Search results for: photocatalytic
211 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor
Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal
Abstract:Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.
Keywords: simulation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor, titanium dioxideProcedia PDF Downloads 513
210 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite
Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun
Abstract:The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.
Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6Procedia PDF Downloads 237
209 Photocatalytic Degradation of Gaseous Toluene: Effects of Operational Variables on Efficiency Rate of TiO2 Coated on Nickel Foam
Authors: Jafar Akbari, Masoud Rismanchian, Samira Ramezani
Abstract:Purpose: The photocatalytic degradation of pollutants is a novel technology with various advantages such as high efficiency and energy saving. In this research, the effects of operational variables on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO₂ coated on nickel foam in the removal of toluene from the simulated indoor air have been investigated. Methods: TiO₂ film were prepared via the sol-gel method and coated on nickel foam. The characteristics and morphology were found using XRD, SEM, and BET technique. Then, the effects of relative humidity, UV-A intensity, the initial toluene concentration, TiO₂ loading, and the air circulation velocity on the photocatalytic degradation rate have been evaluated. Results: The optimal degradation of toluene has been achieved with loading 4.35 g TiO2 on the foam, 30% RH, 5.4 µW.cm−2 UV-A intensity, and 20 ppm initial concentration in the air circulation velocity of 0.15 fpm. Conclusion: The changes of toluene photocatalytic degradation rate have been studied at various times. Also, the kinetic behavior of toluene photocatalytic degradation has been investigated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model.
Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, operational variables, tio₂, nickel foam, gaseous toluene, nanotechnologyProcedia PDF Downloads 11
208 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity
Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner
Abstract:Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.
Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion methodProcedia PDF Downloads 497
207 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts
Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak
Abstract:At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.
Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2Procedia PDF Downloads 75
206 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile
Authors: Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, H. Gidik, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans
Abstract:This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.
Keywords: benzene, C₆H₆, efficiency, photocatalytic degradation, textile fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO₂, toluene, C₇H₈, visible lightProcedia PDF Downloads 108
205 Photocatalytic Degradation of Produced Water Hydrocarbon of an Oil Field by Using Ag-Doped TiO₂ Nanoparticles
Authors: Hamed Bazrafshan, Saeideh Dabirnia, Zahra Alipour Tesieh, Samaneh Alavi, Bahram Dabir
Abstract:In this study, the removal of pollutants of a real produced water sample from an oil reservoir (a light oil reservoir), using a photocatalytic degradation process in a cylindrical glass reactor, was investigated. Using TiO₂ and Ag-TiO₂ in slurry form, the photocatalytic degradation was studied by measuring the COD parameter, qualitative analysis, and GC-MS. At first, optimization of the parameters on photocatalytic degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in real produced water, using TiO₂ nanoparticles as photocatalysts under UV light, was carried out applying response surface methodology. The results of the design of the experiment showed that the optimum conditions were at a catalyst concentration of 1.14 g/lit and pH of 2.67, and the percentage of COD removal was 72.65%.
Keywords: photocatalyst, Ag-doped, TiO₂, produced water, nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 66
204 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light
Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik
Abstract:In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.
Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxideProcedia PDF Downloads 299
203 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye
Authors: Vishakha Parihar
Abstract:This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.
Keywords: titanium dioxide, nano-particles iron dope, photocatalytic degradation, Congo red dye, sol-gel processProcedia PDF Downloads 95
202 Photocatalytic Activity of Polypyrrole/ZnO Composites for Degradation of Dye Reactive Red 45 in Wastewater
Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Vanja Gilja, Andrea Husak, Sniježana Šuka, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić
Abstract:Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as photocatalysts for water purification. However, one particular interest is given on the integration of inorganic ZnO nanoclusters with conducting polymers because the resulting nanocomposites may possess unique properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison to pure ZnO, using UV and also visible light. It is needed to explore the appropriate structure of polypyrrole that can induce activation of ZnO photocatalyst since the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials can result in a synergistic and complementary feature, increasing ZnO photocatalytic efficiency. In this paper several different composites of polypyrrole/zinc oxide (ZnO) were studied. Composite samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of prepared samples was studied as a decomposition of Reactive Red 45 (RR 45) dye, which was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy as a change in absorbance of characteristic wavelength at 542 nm. Results show good photocatalytic efficiency of all nanocomposite samples.
Keywords: photocatalysis, polypyrrole, wastewater, zinc oxideProcedia PDF Downloads 190
201 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies
Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari
Abstract:A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.
Keywords: bisphenol A, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model, chemical oxygen demandProcedia PDF Downloads 86
200 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye
Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi
Abstract:Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.
Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 91
199 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite
Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak
Abstract:Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.
Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocompositeProcedia PDF Downloads 89
198 Effect of Precursors Aging Time on the Photocatalytic Activity of Zno Thin Films
Authors: N. Kaneva, A. Bojinova, K. Papazova
Abstract:Thin ZnO films are deposited on glass substrates via sol–gel method and dip-coating. The films are prepared from zinc acetate dehydrate as a starting reagent. After that the as-prepared ZnO sol is aged for different periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days). Nanocrystalline thin films are deposited from various sols. The effect ZnO sols aging time on the structural and photocatalytic properties of the films is studied. The films surface is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of the aging time of the starting solution is studied inrespect to photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments are conducted upon UV-light illumination and in complete darkness. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of RB5 dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction acurring on the surface of the films, and promoted by UV irradiation. The initial concentrations of dye (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and the effect of the aging time are varied during the experiments. The results show, that the increasing aging time of starting solution with respect to ZnO generally promotes photocatalytic activity. The thin films obtained from ZnO sol, which is aged 30 days have best photocatalytic degradation of the dye (97,22%) in comparison with the freshly prepared ones (65,92%). The samples and photocatalytic experimental results are reproducible. Nevertheless, all films exhibit a substantial activity in both UV light and darkness, which is promising for the development of new ZnO photocatalysts by sol-gel method.
Keywords: ZnO thin films, sol-gel, photocatalysis, aging timeProcedia PDF Downloads 317
197 The Effect of Additives on Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag-TiO₂ Nanocomposite Prepared via Sol-Gel Process
Authors: S. Raeis Farshid, B. Raeis Farshid
Abstract:Ag-TiO₂ nanocomposites were prepared by the sol-gel method with and without additives such as carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC). The characteristics of the prepared Ag-TiO₂ nanocomposites were identified by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The additives have a significant effect on the particle size distribution and photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO₂ nanocomposites. SEM images have shown that the particle size distribution of Ag-TiO₂ nanocomposite in the presence of HPC was the best in comparison to the other samples. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites was investigated for decolorization of methyl orange (MO) in water under UV-irradiation in a batch reactor, and the results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites had been increased by CMC, PEG, PVP, and HPC, respectively.
Keywords: sol-gel method, Ag-TiO₂, decolorization, photocatalyst, nanocompositeProcedia PDF Downloads 10
196 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange by Ag Doped La₂Ti₂O₇
Authors: Hong Zhang
Abstract:Photocatalytic degradation is an appealing process to remove organic contaminants from industrial wastewater, but usually impeded by less effective photocatalysts. Here, we successfully synthesized Ag doped La₂Ti₂O₇ via a simple sol-gel route for photocatalytic methyl orange (MO) degradation. Their crystal structures, morphology, surface area and optical absorption activity were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET N₂ adsorption-desorption study, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by MO photodegradation under a 300 W xenon lamp. The results indicate that the doping of Ag has effectively narrowed the band gap, increased the specific area of La2Ti2O7, and supressed the recombination of photogenerated carriers. Compared with the pristine La₂Ti₂O₇, La₁.₉Ag₀.₁Ti₂O₇-δ revealed a superior performance for MO degradation with a degradation rate of 97% in only 60 min. Also, the pseudo-first order kinetic constant for La₁.₉Ag₀.₁Ti₂O₇-δ is ~ 11 times higher than that of undoped sample. The outstanding performance of Ag modified La₂Ti₂O₇ is probably attributed to the integrated factors. Active species trapping experiments indicated that h+ plays a critical role in MO degradation, while •O₂− has slight effect on the photocatalytic activity and the function of •OH can almost be neglected.
Keywords: Ag doped La₂Ti₂O₇, methyl orange, photodegradation, surface plasmon resonanceProcedia PDF Downloads 33
195 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂
Authors: Sherif Ismail
Abstract:Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.
Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 99
194 Investigation on Morphologies, Forming Mechanism, Photocatalytic and Electronic Properties of Co-Zn Ferrite Nanostructure Grown on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Support
Authors: Qinglei Liu, Ali Charkhesht, Tiva Sharifi, Ashkan Bahadoran
Abstract:Graphene sheets are promising nanoscale building blocks as a support material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. In this work, a solvothermal method employed to directly grow Co1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanospheres on graphene oxide support that is subsequently reduced to graphene. The samples morphology, structure and crystallography were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of the Zn2+ content on photocatalytic activity, electrical conductivity and magnetic property of the samples are also investigated. The results showed that Co1-x Znx Fe2 O4 nanoparticles are dispersed on graphene sheets and obtained nanocomposites are soft magnetic materials. In addition the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.
Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, ferrite, magnetic nanocomposite, photocatalytic activity, solvothermal methodProcedia PDF Downloads 187
193 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide
Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid
Abstract:The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.
Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 134
192 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using Strontium Titanate Synthesized by Electrospinning Method
Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Yi-Feng Lin, Che-Chia Hu
Abstract:To date, photocatalytic wastewater treatment using solar energy has attracted considerable attention. In this study, strontium titanates with various morphologies, i.e., nanofibers and cubic-like particles, were prepared as photocatalysts using the electrospinning (ES), solid-state (SS), and sol-gel (SG) methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that ES and SS can be assigned to pure phase SrTiO3, while SG was referred to Sr2TiO4. These samples displayed optical absorption edges at 385-395 nm, indicating they can be activated in UV light irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that ES SrTiO3 has a uniform fibrous structure with length and diameter of several microns and 100-200 nm, respectively. After loading of nanoparticulate Ag as a co-catalyst onto the surface of strontium titanates, ES sample exhibited highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene orange dye solution in comparison to that of SS and SG ones. These results indicate that Ag-loaded ES SrTiO3, which has a desirable SrTiO3 phase and a facile electron transfer along the preferential direction in fibrous structure, can be a promising photocatalyst.
Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, strontium titanate, electrospinning, co-catalystProcedia PDF Downloads 208
191 Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Doped in Degradation of Acid Dye
Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami, B. Boury
Abstract:The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and UV- vis DRS. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Zn -Fe TiO2 treated at 500°C was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Zn-Fe-TiO2 (500°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the Rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV-visible diffuse reflection material showed that the Fe-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Zn -Fe- TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Fe-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.
Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, dopingProcedia PDF Downloads 335
190 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen
Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury
Abstract:The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reﬂectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.
Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-dopingProcedia PDF Downloads 294
189 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc
Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury
Abstract:The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reﬂectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.
Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-dopingProcedia PDF Downloads 194
188 Control of Airborne Aromatic Hydrocarbons over TiO2-Carbon Nanotube Composites
Authors: Joon Y. Lee, Seung H. Shin, Ho H. Chun, Wan K. Jo
Abstract:Poly vinyl acetate (PVA)-based titania (TiO2)–carbon nanotube composite nanofibers (PVA-TCCNs) with various PVA-to-solvent ratios and PVA-based TiO2 composite nanofibers (PVA-TN) were synthesized using an electrospinning process, followed by thermal treatment. The photocatalytic activities of these nanofibers in the degradation of airborne monocyclic aromatics under visible-light irradiation were examined. This study focuses on the application of these photocatalysts to the degradation of the target compounds at sub-part-per-million indoor air concentrations. The characteristics of the photocatalysts were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. For all the target compounds, the PVA-TCCNs showed photocatalytic degradation efficiencies superior to those of the reference PVA-TN. Specifically, the average photocatalytic degradation efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) obtained using the PVA-TCCNs with a PVA-to-solvent ratio of 0.3 (PVA-TCCN-0.3) were 11%, 59%, 89%, and 92%, respectively, whereas those observed using PVA-TNs were 5%, 9%, 28%, and 32%, respectively. PVA-TCCN-0.3 displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency for BTEX, suggesting the presence of an optimal PVA-to-solvent ratio for the synthesis of PVA-TCCNs. The average photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX decreased from 11% to 4%, 59% to 18%, 89% to 37%, and 92% to 53%, respectively, when the flow rate was increased from 1.0 to 4.0 L min1. In addition, the average photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX increased 11% to ~0%, 59% to 3%, 89% to 7%, and 92% to 13% , respectively, when the input concentration increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm. The prepared PVA-TCCNs were effective for the purification of airborne aromatics at indoor concentration levels, particularly when the operating conditions were optimized.
Keywords: mixing ratio, nanofiber, polymer, reference photocatalystProcedia PDF Downloads 321
187 Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Dye Over Ag, Loaded ZnO Under UV/Solar Light
Authors: Farida Kaouah, Wassila Hachi, Lamia Brahmi, Chahida Ousselah, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari
Abstract:The feasibility of using solar irradiation instead of UV light in photocatalysis is a promising approach for water treatment. In this study, photocatalytic degradation of a widely used textile dye, Acid Blue 25 (AB25), with noble metal loaded ZnO photocatalyst (Ag/ZnO), was investigated in aqueous suspension under solar light. The results showed that the deposition of Ag as a noble metal onto the ZnO surface, improved the photodegradation of AB25. . The effect of different parameters such as catalyst dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time was optimized and the optimal degradation of AB25 (97%) was achieved for initial AB25 concentration of 24 mg L−1 an catalyst dose of 1 g L−1 at natural pH (5.42) after 180 min. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight photocatalysis has in the degradation of dyes from wastewater
Keywords: acid dye, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, noble metal, Langmuir–Hinshelwood modelProcedia PDF Downloads 38
186 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites
Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić
Abstract:The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.
Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxideProcedia PDF Downloads 423
185 Photocatalytic Conversion of Water/Methanol Mixture into Hydrogen Using Cerium/Iron Oxides Based Structures
Authors: Wael A. Aboutaleb, Ahmed M. A. El Naggar, Heba M. Gobara
Abstract:This research work reports the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water-methanol mixture using three different 15% ceria/iron oxide catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by physical mixing, precipitation, and ultrasonication methods and labeled as catalysts A-C. The structural and texture properties of the obtained catalysts were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET-surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the three catalysts towards hydrogen generation was then tested. Promising hydrogen productivity was obtained by the three catalysts however different gases compositions were obtained by each type of catalyst. Specifically, catalyst A had produced hydrogen mixed with CO₂ while the composite structure (catalyst B) had generated only pure H₂. In the case of catalyst C, syngas made of H₂ and CO was revealed, as a novel product, for the first time, in such process.
Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, clean energyProcedia PDF Downloads 144
184 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter
Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Wipawee Khamwichit
Abstract:The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.
Keywords: photocatalytic oxidation process, formaldehyde (HCHO), silk fibroin (SF), titanium dioxide (TiO2)Procedia PDF Downloads 400
183 [Keynote Talk]: Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture
Authors: Lexuan Zhong, Chang-Seo Lee, Fariborz Haghighat, Stuart Batterman, John C. Little
Abstract:Ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UV-PCO) technology has been recommended as a green approach to health indoor environment when it is integrated into mechanical ventilation systems for inorganic and organic compounds removal as well as energy saving due to less outdoor air intakes. Although much research has been devoted to UV-PCO, limited information is available on the UV-PCO behavior tested by the mixtures in literature. This project investigated UV-PCO performance and by-product generation using a single and a mixture of acetone and MEK at 100 ppb each in a single-pass duct system in an effort to obtain knowledge associated with competitive photochemical reactions involved in. The experiments were performed at 20 % RH, 22 °C, and a gas flow rate of 128 m3/h (75 cfm). Results show that acetone and MEK mutually reduced each other’s PCO removal efficiency, particularly negative removal efficiency for acetone. These findings were different from previous observation of facilitatory effects on the adsorption of acetone and MEK on photocatalyst surfaces.
Keywords: by-products, inhibitory effect, mixture, photocatalytic oxidationProcedia PDF Downloads 440
182 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye
Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra
Abstract:Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.
Keywords: photocatalyst, visible light, lanthanide, SnO₂Procedia PDF Downloads 205