphene/Polymer Composites

Authors: Ahmad Ghanem, Mohamad Yasin, Mona Abdel Rehim, Fabrice Gouanve, Eliane Espuche

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Biodegradable polymers are of great interest, especially for biomedical and packaging applications. Current research efforts are focused on the development of biopolymers with the purpose of reducing the plastic pollution induced by the widely used in biodegradable polyolefins. The main challenge is focused on the elaboration of biopolymers having properties competitive to those of polyolefins. On the other hand, graphene oxide (GO), a graphene derivative, is characterized by the presence of several functional groups on the surface such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and epoxide. This feature enables modification of GO surface with different modifiers to obtain versatile surface properties and overcome the problem of graphene sheets aggregations during inclusion in a polymer matrix. In this context, poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) as promising biopolyester is modified through blending with different ratios of functionalized (GO) to improve its barrier properties. Modification of GO has been carried out using different hyperbranched polymeric structures in order to increase miscibility of the nanosheets in the hosting polymeric matrix. Films have been prepared from the modified PBS and their mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties were investigated. The results reveal enhancement in the thermal and mechanical properties beside observed improvement of the barrier properties for the films prepared from the modified PBS. This improvement is related to the strong dependence on tortuosity effects of dispersion, exfoliation levels of fillers into the polymer matrix and interactions between the fillers and the polymer matrix.

Keywords: gas barrier properties, graphene oxide, food packaging, transport properties

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51 The Combination of Porcine Plasma Protein and Maltodextrin as Wall Materials on Microencapsulated Turmeric Oil Powder Quality

Authors: Namfon Samsalee, Rungsinee Sothornvit

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Turmeric is a natural plant herb and generally extracted as essential oil and widely used in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical products including insect repellent. However, turmeric oil is a volatile essential oil which is easy to be lost during storage or exposure to light. Therefore, biopolymers such as protein and polysaccharide can be used as wall materials to encapsulate the essential oil which will solve this drawback. Approximately 60% plasma from porcine blood contains 6-7% of protein content mainly albumin and globulin which can be a good source of animal protein at the low-cost biopolymer from by-product. Microencapsulation is a useful technique to entrap volatile compounds in the biopolymer matrix and protect them to degrade. The objective of this research was to investigate the different ratios of two biopolymers (PPP and maltodextrin; MD) as wall materials at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 at a fixed ratio of wall material: core material (turmeric oil) at 3:1 (oil in water) on the qualities of microencapsulated powder using freeze drying. It was found that the combination of PPP and MD showed higher solubility of microencapsules compared to the use of PPP alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, the different ratios of wall materials also affected on color (L*, a* and b*) of microencapsulated powder. Morphology of microencapsulated powder using a scanning electron microscope showed holes on the surface reflecting on free oil content and encapsulation efficiency of microencapsules. At least 50% of MD was needed to increase encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulates rather than using only PPP as the wall material (P < 0.05). Microencapsulated turmeric oil powder can be useful as food additives to improve food texture, as a biopolymer material for edible film and coating to maintain quality of food products.

Keywords: microencapsulation, turmeric oil, porcine plasma protein, maltodextrin

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50 [Keynote Talk]: Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo, Abel E. Navarro

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Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: adsorption, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads, spent peppermint leaf, pH

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49 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

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There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

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48 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo

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As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: coagulation-flocculation, jar test, trace metals, wastewater

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47 Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Based Proton Exchange Membranes Derived by Solution Casting Method for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Authors: Mohanapriya Subramanian, V. Raj

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Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are considered to be one of the most promising candidates for portable and stationary applications in the view of their advantages such as high energy density, easy manipulation, high efficiency and they operate with liquid fuel which could be used without requiring any fuel-processing units. Electrolyte membrane of DMFC plays a key role as a proton conductor as well as a separator between electrodes. Increasing concern over environmental protection, biopolymers gain tremendous interest owing to their eco-friendly bio-degradable nature. Pectin is a natural anionic polysaccharide which plays an essential part in regulating mechanical behavior of plant cell wall and it is extracted from outer cells of most of the plants. The aim of this study is to develop and demonstrate pectin based polymer composite membranes as methanol impermeable polymer electrolyte membranes for DMFCs. Pectin based nanocomposites membranes are prepared by solution-casting technique wherein pectin is blended with chitosan followed by the addition of optimal amount of sulphonic acid modified Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (S-TiO2). Nanocomposite membranes are characterized by Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and Energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability are determined into order to evaluate their suitability for DMFC application. Pectin-chitosan blends endow with a flexible polymeric network which is appropriate to disperse rigid S-TiO2 nanoparticles. Resulting nanocomposite membranes possess adequate thermo-mechanical stabilities as well as high charge-density per unit volume. Pectin-chitosan natural polymeric nanocomposite comprising optimal S-TiO2 exhibits good electrochemical selectivity and therefore desirable for DMFC application.

Keywords: biopolymers, fuel cells, nanocomposite, methanol crossover

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46 Gadolinium-Based Polymer Nanostructures as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

Authors: Franca De Sarno, Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Enza Torino

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Recent advances in diagnostic imaging technology have significantly contributed to a better understanding of specific changes associated with diseases progression. Among different imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents a noninvasive medical diagnostic technique, which shows low sensitivity and long acquisition time and it can discriminate between healthy and diseased tissues by providing 3D data. In order to improve the enhancement of MRI signals, some imaging exams require intravenous administration of contrast agents (CAs). Recently, emerging research reports a progressive deposition of these drugs, in particular, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in the body many years after multiple MRI scans. These discoveries confirm the need to have a biocompatible system able to boost a clinical relevant Gd-chelate. To this aim, several approaches based on engineered nanostructures have been proposed to overcome the common limitations of conventional CAs, such as the insufficient signal-to-noise ratios due to relaxivity and poor safety profile. In particular, nanocarriers, labeling or loading with CAs, capable of carrying high payloads of CAs have been developed. Currently, there’s no a comprehensive understanding of the thermodynamic contributions enable of boosting the efficacy of conventional CAs by using biopolymers matrix. Thus, considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, here it is reported a successful example of the next generation of these drugs where the commercial gadolinium chelate is incorporate into a biopolymer nanostructure, formed by cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA), with improved relaxation properties. In addition, they are highlighted the basic principles ruling biopolymer-CA interactions in the perspective of their influence on the relaxometric properties of the CA by adopting a multidisciplinary experimental approach. On the basis of these discoveries, it is clear that the main point consists in increasing the rigidification of readily-available Gd-CAs within the biopolymer matrix by controlling the water dynamics, the physicochemical interactions, and the polymer conformations. In the end, the acquired knowledge about polymer-CA systems has been applied to develop of Gd-based HA nanoparticles with enhanced relaxometric properties.

Keywords: biopolymers, MRI, nanoparticles, contrast agent

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45 Study of Biocomposites Based of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Olive Husk Flour

Authors: Samra Isadounene, Amar Boukerrou, Dalila Hammiche

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In this work, the composites were prepared with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and olive husk flour (OHF) with different percentages (10, 20 and 30%) using extrusion method followed by injection molding. The morphological, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of composites were investigated. Tensile strength and elongation at break of composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, Young modulus and storage modulus were increased. The addition of OHF resulted in a decrease in thermal stability of composites. The presence of OHF led to an increase in percentage of crystallinity (Xc) of PLA matrix.

Keywords: biopolymers, composites, mechanical properties, poly(lactic acid)

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44 Biopolymers: A Solution for Replacing Polyethylene in Food Packaging

Authors: Sonia Amariei, Ionut Avramia, Florin Ursachi, Ancuta Chetrariu, Ancuta Petraru

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The food industry is one of the major generators of plastic waste derived from conventional synthetic petroleum-based polymers, which are non-biodegradable, used especially for packaging. These packaging materials, after the food is consumed, accumulate serious environmental concerns due to the materials but also to the organic residues that adhere to them. It is the concern of specialists, researchers to eliminate problems related to conventional materials that are not biodegradable or unnecessary plastic and replace them with biodegradable and edible materials, supporting the common effort to protect the environment. Even though environmental and health concerns will cause more consumers to switch to a plant-based diet, most people will continue to add more meat to their diet. The paper presents the possibility of replacing the polyethylene packaging from the surface of the trays for meat preparations with biodegradable packaging obtained from biopolymers. During the storage of meat products may occur deterioration by lipids oxidation and microbial spoilage, as well as the modification of the organoleptic characteristics. For this reason, different compositions of polymer mixtures and film conditions for obtaining must be studied to choose the best packaging material to achieve food safety. The compositions proposed for packaging are obtained from alginate, agar, starch, and glycerol as plasticizers. The tensile strength, elasticity, modulus of elasticity, thickness, density, microscopic images of the samples, roughness, opacity, humidity, water activity, the amount of water transferred as well as the speed of water transfer through these packaging materials were analyzed. A number of 28 samples with various compositions were analyzed, and the results showed that the sample with the highest values for hardness, density, and opacity, as well as the smallest water vapor permeability, of 1.2903E-4 ± 4.79E-6, has the ratio of components as alginate: agar: glycerol (3:1.25:0.75). The water activity of the analyzed films varied between 0.2886 and 0.3428 (aw< 0.6), demonstrating that all the compositions ensure the preservation of the products in the absence of microorganisms. All the determined parameters allow the appreciation of the quality of the packaging films in terms of mechanical resistance, its protection against the influence of light, the transfer of water through the packaging. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Research, Innovation, and Digitization, CNCS/CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2019-3863, within PNCDI III.

Keywords: meat products, alginate, agar, starch, glycerol

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43 Protein-Starch-Potassium Iodide Composite as a Sensor for Chlorine in Water

Authors: S. Mowafi, A. Abou El-Kheir, M. Abou Taleb, H. El-Sayed

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Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Protein-starch-potassium iodide (PSPI) composite was prepared by anchoring starch and potassium iodide mixture onto the film surface using appropriate polymeric material. The possibility of using PSPI composite for determination of the concentration of chlorine ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of chlorine in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blue colour of formed between starch and the released iodine obtained by interaction of potassium iodide chlorine in the tested water sample.

Keywords: chlorine, protein, potassium iodide, water

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42 Biorefinery as Extension to Sugar Mills: Sustainability and Social Upliftment in the Green Economy

Authors: Asfaw Gezae Daful, Mohsen Alimandagari, Kathleen Haigh, Somayeh Farzad, Eugene Van Rensburg, Johann F. Görgens

Abstract:

The sugar industry has to 're-invent' itself to ensure long-term economic survival and opportunities for job creation and enhanced community-level impacts, given increasing pressure from fluctuating and low global sugar prices, increasing energy prices and sustainability demands. We propose biorefineries for re-vitalisation of the sugar industry using low value lignocellulosic biomass (sugarcane bagasse, leaves, and tops) annexed to existing sugar mills, producing a spectrum of high value platform chemicals along with biofuel, bioenergy, and electricity. Opportunity is presented for greener products, to mitigate climate change and overcome economic challenges. Xylose from labile hemicellulose remains largely underutilized and the conversion to value-add products a major challenge. Insight is required on pretreatment and/or extraction to optimize production of cellulosic ethanol together with lactic acid, furfural or biopolymers from sugarcane bagasse, leaves, and tops. Experimental conditions for alkaline and pressurized hot water extraction dilute acid and steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and harvest residues were investigated to serve as a basis for developing various process scenarios under a sugarcane biorefinery scheme. Dilute acid and steam explosion pretreatment were optimized for maximum hemicellulose recovery, combined sugar yield and solids digestibility. An optimal range of conditions for alkaline and liquid hot water extraction of hemicellulosic biopolymers, as well as conditions for acceptable enzymatic digestibility of the solid residue, after such extraction was established. Using data from the above, a series of energy efficient biorefinery scenarios are under development and modeled using Aspen Plus® software, to simulate potential factories to better understand the biorefinery processes and estimate the CAPEX and OPEX, environmental impacts, and overall viability. Rigorous and detailed sustainability assessment methodology was formulated to address all pillars of sustainability. This work is ongoing and to date, models have been developed for some of the processes which can ultimately be combined into biorefinery scenarios. This will allow systematic comparison of a series of biorefinery scenarios to assess the potential to reduce negative impacts on and maximize the benefits of social, economic, and environmental factors on a lifecycle basis.

Keywords: biomass, biorefinery, green economy, sustainability

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41 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb

Abstract:

Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: iron III cations, protein, sensor, thiocyanate, water

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40 Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field

Authors: Sihem Bazid, Meriem El Kolli, Aicha Medjahed

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Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, interaction gelatin-NaCMC, the rate of helicity, polarimetry

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39 DNA and DNA-Complexes Modified with Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Krzysztof Danel

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Aqueous suspensions of DNA were illuminated with linearly polarized visible light and ultraviolet for 5, 15, 20 and 40 h. In order to check the nature of modification, DNA interactions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For each illuminated sample, weight average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius were measured by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Resulting optical changes for illuminated DNA were investigated using UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescent. Optical properties show potential application in sensors based on modified DNA. Then selected DNA-surfactant complexes were illuminated with electromagnetic radiation for 5h. Molecular structure, optical characteristic were examinated for obtained complexes. Illumination led to changes of complexes physicochemical properties as compared with native DNA. Observed changes were induced by rearrangement of the molecular structure of DNA chains.

Keywords: biopolymers, deoxyribonucleic acid, ionic liquids, linearly polarized visible light, ultraviolet

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38 Effect of Kenaf Fibres on Starch-Grafted-Polypropylene Biopolymer Properties

Authors: Amel Hamma, Allesandro Pegoretti

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Kenaf fibres, with two aspect ratios, were melt compounded with two types of biopolymers named starch grafted polypropylene, and then blends compression molded to form plates of 1 mm thick. Results showed that processing induced variation of fibres length which is quantified by optical microscopy observations. Young modulus, stress at break and impact resistance values of starch-grafted-polypropylenes were remarkably improved by kenaf fibres for both matrixes and demonstrated best values when G906PJ were used as matrix. These results attest the good interfacial bonding between the matrix and fibres even in the absence of any interfacial modification. Vicat Softening Point and storage modules were also improved due to the reinforcing effect of fibres. Moreover, short-term tensile creep tests have proven that kenaf fibres remarkably improve the creep stability of composites. The creep behavior of the investigated materials was successfully modeled by the four parameters Burgers model.

Keywords: creep behaviour, kenaf fibres, mechanical properties, starch-grafted-polypropylene

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37 Characterization and Degradation Analysis of Tapioca Starch Based Biofilms

Authors: R. R. Ali, W. A. W. A. Rahman, R. M. Kasmani, H. Hasbullah, N. Ibrahim, A. N. Sadikin, U. A. Asli

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In this study, tapioca starch which acts as natural polymer was added in the blend in order to produce biodegradable product. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and tapioca starch blends were prepared by extrusion and the test sample by injection moulding process. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) acts as compatibilizer while glycerol as processing aid was added in the blend. The blends were characterized by using melt flow index (MFI), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and the effects of water absorption to the sample. As the starch content increased, MFI of the blend was decreased. Tensile testing were conducted shows the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased while the modulus increased as the starch increased. For the biodegradation, soil burial test was conducted and the loss in weight was studied as the starch content increased. Morphology studies were conducted in order to show the distribution between LDPE and starch.

Keywords: biopolymers, degradable polymers, starch based polyethylene, injection moulding

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36 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo

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Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
35 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polyhydroxybutyrate, biocompatible, scaffold, porous, tissue engineering

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34 Protein Derived Biodegradable Food Packaging Material from Poultry By-Product

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Aman Ullah, Jianping Wu

Abstract:

During the last decades, petroleum derived synthetic polymers like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene has extensively been used in the field of food packaging and mostly are non-degradable. Biopolymers are a good fit for single-use or short-lived products such as food packaging. Spent hens, a poultry by-product which is of little economic value and their disposal are environmentally harmful. Through current study, we have explored the possibility to transform proteins from spent fowl into green food packaging material. Proteins from spent fowl were extracted within 1 hour using pH shift method with recovery of about 74%. Different plasticizers were tried like glycerol, sorbitol, glutaraldehyde, 1,2 ethylene glycol and 1,2 butanediol. Glycerol was the best plasticizer among all these plasticizers. A naturally occurring and non-toxic cross-linking agent, chitosan, was used to form the chitosan/glycerol/protein blend by casting and compression molding techniques. The mechanical properties were characterized using tensile strength analyzer. The nano-reinforcements with homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles lead to improved physical properties suggesting that these materials have great potential for food packaging applications.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, spent hen

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33 Durability Assessment of Nanocomposite-Based Bone Fixation Device Consisting of Bioabsorbable Polymer and Ceramic Nanoparticles

Authors: Jisoo Kim, Jin-Young Choi, MinSu Lee, Sunmook Lee

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Effects of ceramic nanoparticles on the improvement of durability of bone fixation devices have been investigated by assessing the durability of nanocomposite materials consisting of bioabsorbable polymer and ceramic nanoparticles, which could be applied for bone fixation devices such as plates and screws. Various composite ratios were used for the synthesis of nanocomposite materials by blending polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) as bioabsorbable polymer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as ceramic nanoparticles. It was found that the addition of ceramic nanoparticles significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the bone fixation devices compared to those fabricated with pure biopolymers. Particularly, the layer-by-layer approach for the fabrication of nanocomposites also had an effect on the improvement of bending strength. Durability tests were performed by measuring the changes in the bending strength of nanocomposite samples under varied temperature conditions for the accelerated degradation tests. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the life distribution of devices in the present study. The mean lifetime was predicted by adopting Arrhenius Eq. Model for Stress-Life relationship.

Keywords: bioabsorbable, bone fixation device, ceramic nanoparticles, durability assessment, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 235